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AM205 course details

Zapata Last Supper

Marcos Zapata, The Last Supper, 17th century, Cuzco Cathedral

The dish in the centre of the table contains a roast guinea pig, in place of the traditional wheat bread.


Aims and Objectives

This module tells the history of Latin America through food. By using food, we can study the indigenous cultures that inhabited the region from long before the arrival of Europeans, as well as examine the impact of colonialism and nationalism on the continent. We can explore the history of women, the role of slavery and the impact of industrialisation through the history of food and eating. An entire history of nationalism can be told in a single cookbook. The module thus introduces students to the study of food as a historical source.

More broadly, the module encourages the critical study of both the past and the contemporary world, and helps students to see the historical contexts in which food and eating occur.

The module’s focus on Latin America ensures that these issues will be examined in a context that provides ample opportunity to explore the relationship between cuisine, race, and national identity. It allows an examination of both the production and the consumption of important foodstuffs, because of the American origin of many of the foods under study.


Teaching Times, Workload and Assessment

This module is taught by Rebecca Earle. My office hours are listed on my door (H327) but the best way to meet with me is for you to email me on r.earle@warwick.ac.uk and we can arrange a time. You may also phone me on 024 765 23466.

The module is taught through weekly two-hour lecture-seminars. These are held on Tuesday mornings in H346 from 9.00-11.00. I am sure you will hate this early morning time but there was not a lot of choice with the timetabling. Try to catch an appropriate bus so you're not late . . . .

You will be expected to attend all session, and to complete all the assigned seminar reading. There may also be a few practical assignments.

The module is worth 30 CATS points. It is assessed in the following ways:

One 2-hour examination paper and one assessed essay of 4,500 words.

You must also complete 2 unassessed essays of 2,000 words each. In addition, if you wish, you may submit an (unassessed) mock exam, in which you answer questions taken from one of the past exam papers, which are available online.


Deadlines

The unassessed essays/mock exams are due as follows:

essay 1: Friday of week 8, term 1

essay 2: Friday of week 8, term 2

mock exam (if written): Friday of week 2, term 3

Assessed essays are due on the deadlines announced by the History Department and CAS.

You are welcome to hand in your essays in advance of these deadlines.

 

Ideas for Unassessed Essays

The following topics are suggestions only. You are welcome to use a title of your own invention provided you clear it with me first.

Locate one or more cookbooks of Latin American recipes and analyse them in light of Arjun Appadurai’s ideas about how cookbooks help create national identity.

Discuss the relationship between women and cooking in Rosario Castellanos, ‘The Cooking Lesson’, and Laura Esquivel, Like Water For Chocolate.

To what extent does Like Water for Chocolate illustrate Jeffrey Pilcher’s claims about the development of culinary nationalism in twentieth-century Mexico?

Analyse the importance of maize to the Maya and/or Aztec Indians in terms of both diet and religion.

Discuss the relationship between a maize-based diet and being ‘Indian’.

Analyse the ‘tortilla discourse’ (see Pilcher) in late nineteenth-century Mexico.

How has chocolate moved from being an elite beverage to an item of mass consumption?

To what extent is chocolate’s Meso-American origin perceptible in the way chocolate is marketed and sold today?

What effect has banana production had on Central America?

Compare the reception in Europe of cacao with either maize or potatoes.

What do the names (in English, or other languages) of American foodstuffs reveal to the historian?

Visit a supermarket or greengrocer and determine which items of produce are originally from Latin America. Analyse the process by which one or more of these New World products came to be on sale in a British shop.

Discuss the environmental consequences of cattle farming in Latin America.

Did cannibals ever exist?

What reasons have been given for Aztec cannibalism?

What meanings did Amerindian cannibalism have in Europe?

Has coffee production contributed to or undermined the formation of national governments in Latin America?

Discuss the relationship between coffee production and social unrest in Colombia OR Central America.

Is sugar an erotic substance?

Why has sugar so often been produced using slave labour?

What role did sugar play in the development of European colonies in the Caribbean?

Why have Indians so often been condemned as habitual drunkards in Spanish America?

Assess the importance of the Columbian exchange in altering diets in either the old or the new world.

Discuss the role of food in the creation of national identity in Mexico.

How can diet act as a marker of ethnic identity?

Analyse the stories about the origin of mole poblano.


Recommended Books to Buy

Crosby, Alfred, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, Greenwood Press (Westport, 1972).

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ¡Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 1998)


maize basket 

basket of maize

making tortillas

woman grinding maize, c.1900 (El Salvador)


Module Structure and Seminar Topics

Readings preceded by a star (*) are particularly recommended


TERM 1: Native Foodstuffs and the Columbian Exchange

 

Week 1: Organisation and Lecture: A Brief Introduction to the Module and A Brief History of Latin America

 

Week 2: Seminar: Introduction to the Study of Food

 

--What is a food (as opposed to a medicinal substance, etc.)?

--How can we study food? What sorts of historical information can the study of food yield?

--Why do we eat the things we eat? Because they taste good? (And is ‘what tastes good’ something that we can understand historically?) Because we can afford them? Because we believe them to be healthy? What sorts of answers do these scholars give to this question?


Readings

Appadurai, Arjun, ‘How to Make a National Cuisine: Cookbooks in Contemporary Indian’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 30 (1988).

Bourdieu, Pierre, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste , Harvard University Press (Cambridge, 1984), chapter 3: ‘The Habitus and the Space of Life-Styles’.

Buettner, Elizabeth, '"Going for an Indian": South Asian Restaurants and the Limits of Multiculturalism in Britain', Journal of Modern History, vol. 80:4 (2008).

Douglas, Mary, ‘Deciphering a Meal’ in Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology (London, 1975).

James, Allison, ‘How British is British Food?’, Food, Health and Identity, ed. Pat Caplan, Routledge (London, 1997).

Goody, Jack, ‘Industrial Food: Towards the Development of a World Cuisine’, Cooking, Cuisine and Class (Cambridge, 1982).

Laudan, Rachel, ‘The Birth of the Modern Diet’, Scientific American, Aug. 2000.

Mintz, Sidney, Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions into Eating, Culture, and the Past. Beacon Press (Boston, 1996), Introduction, and Chapter 2: ‘Food and its Relationship to Power’.

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ¡Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 1998), Introduction.

Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York, 2007), part I: Industrial, Corn'.


Week 3: Maize: Mythic and Religious Status


palenque world tree

‘World Tree’, Temple of the Foliated Cross, c600 BC, Palenque (Mexico)

The ‘world tree’ is a maize plant


--What role has maize played in the indigenous diet in Meso-America?

--What role did (or does?) maize play in Maya and Aztec/Nahua religious systems?

--In what sense were the inhabitants of Meso-America ‘Men of Maize’?


Readings

Carlsen, Robert, and Martin Prechtel, ‘The Flowering of the Dead: An Interpretation of Highland Maya Culture’, Man, New Series, 26:1 (1991).

*Coe, Sophie, America’s First Cuisines, University of Texas Press (Austin, 1994), pp. 9-16.

