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action research

Argyris, C. & Schön, D.A. (1991). Participatory action research and action science compared: A commentary. In W. F. Whyte (Ed.). Participatory action research (pp.85-96). California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Bargal, D. (2006). Personal and intellectual influences leading to Lewin’s paradigm of action research: Towards the 60th anniversary of Lewin’s “Action research and minority problems”. Action Research, 4(4), 367-388.

Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D. & Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research?. Action Research, 1(1), 9-28.

Clark, P. A. (1972). Action research and organizational change. London: Harper & Row.

Dickens, L. & Watkins, K. (1999). Action research: Rethinking Lewin. Management Learning, 30(2) 127-140

Ferrance, E. (2000). Action Research. Themes in education. Retrieved July 30, 2007, from

Karlsen, J. I. (1991). Action Research as Method. Reflections from a Program for Developing Methods and Competence. In W. F. Whyte (Ed.). Participatory Action Research (pp.169-178). California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Kemmis, S. (2006). Participatory action research and the public sphere. Educational Action Research, 14(4), 459-476.

Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. (1988). Action research planner. Victoria: Deakin University.

Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science. New York: Harper & Row.

Reason, P. & Bradbury, H. (2001). Handbook of action research. Participative inquiry and practice. Wiltshire: The Cromwell Press Ltd.

Zuber-Skerritt, O. (1992). Action research in higher education. Examples and reflections. London: Biddles Ltd.



Jones, C., & Steeples, C. (2002). Perspectives and Issues in Networked Learning. In Steeples, C. & Jones, C. (Eds), Networked Learning: Perspectives and Issues, pp. 1-14. London: Springer-Verlag.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situational learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Twale, D. J., Schaller, M. A., Hunley, S. A. & Polanski, P.J. (2002). Creating Collaborative Community in Multidisciplinary Settings. Innovative Higher Education, 27(2), 113-127.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


online communities

Barrett, E. (2003). Spirit, trust, interaction and learning: a case study of an online community of doctoral students. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh: Education-line, available at:, accessed April 19, 2007.

Bruckman, A. (2006). Learning in Online Communities. In Sawyer, R. K. (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sciences, pp. 461-472. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Espinoza, R. (2007). Exploring ICT tools to support a networked learning approach for doctoral students. Working Papers of the Warwick Suminer Group, 3, 57-67.

Finlay, I. (2007). Online support and learning: a study of part-time students on a doctoral programme. Lancaster University’s Department of Educational Research: Education-line, available at:, accessed April 19, 2007.

Sloman, M. (2001). The e-learning revolution. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Stahl, G., Koshmann, T., & Suthers, D. D. (2006). Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning. In Sawyer, R. K. (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Sciences, pp. 409-425. New York: Cambridge University Press.


doctoral students

Chiang, K. (2003). Learning Experiences of Doctoral Students in UK Universities. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 23(1/2), 4-32.

Deem, R. & Brehony, K. (2000). Doctoral Students’ Access to Research Cultures-are some more unequal than others? Studies in Higher Education, 25(2), 149-165.

Harland, T., & Plangger, G. (2004). The Postgraduate Chameleon: Changing Roles in Doctoral Education. Active learning in Higher Education, 5(1), 73-86.

Kiley, M., & Mullins, G. (2005). Supervisor’ Conceptions of Research: What are they? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 49(3), 245-262.

McCormack, C. (2004). Tensions between student and institutional conceptions of postgraduate research. Studies in Higher Education, 29(3), 319-334.

Miller, N. & Brimicombe, A. (2003). Disciplinary divides: findings a common language to chart research journeys. Paper presented at SCUTREA, 33rd annual conference, University of Wales, Bangor. Education-line, available at:, accessed April 19, 2007.

Phillips, E. M., & Pugh, D. S. (2005). How to get a PhD. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Trotter, J. (2003). Researching, studying or jumping through hoops? Reflections on a PhD. Social Work Education, 22(1), 59-70.


organisational culture

Mullins, L. J. (2005). Management and Organisational Behaviour. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.