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Paper 3: Reasons to Co-create

Co-creating is difficult, so why do it? Co-creation is a popular term, but the outcomes of co-creative practices and the reasons for doing it—the justifying whys—are poorly understood. This is a problem because, arguably, the value of co-creation cannot be understood independently of the reasons for which people co-create. We suggest that the value of co-creation is best understood in terms of what makes co-creation meaningful to those who participate and that it is best evaluated in accordance with the objectives reflecting these reasons: – the whys of co-creation described in this paper. This evaluation approach can be developed further through arts and humanities research and tested in future Cities of Culture.

Please view the full paper on 'Reasons to Co-create'.


Dr Patrycja Kaszynska is Senior Research Fellow at University of the Arts London. She is interested in the valuation practices shaping the articulations and measurement of cultural value.

Dr Andrew Anzel is a Research Fellow at the Warwick Business School. His research focuses on social value measurement, cultural policy, and organizational identity. Before his research career he was an arts producer in New York City.

Christopher Rolls is Head of Training and Development for 64 Million Artists supporting partners to co-create with their communities. He is also a psychotherapist in private practice working with individuals and groups.