Fussell, Betty, The Story of Corn, Knopf (New York, 1992), pp. 29-58 99-113.

*Menchú, Rigoberta, I Rigoberta Menchú: An Indian Woman in Guatemala, Verso (1984), Chapter 9: ‘Ceremonies’.

*Pilcher, Jeffrey, ¡Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 1998), Chapter 1: ‘The People of Corn’.

*Popol Vuh: The Sacred Book of the Ancient Quiché Maya (Norman, 1950), Part III, Chapters 1-3.

Sandstrom, Alan, Corn is our Blood: Culture and Ethnic Identity in a Contemporary Aztec Indian Village, University of Oklahoma Press (Norman, 1991), pp. 119-29, 132-6, plus Chapter 6: ‘Religion and the Nahua Universe’.

Taube, Karl, ‘The Maize Tamale in Classic Maya Diet, Epigraphy and Art’, American Antiquity, vol. 54:1 (1989).

Visser, Margaret, Much Depends on Dinner: The Extraordinary History and Mythology, Allure and Obsessions, Perils and Taboos, of an Ordinary Meal, Penguin (London, 1989), Chapter One: ‘Corn: Our Mother, Our Life’. (For an impressionistic account that focuses only a little on Latin America).


Week 4: Maize: Race and Nutrition

PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS SESSION WILL TAKE PLACE ON FRIDAY 17 OCTOBER FROM 9.00 TO 11.00 IN S0.28 rather than at the usual time.

IN ADDITION, please attend the following public lecture on Wednesday 22 October:

​​Professor Graham Riches (University of British Columbia) will be speaking and engaging in debate on campus on Wednesday 22nd October 13.00-14.00 in S0.20 about his recent work and newly published book

First World Hunger Revisited (Palgrave Macmillan).


First World Hunger Revisited exposes the hidden functions and limits of food charity and corporately sponsored food banks as primary responses to widespread domestic hunger and income poverty in twelve rich 'food-secure' societies and emerging economies: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Estonia, Finland, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, the UK and the USA. Who wins, who loses when governments violate their Right to Food obligations under international law to ensure the food security of their vulnerable populations? It challenges the effectiveness of food aid and argues for integrated income redistribution, agriculture, food, health and social policies informed by the Right to Food, whilst critiquing the lack of public policy and political will in achieving food security for all.

tortilla making 

An Aztec woman at the metate

Florentine Codex (16th century)


--What was the relationship between diet and ethnicity in colonial and independent Mexico? What links did Europeans and creoles perceive between being Indian and eating maize? What role did eating wheat play in Iberian culture?

--Describe the ‘tortilla discourse’ (see Pilcher). What is the ‘Indian problem’? In what ways was a maize-eating population considered to weaken Mexico?

--What is nixtamalization?

Readings

Beals, Ralph, and Evelyn Hatcher, ‘The Diet of a Tarascan Village’, América Indígena, Vol. 3 (1943).

*Crosby, Alfred, ‘New World Foods and Old World Demography’, and ‘Old World Plants and Animals in the New World’, in The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, Greenwood Press (Westport, 1972).

Earle, Rebecca, '‘‘If You Eat Their Food . . .’: Diets and Bodies in Early Colonial Spanish America’, American Historical Review, vol. 115:3 (2010).

Earle, Rebecca, The Return of the Native: Indians and Mythmaking in Spanish America, 1810-1930, Duke University Press (Durham, 2008), Chapter 6: 'Citizenship and Civilization: The Indian Problem'.

Friedander, Judith, Being Indian in Hueyapan: A Study of Forced Identity in Contemporary Mexico (New York, 1975), Chapter 4: ‘What it Means to be Indian in Hueyapan’.

*Pilcher, Jeffrey, ¡Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 1998), Chapter 2: ‘The Conquest of Wheat’ and Chapter 4: ‘The Tortilla Discourse’.

Pohl-Valero, Stefan, '"La raza entra por la boca": Energy, DIet, and Eugenics in Colombia, 1890-1940', Hispanic American Historical Review,vol. 94:3 (2014).

Sandstrom, Alan, ‘Ethnic Identity and its Attributes in a Contemporary Mexican Indian Village’, The Indian in Latin American History, ed. John Kicza, SR Books (Wilmington, 2000).


Week 5: Maize: Gender and Modernity


nixtamal

Mexican worker in a Molino de Nixtamal, Mexico City, 1919


--What role has the preparation of tortillas played in the lives of Mexican women? Describe the evolution of technology for grinding nixtamalised maize, and discuss the reception of molinos de nixtamal. What role has gender played in shaping responses to industrial nixtamal mills?


Readings

Bauer, Arnold, ‘Millers and Grinders: Technology and Household Economy in Meso-America’, Agricultural History, vol. 64:1 (1990), pp. 1-17.

Fernández-Aceves, María Teresa, ‘Once We Were Corn Grinders: Women and Labor in the Tortilla Industry of Guadalajara, 1920-1940’, International Labor and Working-Class History, No. 63 (2003).

Herrera Tejada, Clara, ‘Cuando el maíz llora. . . El maíz como alimento en un pueblo maya-quiché (Guatemala)’, Revista de Indias, vol. 47 (1987).

Keremitsis, Dawn, ‘Del metate al molino: la mujer mexicana de 1910 a 1940’, Historia Mexicana, vol. 33:3 (1983)

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ‘Industrial Tortillas and Folkloric Pepsi: The Nutritional Consequences of Hybrid Cuisine in Mexico’, Food Nations: Selling Taste in Consumer Societies, Warren Belasco and Philip Scranton (eds), Routledge (London, 2002).

*Pilcher, Jeffrey, ¡Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 1998), Chapter 5: ‘Replacing the Aztec Blender’.

Redfield, Robert, Tepoztlan: A Mexican Village. A Study of Folk Life (1930) (Chicago, 1964), Chapters 2 and 5.

--Begin preparing your Andean freeze-dried potato. (Instructions in class).


Week 6: READING WEEK (No class)


week 7: Women and Cooking

cocina-coverjpg.jpg

Nineteenth-century Mexican manuscript cookbook


--What is the connection between food preparation and being a woman? Discuss the relationship between being a woman and cooking in Castellanos, ‘The Cooking Lesson’, and Esquivel, Like Water for Chocolate. Is the cookbook a ‘female’ genre?


READINGS

Please read at least one item from each section.

Readings: Fiction

Castellanos, Rosario, ‘The Cooking Lesson’, Another Way to Be: Selected Works of Rosario Castellano, ed. and trans. by Marylyn Allgood, University of Georgia Press (Athens and London, 1990).

Esquival. Laura, Like Water for Chocolate: A Novel in Monthly Instalments, with Recipes, Romances, and Home Remedies (1992)

Readings: Critical Writings

André, Maria Claudia (ed.), Chicanas and Latin American Women Writers Exploring the Realm of the Kitchen as a Self-empowering Site, Edwin Mellen Press (2002)

Glenn, Kathleen M., ‘Postmodern Parody and Culinary-Narrative Art in Laura Esquivel's ‘Como agua para chocolate’, Chasqui, Vol. 23:2 (1994), pp. 39-47.

López-Rodríguez, Miriam, ‘Cooking Mexicanness: shaping national identity in Alfonso Arau's Como agua para chocolate’, Reel food: essays on food and film, ed. Anne Bower, Routledge (London, 2004).

Martínez, Victoria, ‘Como Agua Para Chocolate’: A Recipe for Neoliberalism’, Chasqui, Vol. 33:1 (2004), pp. 28-41

Readings: women and Cooking

Leonardi, Susan, ‘Recipes for Reading: Summer Pasta, Lobster à la Riseholme, and Key Line Pie’, PMLA 104 (1989).

Pinedo, Encarnación, Encarnación’s Kitchen: Mexican Recipes from Nineteenth-Century California, edited by Dan Strehl, University of California Press (Berkeley, 2003).

Scott, Nina, ‘Juana Manuela Gorriti’s Cocina Ecléctica: Recipes as Feminine Discourse’, Hispania, vol. 75:2 (1992).

Theophano, Janet, Eat My Words: Reading Women’s Lives Through the Cookbooks They Wrote, Palgrave (New York, 2002).


Week 8: Potatoes Of All Sorts


guamanpomapotatoharvest.jpg

Potato harvest, Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, El primer nueva corónica y bueno gobierno, 1615-6 (Peru)


--How do new foods get incorporated into existing food regimes? How satisfactory do you find the explanations offered in the various assigned texts?

--Did the potato change history?

--Bring your Andean freeze-dried potato to class.

Readings

Coe, Sophie, America’s First Cuisines, University of Texas Press (Austin, 1994), especially pp. 19-41, 46-50, 60-5, 181-91.

Gallagher, Catherine, and Stephen Greenblatt, ‘The Potato in the Materialist Imagination’, Practicing New Historicism, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 2000).

Langer, William L., ‘American Foods and Europe's Population Growth 1750–1850’, Journal of Social History, 8:2 (1975), pp. 51–66

McNeill, William H., ‘How the Potato Changed the World's History’, Social Research 1999 66(1): 67–83.

Morineau, Michel, ‘The Potato in the Eighteenth Century’, Food and Drink in History, eds Robert Forster and Orest Ranum (London, 1979).

Nunn, Nathan, and Nancy Qian, ‘The Potato’s Contribution to Population and Irbanization: Evidence from a Historical Experiment’, Quarterly Journal of Economics 126 (2011).

Reader, John, Potato: A History of the Propitious Esculent, Yale University Press (New Haven, 2009).

Salaman, Redcliffe, History and Social Influence of the Potato (Cambridge, 1949), chapter 7: ‘‘Vertues’, Vices and Values’ and Chapter 24: ‘The Seventeenth Century’.

Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. A History of Food (Oxford, 1992), Chapter 23: ‘The Potato Revolution’.

Walvin, James, Fruits of Empire: Exotic Produce and British Taste, 1660-1800, Macmillan (Basingstoke, 1997), chapter 7: ‘Feeding the People: the Potato’

Weismantel, Mary, Food, Gender and Poverty in the Ecuadorian Andes (Philadelphia, 1988), pp. 14-17.

Zuckerman, Larry, The Potato: from the Andes in the Sixteenth Century to Fish and Chips: The Story of How a Vegetable Changed History (London, 1999)


Week 9: Chocolate


Pereda

Antonio de Pereda, Still Life with Chocolate Pot (Spain)


--What was chocolate’s status in Aztec and Maya society? How and why has this status changed? Discuss the reception of chocolate in colonial Spanish America and in Europe.

--Review Jack Goody’s ideas about ‘industrial food’. Has chocolate become an industrial food?

--Bring your bar of chocolate to class.


Readings

i. Primary Sources

*Gage, Thomas, Travels in the New World (Norman, 1958), Chapter 12: ‘Concerning two daily and common drinks or potions much used in the Indias’.

ii. Secondary Sources

Belasco, Warren, and Roger Horowitz, eds. Food Chains: From Farmyard to Shopping Cart. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

Camporesi, Piero, ‘Indian Broth’, Exotic Brew (Cambridge, 1994).

*Coe, Sophie, America’s First Cuisines, University of Texas Press (Austin, 1994), especially pp. 41-4, 50-8.

Coe, Sophie and Michael, The True History of Chocolate (London, 1996),chapter 8: 'Chocolate for the Masses'.

Few, Martha, ‘Chocolate, Sex, and Disorderly Women in Late-Seventeenth and Early-Eighteenth-Century Guatemala’, Ethnohistory 52:4 (2005), pp. 673-687.

*Goody, Jack, ‘Industrial Food: Towards the Development of a World Cuisine’, Cooking, Cuisine and Class (Cambridge, 1982).

*Jamieson, Ross, ‘The Essence of Commodification: Caffeine Dependencies in the Early Modern World’, Journal of Social History, vol. 35:2 (2001).

McNeil, Cameron, ed., Chocolate in Mesoamerica, University of Florida Press (Gainesville, 2006).

*Norton, Marcy, ‘Tasting Empire: Chocolate and the European Internalization of Mesoamerican Aesthetics’, American Historical Review, vol. 111:3 (2006).

Norton, Marcy, Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures: A History of Tobacco and Chocolate in the Atlantic World, Cornell University Press (Ithaca, 2008).

Terio, Susan, Crafting the Culture and History of French Chocolate (Berkeley, 2000), chapter 10: ‘Chocolate as Self and Other’.

West, John, ‘A Brief History and Botany of Cacao’, Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World, eds. Nelson Foster and Linda Cordell (Tucson, 1992).

 

Week 10: Tropical Fruits


carmen miranda

Film poster, Carmen Miranda: Bananas is My Business, 1994


banana plantation

Banana plantation, 1906, Honduras



--Discuss the political, economic, ecological and gender dimensions of banana cultivation in Latin America

--Do you buy fair trade bananas? Why or why no?

Readings

Dosal, Paul, Doing Business with the Dictators: A Political History of United Fruit in Guatemala, 1899-1944 (1993).

Enloe, Cynthia, ‘Carmen Miranda on my Mind: International Politics of the Banana’, Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, University of California Press (Berkeley, 1989).

Frundt, Henry, Fair Bananas!: Farmers, Workers, and Consumers Strive to Change an Industry, University of Arizona Press (Tucson, 2009).

LaFeber, Walter, Inevitable Revolutions : The United States in Central America, W.W. Norton (1984).

Langley, Lester and Thomas D. Schoonover, The Banana Men: American Mercenaries and Entrepreneurs in Central America, 1880-1930, University of Kentucky Press (Lexington, 1995).

MacCameron, Robert, Bananas, Labor and Politics in Honduras, 1954-1963, Syracuse University (Syracuse, 1983).

Schlesinger, Stephen and Stephen Kinzer, Bitter Fruit: The Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala (Anchor, 1982).

Soluri, John, Banana Cultures: Agriculture, Consumption and Environmental Change in Honduras and the United States, University of Texas Press (Austin, 2005)

Wiley, James, The Banana: Empires, Trade Wars, and Globalization, University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, 2008).


TERM 2: EXPORTS, ETHICS, ETHNICITY

Week 1: Meat: Guinea pigs/Lamb/Pork/Beef


cuy.jpg

cuy con maní (roast guinea pig with a peanut sauce)


--How and why did different meats become associated with different ethnic identities? Explain the importance of guinea pigs to Andean culture.

Readings

Archetti, Eduardo, Guinea Pigs: Food, Symbol and Conflict of Knowledge in Ecuador (Oxford, 1997).

DeFrance, Susan, ‘The Sixth Toe: The Modern Culinary Role of the Guinea Pig in Southern Peru’, Food & Foodways, vol. 1 (2006).

Del Río Moreno, Justo L., ‘El cerdo. Historia de un elemento esencial de la cultura castellana en la conquista y colonización de América (siglo XVI)’, Anuario de Estudios Americanos, vol. 53 (1996).

Morales, Edmundo, The Guinea Pig: Healing, Food and Ritual in the Andes (Tucson, 1995).

Sandweiss, Daniel, and Elizabeth Wing, ‘Ritual Rodents: The Guinea Pig in Chincha, Peru’, Journal of Field Archaeology, vol. 24:1 (1997).

Super, John, ‘The Formation of Nutritional Regimes in Colonial Latin America’, Food, Politics and Society on Latin America, John C. Super and Thomas C. Wright (eds), University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, 1985).

Torres Sánchez, Jaime, ‘Consumo de carne y nurtrición; Aspectos de su evolución histórica en Venezuela: 1609-1873’, Anuario de Estudios Americanos, vol. 54:1 (1997).

Weismantel, Mary, Food, Gender and Poverty in the Ecuadorian Andes (Philadelphia, 1988), especially chapter 3: ‘The Diet of Zumbagua’

amazon_deforestation3.jpg

Cattle in a deforested section of the Brazilian Amazon, 2005


--What environmental impact have European livestock had on Latin America?

Readings

Crosby, Alfred, ‘Old World Plants and Animals in the New World’, in The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, Greenwood Press (Westport, 1972).

Diamond, Jared, Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 Years (London, 1997), Chapters 3-5, 9.

Faminow, Merle, Cattle, Deforestation, and Development in the Amazon: An Economic, Agronomic, and Environmental Perspective, CAB International Publishers (Wallingford, 1998).

*Melville, Elinor, A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1994), Introduction and Chapter 4: ‘The Mexican Case’.

Rifkin, Jeremy, Beyond Beef: the Rise and Fall of the Cattle Culture (1993).

Tucker, Richard, Insatiable Appetite: The United States and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World (Berkeley, 2000), chapter of cattle.


Week 2: The Reality of Cannibalism
staden

Cannibal scene, Hans Staden, The True History of his Captivity, 1557


--Did cannibals ever exist? Does Hans Staden’s account prove the existence of cannibalism in the Americas?


Readings-General

Arens, William, ‘Rethinking Anthropophagy’, in Francis Barker, Peter Hulme, and Margaret Iverson (eds), Cannibalism and the Colonial World, CUP (1998)

*Arens, William, The Man-Eating Myth, Oxford University Press (New York, 1979)

Palencia-Roth, Michael, ‘The Cannibal Law of 1503’, Early Images of the Americas: Transfer and Invention, eds. Jerry Williams and Robert Lewis, University of Arizona Press (Tucson, 1993).

Sanday, Peggy Reeves, Divine Hunger: Cannibalism as a Cultural System, Cambridge University Press (1986), Chapter 1: ‘Cannibalism Cross-Culturally’.

Readings-Hans Staden

Eve Duffy and Alida Metcalf, The Return of Hans Staden: A Go-between in the Atlantic World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012, chapters 2 and 4.

Forsyth, Donald, ‘Three Cheers for Hans Staden: The Case for Brazilian Cannibalism’, Ethnohistory, vol. 32:1 (1985)

Schmölz-Häberlein, Michaela, and Mark Häberlein, ‘Hans Staden, Neil L. Whitehead and the Cultural Politics of Scholarly Publishing’, and Neil Whitehead, ‘The Häberleins and the Political Culture of Scholarship’, both in Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 81:3-4 (2001)

Staden, Hans, Hans Staden. The True History of His Captivity, ed. Neil Whitehead, Duke University Press.

Vilas Bôas, Luciana, ‘Wild stories of a Pious Travel Writer: The Unruly Example of Hans Staden’s Wahrhaftige Historia (Marburg, 1557)’, Daphnis, vol. 33:1-2 (2004).

Whitehead, Neil, ‘Hans Staden and the Cultural Politics of Cannibalism’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 80:4 (2000).


tezcatlipoca

Aztec deity Tezcatlipoca


--What reasons have been given for Aztec cannibalism?


Readings

Arens, William, The Man-Eating Myth, Oxford University Press (New York, 1979), Chapter 2: ‘The Classic Man-Eaters’.

Carrasco, David, ‘Cosmic Jaws: We Eat the Gods and the Gods Eat Us’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, vol. 63:3 (1995).

Clendinnen, Inga, Aztecs: An Interpretation, Cambridge University Press (1995): use the index to find relevant sections.

Harner, Michael, ‘The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice’, American Museum of Natural History, vol. 86:4 (1977)

Harner, Michael, ‘The Ecological Basis for Aztec Sacrifice’, American Ethnologist, vol. 4 (1977)

Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard, ‘Aztec Cannibalism: An Ecological Necessity?’, Science, vol. 200:4342 (1978)

Sanday, Peggy Reeves, Divine Hunger: Cannibalism as a Cultural System. Cambridge University Press (1986), Chapter 8: ‘Precious Eagle-Cactus Fruit: Aztec Human Sacrifice’

Winkelman, Michael (1998) "Aztec Human Sacrifice: Cross-Cultural Assessments of the Ecological Hypothesis." Ethnology vol. 37(3).


Week 3: The Cultural meanings of Cannibalism

 

cannibalist manifesto

Oswaldo de Andrade, Anthropophagite Manifesto, 1928

--What meanings did Amerindian cannibalism have in Europe?

--How have these meanings been altered by the Brazilian Anthropophagist Movement?

Readings
primary sources

Chanca, Diego Alvarez, 1493 letter, available online at American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement, http://www.americanjourneys.org/aj-065/index.asp

Montaigne, Michel de, ‘On the Cannibals’, in Complete Works, pp. 228-41

Vespucci, Amerigo, The Letters of Amerigo Vespucci (New York, 1973): ‘Letter of Amerigo Vespucci’ (1504), pp. 1-57

secondary sources

Boucher, Philip, Cannibal Encounter: Europeans and Island Caribs, 1492-1763, Johns Hopkins Press (1992), ‘Introduction’ and last chapter

Cummins, Cummins, ‘To Serve Man: Pre-Columbian Art, Western Discourses of Idolatry, and Cannibalism’, RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, vol. 42 (2002).

Hulme, Peter, ‘Introduction: The Cannibal Scene’, in Barker, Francis, Peter Hulme, and Margaret Iverson (eds), Cannibalism and the Colonial World, CUP (1998)

Hulme, Peter, Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492-1797 (Methuen, 1986), Chapter 1: ‘Columbus and the Cannibals’

Lestringant, Frank, Cannibals: The Discovery and Representation of the Cannibal from Columbus to Jules Verne, University of California Press (Berkeley, 1997).

Pagden, Anthony, The Fall of Natural Man: The American Indian and the Origins of Comparative Ethnology, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1982), pp. 80-90.

Palencia-Roth, Michael, ‘Cannibalism and the New Man of Latin America in the 15th and 16th-Century European Imagination’, Comparative Civilizations Review, vol. 12 (1985)

Brazilian Anthropophagist Movement

Andrade, Mario de, Macunaíma (1928)

Andrade, Oswaldo de, ‘Anthropophagite Manifesto’, Art in Latin America: The Modern Era, 1820-1980 (London, 1989)

Bellei, Sergio, ‘Brazilian Anthropology Revisited’, in Barker, Francis, Peter Hulme, and Margaret Iverson (eds), Cannibalism and the Colonial World, CUP (1998)

Castro-Klarén, Sara, ‘A Genealogy for the “Manifesto 
antropófago,” or the Struggle between 
Socrates and the Caraïbe’, Nepantla: Views from South 1.2 (2000).

Madureira, ‘Lapses in Taste: ‘Cannibal-tropicalist’ Cinema and the Brazilian Aesthetic of Underdevelopment’, in Barker, Francis, Peter Hulme, and Margaret Iverson (eds), Cannibalism and the Colonial World, CUP (1998)


Week 4: Coffee and Development

portinari

Cándido Portinari, Coffee, 1935 (Brazil)


--Has coffee cultivation assisted or impeded industrialisation? Does it contribute to the rise of capitalism? Has it strengthened or weakened national governments? Does it help or hinder democracy?


Readings

Please read one item from the overviews section, and the select a country or region on which to focus the remainder of your readings

Overviews

Roseberry, William, ‘Introduction’, in Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America, eds. Roseberry, William, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper, Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, 1995).

Topik, Steven, ‘Coffee’, in The Cambridge World History of Food, eds. Kenneth Kiple and Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas, 2 vols., Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 2000), vol. 1.

Topik, Steven ‘Coffee Anyone? Recent Research on Latin American Coffee Societies’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 80:2 (2000)

*Topik, Steven, ‘Coffee’, in Steven Topik and Allan Wells (eds), The Second Conquest of Latin America: Coffee, Henequen and Oil during the Export Boom, 1850-1930, University of Texas Press (Austin, 1998)

Brazil

Font, Mauricio, ‘Coffee Planters, Politics and Development in Brazil’, Latin American Research Review, vol. 22:3 (1987)

Holloway Thomas H., Immigrants on the Land: Coffee and Society in São Paulo, 1886-1934 (University of North Carolina Press (Chapel Hill, c1980).

Stein, Stanley, Vassouras, a Brazilian Coffee County, 1850-1900, Atheneum (New York, 1970, 1974).

Stolcke, Verene, Coffee planters, Workers and Wives: Class Conflict and Gender Relations on São Paulo Coffee Plantations, 1850-1980, Macmillan in association with St. Antony's College Oxford (Basingstoke, 1988).

Central America

Dore, Elizabeth ‘Land Privatisation and the Differentiation of the Peasantry: Nicaragua’s Coffee Revolution, 1850-1920’, Journal of Historical Sociology, vol. 8:3 (1995)

Gudmundson, Lowell, ‘Peasant, Farmer, Proletariat: Class Formation in a Small Coffee Economy, 1850-1950’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 69 (1989). (also in William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper (eds), Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America, Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, 1995).)

McCreery, David, ‘Wage Labor, Free Labor, and Vagrancy Laws: The Transition to Capitalism in Guatemala, 1920-1945’, in Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America, eds. William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper Kutschbach, Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, 1995).

Paige, Jeffrey, ‘Coffee and Power in El Salvador’, Latin American Research Review, 28:3 (1993).

Pérez Brignoli, Hector, ‘Indians, Communists, and Peasants: The 1932 Rebellion in El Salvador’, in Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America, eds. William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper Kutschbach, Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, 1995).

Williams, Robert States and Social Evolution: Coffee and the Rise of National Governments in Central America, University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. chapters 1, 6 and 7.

Puerto Rico

Bergad, Laird, ‘Towards Puerto Rico’s Grito de Lares: Coffee, Social Stratification, and Class Conflict, 1828-1868’, Hispanic American Historical Review 60:4 (1980).

Picó, Fernando, ‘Coffee and the Rise of Commercial Agriculture in Puerto Rico’s Highlands: The Occupation and Loss of Land in Guaonico and Roncador (Utuado), 1833-1900’, in Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America, eds. William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper Kutschbach, Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, 1995)


Week 5: Coffee and Nationalism in Colombia

juan valdez logo

--What does it mean for something to be a ‘national’ crop? What does coffee ‘mean’ in Colombia? Does it signify violence or autonomy?


Reading

*Appelbaum, Nancy, ‘Whitening the Region: Caucano Mediation and Antioqueño Colonization in Nineteenth-Century Colombia’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 79:4 (1999).

Bergquist, Charles, Coffee and Conflict in Colombia, 1886-1910, esp. chapters 1,2, 10.

Jiménez, Michael, ‘At the Banquet of Civilisation: The Limits of Planter Hegemony in Early-Twentieth-Century Colombia’, Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America, William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson and Mario Samper Kutschbach (eds) (Baltimore, 1995)

Jiménez, Michael, ‘Travelling Far in Grandfather’s Car: The Life Cycle of Central Colombian Coffee Estates’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 69 (1989).

Palacios, Marco, Coffee in Colombia, 1850-1950, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1980).

Roldán, Mary, Blood and Fire: La Violencia in Antioquia, Colombia, 1946-1953, Duke University Press (Durham, 2002).

Also look at http://www.juanvaldez.com, the website of the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation.


Week 6: READING WEEK (no class)

 

Week 7: Sugar Cane and Slavery

escravos

Slaves on a 19th-century Brazilian sugar plantation


--Why has sugar so often been produced using slave labour?

--What role did sugar play in the development of European colonies in the Caribbean?


Readings

*Mintz, Sidney, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History (New York, 1985)

The Caribbean

Bergad, Laird, Coffee and the Growth of Agrarian Capitalism in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico, Chapters 1-4.

Guerra y Sánchez, Ramiro, Sugar and Society in the Caribbean: An Economic History of Cuban Agriculture (New Haven, 1964 [1927])

Lemoine, Maurice, Bitter Sugar: Slaves Today in the Caribbean, Banner Press (Chicago, 1985)

Paquette, Robert, Sugar is Made of Blood: The Conspiracy of La Escalera and the Conflict between Empires over Slavery in Cuba (1988)

Brazil

Lockhart, James, and Stuart Schwartz, Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil (Cambridge, 1983), Chapter 7: ‘Brazil in the Sugar Age’

Schwartz, Stuart, ‘Plantations and Peripheries’, in Colonial Brazil, ed. Leslie Bethell, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1987)

Schwartz, Stuart, Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society: Bahia, 1550-1835 

 

Week 8: The Erotics of Sugar

 


ron mulata

label for ‘mulata’ brand rum (Cuba)

 

--How has sugar been represented in Latin American literature and poetry?

--In what ways has sugar become a metaphor for sexuality?

Readings

Benítez-Rojo, Antonio, ‘Nicolás Guillén and Sugar’, Callaloo issue 31 (1987).

Ellis, Keith, ‘Images of Sugar in English and Spanish Caribbean Poetry’, Ariel: A Review of International English Literature, vol. 24:1 (1993).

Kutzinski, Vera, Sugar’s Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism, University of Virginia Press (1993).

Lockard, Joe, ‘‘Sugar Realism’ in Caribbean Fiction’, Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies (1995)

Ortiz, Fernando, Cuban Counterpoint: Tobacco and Sugar, Duke University Press (Durham, 1995), Chapter 1: ‘Cuban Counterpoint’.


Week 9: Alcohol and Drunkenness


drinking scene


Drinking scene (Mexico)


--Why do people drink alcohol?


Readings

Douglas, Mary, ed. Constructive Drinking: Perspectives on Drink from Anthropology (Cambridge, 1987), Introduction.

Earle, Rebecca, ‘Indians and Drunkenness in Spanish America’, Past & Present, vol. 222:1 (2014), pp. 81-99.

Eber, Christine, Women and Alcohol in a Highland Maya Town, University of Texas Press (Austin, 2001), especially chapter 2: ‘The Time of Suffering: Pedranos, Ladinos and Rum’, and Conclusions.

Garrard-Burnett, Virginia, ‘Indians are Drunks and Drunks are Indians: Alcohol and Indigenismo in Guatemala, 1890-1940’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, vol. 19:3 (2000).

Heath, Dwight, ‘Cultural Variations Among Drinking Patterns’, Drinking Patterns and their Consequences, eds. Marcus Grant and Jorge Litvak (Philadelphia, 1998).

Mancall, Peter, Deadly Medicine: Indians and Alcohol in Early America (Ithaca, 1995), Introduction.

Taylor, William, Drinking, Homicide and Rebellion in Colonial Mexican Villages, Chapter 2: ‘Drinking’.

Weismantel, M. J., ‘Maize Beer and Andean Social Transformations: Drunken Indians, Bread Babies and Chosen Women’, MLN, vol. 106 (1991).


Week 10: The Columbian Exchange

pineapple-charles

Hendrick Danckerts, Charles II and his Gardener, 1675, England

The gardener is presenting the monarch with the first pineapple grown in England


--What is the Columbian exchange, and what have been its consequences?


Readings

Coe, Sophie, ‘Los Europeos se encuentran con la tradición andina’, in Janet Long (ed.), Conquista y Comida. Consecuencias del Encuentro de dos Mundos (Mexico City, 1997)

*Crosby, Alfred, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, Greenwood Press (Westport, 1972), chapters 3, 5, 6

*Earle, Rebecca, 'The Columbian Exchange', The Oxford Handbook of Food History, ed. Jeffrey Pilcher, Oxford University Press (Oxford, 2012).

Davidson, Alan, ‘Europeans’ Wary Encounter with Tomatoes, Potatoes and Other New World Foods’, in Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World, Nelson Foster and Linda Cordell (eds) (Tucson, 1992).

O’Connor, Kaori, ‘Beyond ‘Exotic Groceries’: Tapioca/Cassava/Manioc, a Hidden Commodity of Empires and Globalisation’, Global Histories, Imperial Commodities, Local Interactions, ed. Jonathan Curry-Machado, Palgrave Macmillan (Basingstoke, 2013).

Scott, Nina, ‘La comida como signo: los encuentros culinarios de América’, in Janet Long (ed.), Conquista y comida. Consecuencias del encuentro de dos mundos (Mexico City, 1997)

Super, John, ‘The Formation of Nutritional Regimes in Colonial Latin America’, in Food, Politics and Society on Latin America, John C. Super and Thomas C. Wright (eds), University of Nebraska Press (Lincoln, 1985)

 

TERM 3: Nation, Race, Cuisine



Week 1: NO CLASS
week 2: Mole Poblano and Mexican Identity

mole

Mole poblano


--What is mole poblano? What roles has it played in Mexican identity? How long has Mexico had a national cuisine, according to Pilcher (and Laudan)?


Readings

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ‘Josefina Velázquez de León: Apostle of the Enchilada’, in The Human Tradition in Latin America, ed. Jeffrey Pilcher (Wilmington, 2003)

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ‘Many Chefs in the National Kitchen: Cookbooks and Identity in Nineteenth-Century Mexico’, in Latin American Popular Culture: An Introduction, eds. William Beezley and Linda Curcio-Nagy, SR Books (2000) (the same chapter also appears in ¡Que vivan los tamales!.)

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ¡Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 1998), chapters 3 and 6.

*Pilcher, Jeffrey, and Rachel Laudan, ‘Chiles, Chocolate, and Race in New Spain: Glancing Backward to Spain or Looking Forward to Mexico?’, Eighteenth-Century Life, vol. 23 (1999)

 

Week 3: Nation and Cuisine


--How, if at all, does cuisine help shape national identity? How did Mexico acquire a national cuisine? What are the central arguments of ¡Que vivan los tamales!?


Readings

Alonso, Ana María, 'Conforming Disconformity: 'Mestizaje', Hybridity and the Aesthetics of Mexican Nationalism', Cultural Anthropology, vol. 19:4 (2004).

Appadurai, Arjun, ‘How to Make a National Cuisine: Cookbooks in Contemporary Indian’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 30 (1988).

DeSoucey, Michaela, 'Gastronationalism: Food Traditions and Authenticity Politics in the European Union', American Sociological Review, vo. 75:3 (2010).

Fajans, Jane, 'The Chemistry of Identity: Cooking up a New View of a Nation', Brazilian Food: Race, Class and Identity in Regional Cuisines, Berg (London, 2012).

Ferrero, Sylvia, ‘Comida Sin Par: Consumption of Mexican Food in Los Angeles; ‘Foodscapes’ in a Transnational Consumer Society’, Food Nations: Selling Taste in Consumer Societies, Warren Belasco and Philip Scranton (eds), Routledge (London, 2002).

Folch, Christine, ‘Fine Dining: Race in Prerevolution Cuban Cookbooks’, Latin American Research Review, vol. 43 (2008).

Mintz, Sidney, Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom: Excursions into Eating, Culture, and the Past. Beacon Press (Boston, 1996), Chapter 6: ‘Cuisine: High, Low and Not at All’, and Chapter 7: ‘Eating American’.

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ¡Que vivan los tamales! Food and the Making of Mexican Identity, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 1998), chapters 6 and 7.

Pilcher, Jeffrey, ‘Recipes for Patria: Cuisine, Gender and Nation in Nineteenth-Century Mexico’, Recipes for Reading: Community, Cookbooks, Stories, Histories, ed. Anne Bower, University of Massachusetts Press (Amherst, 1997).

Mary Weismantel, Food, Gender and Poverty in the Ecuadorian Andes (Philadelphia, 1988), pp. 117-123.

Wilk, Richard, ‘Beauty and the Feast: Official and Visceral Nationalism, in Belize’, Ethnos, vol. 58:3/4 (1993).

Wilk, Richard, ‘Food and Nationalism: The Origins of ‘Belizean Food’, Food Nations: Selling Taste in Consumer Societies, eds. Warren Belasco and Philip Scranton , Routledge (London, 2002)


Week 3: Revision


Bibliography

I have given the shelf marks for all items held by the library at the time that this bibliography was compiled. ‘SLC’ means the item is a photocopy located only in one of the yellow folders in SLC, the short loan collection. ‘Arts Periodicals’ means the item is located in one of the journals held on the third floor of the library. ‘Social Science Periodicals’ are on the fifth floor. ‘Store’ means the item is in the library stores. To access it contact the staff in SLC. ‘Online’ means the item is available only in electronic format, but remember that number of items are available both in hard copy and electronically. If you are uncertain how to locate any of these items please ask at the library information desk. Copies of many of the books will also be in SLC; if one of the books in this bibliography is not in SLC and you think it should be, please contact me and I will raise the matter with the library.


BOOKS AND ARTICLES

Abarca, Meredith, Voices in the Kitchen: Views of Food and the World from Working Class Mexican and Mexican American Women, Texas A&M University Press (2006).

Acosta, José de, The Natural and Moral History of the Indies, various translations: E123.A4 and G 161.H2

Adams, Robert M., ‘Early Civilizations, Subsistence, and Environment’, in Jesse Jennings and E. Adamson Hoebal (eds) Readings in Anthropology, McGraw-Hill (NY, 1966), pp. 44-57 HC9000.J3

Adamson, Alan, Sugar Without Slave: The Political Economy of British Guiana, 1838-1904, Yale University Press (1972) HK736.A3

Albert, Bill (ed.), Crisis and Change in the International Sugar Economy: 1860-1914 (Norwich, 1984) HP 917.C7

Albert, Bill (ed.), The World Sugar Economy in War and Depression, 1914-40 (London, 1988) HY 2401.7.W6

Albert, Bill, An Essay on the Peruvian Sugar Industry, 1880-1922 (Norwich, 1976) qto HP 7917.A5

Allen, Stewart, The Devil's Cup: Coffee, the Driving Force in History (Edinburgh, 2001) HD 5200.A5

Alvarez, Robert, Mangos, Chiles, and Truckers: The Business of Transnationalism, University of Minnesota Press (Minneapolis, 2005) HP6310.A5

Andrade, Joaquím Pedro de, ‘Cannibalism and Self-Cannibalism’, Brazilian Cinema, R. Johnson and R. Stam (eds). SLC

Andrade, Mario de, Macunaíma (London, 1985 [1928]) PQ9697A7

Andrade, Oswaldo de, ‘Anthropophagite Manifesto’, Art in Latin America: The Modern Era, 1820-1980 (London, 1989) N6502A3

André, María Claudia, ed., Chicanas and Latin American women writers exploring the realm of the kitchen as a self-empowering site, Edwin Mellen Press (2002).

Appadurai, Arjun, ‘How to Make a National Cuisine: Cookbooks in Contemporary Indian’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 30 (1988) Social Science Periodicals

Appelbaum, Nancy, ‘Whitening the Region: Caucano Mediation and ‘Antioqueño Colonization in Nineteenth-Century Colombia’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 79:4 (1999) Arts Periodicals

Archetti, Eduardo, Guinea Pigs: Food, Symbol and Conflict of Knowledge in Ecuador (Oxford, 1997) SF401.G8

Arens, William, The Man-Eating Myth, Oxford University Press (New York, 1979) HD5200.A7

Arnott, Margaret L. (ed.), Gastronomy: the Anthropology of Food Habits, Monton (The Hague, 1975) HD5200.G2

Aron, Jean-Paul, ‘The Art of Using Leftovers: Paris, 1850-1900’, Food and Drink in History (London, 1979) TX 353.F6

Artes de México: Los Espacios de la cocina Mexicana, vol. 36 (1997) Arts Periodicals

Asturias, Miguel Angel, Men of Maize PQ7499A7

Ayala, César, American Sugar Kingdom: The Plantation Economy of the Spanish Caribbean, University of North Carolina Press (1999) HP6517A9

Aykroyd, W. R., Sweet Malefactor: Sugar, Slavery and Human Society, Heinemann (London, 1967). HP917.A9

Barker, Francis, Peter Hulme, and Margaret Iverson (eds), Cannibalism and the Colonial World, Cambridge University Press (1998) HD5200C2

Bauer, Arnold, ‘Millers and Grinders: Technology and Household Economy in Meso-America’, Agricultural History, vol. 64:1 (1990), pp. 1-17. Store

Beals, Ralph, and Evelyn Hatcher, ‘The Diet of a Tarascan Village’, América Indígena, vol. 3 (1943). SLC

Belasco, Warren, and Roger Horowitz, eds. Food Chains: From Farmyard to Shopping Cart. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

Bellei, Sergio, ‘Brazilian Anthropology Revisited’, in Barker, Francis, Peter Hulme, and Margaret Iverson (eds), Cannibalism and the Colonial World, CUP (1998) HD5200C2

Benítez-Rojo, Antonio, ‘Nicolás Guillén and Sugar’, Callaloo, no. 3 (1987) online

Berenzon Gorn, Boris, ‘Historia y cocina: las fronteras de lo efímero’, Historia y universidad: Homenaje a Lorenzo Mario Luna, ed. Enrique González González (Mexico, 1996) SLC

Bergad, Laird, Coffee and the Growth of Agrarian Capitalism in Nineteenth-century Puerto Rico, Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1983) HP6419.7.B3

Bergad, Laird, ‘Towards Puerto Rico’s Grito de Lares: Coffee, Social Stratification, and Class Conflict, 1828-1868’, HAHR, 60:4 (1980). Arts Periodicals

Bergamo, Ilarione da, Daily Life in Colonial Mexico (Norman, 2000) F1211.I5

Bergquist, Charles, Coffee and Conflict in Colombia, 1886-1910, HP7119.7.P2

Berkhofer, Robert The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present, Vintage (New York, 1979), pp. 6-12 E98.P4

Boucher, Philip, Cannibal Encounter: Europeans and Island Caribs, 1492-1763, Johns Hopkins Press (1992) F2001B6

Bourdieu, Pierre, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste , Harvard University Press (Cambridge, 1984), HC6600.B6

Brandes, Stanley, Staying Sober in Mexico City, University of Texas Perss (Austin, 2002) HF2363.B7

Bruman, Henry, Alcohol in Ancient Mexico (Salt Lake City, 2000) F1219.3.A42

Bryant, Carol A, Anita Courteney, Barbara Mankesberry and Cathleen DeWalt, The Cultural Feast: An Introduction to Food and Society, West Publishing Company (St. Paul, 1985) TX353.C8

Bunzel, Ruth, ‘The Rôle of Alcoholism in Two Central American Cultures’, Psychiatry, vol. 3 (1940), pp. 361-87. SLC

Burnett, John, Liquid Pleasures: A Social History of Drinks in Modern Britain, Routledge (London, 1999) HD5211.B8

Butler, Barbara, Holy Intoxication to Drunken Dissipation: Alcohol among Quichua Speakers in Otavalo, Ecuador, University of New Mexico Press (Albuquerque, 2006) F2230.2.K4

Butzer, Karl, ‘Cattle and Sheep from Old to New Spain: Historical Antecedents’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 78:1 (1988) SLC

Camporesi, Piero, Exotic Brew: The Art of Living in the Age of Enlightenment, Polity Press (1994) GT.2853.I8

Camporesi, Piero, The Magic Harvest: Food, Folklore and Society, Polity Press (1993) HD5225.C28

Caravelle: Cahiers du Monde Hispanique et Luso-Bresilien (vol. 71): ‘senses and tastes of Latin America’ Arts Periodicals

Carrasco, David, ‘Cosmic Jaws: We Eat the Gods and the Gods Eat Us’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, vol. 63:3 (1995). online

Castellanos, Alfredo, Breve historia de la ganadería en el Uruguay (Montevideo, 1971?) SF196.U7

Castellanos, Rosario, ‘The Cooking Lesson’, Another Way to Be: Selected Works of Rosario Castellano, ed. and trans. By Marylyn Allgood, University of Georgia Press (Athens and London, 1990). PQ7297.C28

Castro, Eduardo Batalha Viveiros de, From the Enemy’s Point of View: Humanity and Divinity in an Amazonian Society, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1992) F2520.1.A77

Castro-Klarén, Sara, ‘A Genealogy for the “Manifesto 
antropófago,” or the Struggle between 
Socrates and the Caraïbe’, Nepantla: Views from South 1.2 (2000). online

Michel de Certeau, Luce Giard, and Pierre Mayol, The Practice of Everyday Life, vol. 2: Living and Cooking, trans. Timothy J. Tomasik, University of Minnesota Press (Minneapolis, 1998), chapter 5: ‘Bread and Wine’, 85-100. CB 73.I6

Charlip, Julie, Cultivating Coffee: The Farmers of Carazo, Nicaragua, 1880-1930, Ohio University Press (Athens, 2003). HP. 6819.7.C4

Clarence-Smith, William Gervase, Cocoa and Chocolate, 1765-1914 (Routledge, 2000) HP917.8.C5

Clavijero, Francisco Javier, Historia antigua de México [1780] (Mexico, 1958), vol. 1, pp. 61-82. F1219.C5 STORE

Clendinnen, Inga, Aztecs: An Interpretation, Cambridge University Press (1995) F1219.3.S6

Coatsworth, John ‘Anotaciones sobre la producción de alimentos durante el porfiriato’, Historia Mexicana, vol. 26 (1976) Arts Periodicals

Cobo, Bernade, Inca Religion and Customs (Texas, 1990) F4329.C6

Coe, Sophie and Michael, The True History of Chocolate (London, 1996) TX56024C6

Coe, Sophie, America’s First Cuisines, University of Texas Press (Austin, 1994) F12193F67

Columbus, Christopher, The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus (Penguin, 1969), 1493 letter E118.F6

Cox, Cat., Chocolate Unwrapped: The Politics of Pleasure (London, 1993) TX560.24.C6

Crosby, Alfred, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492, Greenwood Press (Westport, 1972). E98.D4

Cummins, Thomas, ‘To Serve Man: Pre-Columbian Art, Western Discourses of Idolatry, and Cannibalism’, RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics, vol. 42 (2002).

Curtin, Philip The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1990) HY3040.C8

Dakin, Karen, and Søren Wichmann, ‘Cacao and Chocolate, An Uto-Aztecan Perspective’, Ancient Mesoamerica, vol. 11 (2000), pp. 55-75. SLC

Dalby, Andrew, Dangerous Tastes: the Story of Spices, British Museum Press (London, 2000) TX587D2

Dávila, Amparo, ‘Haute Cuisine’, Other Fires: Stories from the Women of Latin America, ed. Alberto Manguel, Picador (London, 1986). SLC

Dean, Warren, ‘The Green Wave of Coffee: The beginnings of Tropical Agricultural Research in Brazil (1885-1900)’, Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 69 (1989) Arts Periodicals

Deerr, Noel, The History of Sugar, Chapman and Hall (London, 1950). HO917.D3

DeFrance, Susan, ‘The Sixth Toe: The Modern Culinary Role of the Guinea Pig in Southern Peru’, Food & Foodways, vol. 1 (2006). online

Diaz del Castillo, Bernal The Conquest of New Spain, Penguin (1963) F1230.D4

Dore, Elizabeth ‘Land Privatisation and the Differentiation of the Peasantry: Nicaragua’s Coffee Revolution, 1850-1920’, Journal of Historical Sociology, vol. 8:3 (1995) Social Science Periodicals

Dosal, Paul, Doing Business with the Dictators: A Political History of United Fruit in Guatemala, 1899-1944 (1993) HP6818.5

Douglas, Mary, Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology (London, 1975) HC 9000.D6

Douglas, Mary, ‘Food as a System of Communication’, in In the Active Voice, Routledge & Kegan Paul (London, 1982), pp. 82-124 HC 9000.D6

Dunn, Richard, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713, Norton (New York, 1972) F1621.D8

Earle, Rebecca, ‘‘If You Eat Their Food . . .’: Diets and Bodies in Early Colonial Spanish America’, American Historical Review, vol. 115:3 (2010). Arts Periodicals

Earle, Rebecca, The Return of the Native: Indians and Mythmaking in Spanish America, 1810-1930, Duke University Press (Durham, 2008). E65.E49

Eber, Christine, Women and Alcohol in a Highland Maya town, University of Texas Press (Austin, 2000) F1221.T9

Ellis, Keith, ‘Images of Sugar in English and Spanish Caribbean Poetry’, Ariel: A Review of International English Literature, vol. 24:1 (1993) SLC

Ely, Roland, Cuando Reinaba su Magestad el Azúcar (Buenos Aires, 1963) HP6517 E5

Enloe, Cynthia, ‘Carmen Miranda on my Mind: International Politics of the Banana’, Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics, University of California Press (Berkeley, 1989) JD195.E6

Esquival. Laura, Like Water for Chocolate: A Novel in Monthly Instalments, with Recipes, Romances, and Home Remedies (1992) PQ7297.E8

Fallow, Ben, ‘Dry Laws, Wet Politics: Drinking and Prohibition in Post-Revolutionary Yucatán, 1915-1935’, Latin American Research Review, vol. 37:2 92001) Arts Periodicals

Faminow, Merle, Cattle, Deforestation, and Development in the Amazon: An Economic, Agronomic, and Environmental Perspective, CAB International Publishers (Wallingford, 1998). SF196.A42.F53

Farb, Peter, and George Armelagos, Consuming Passions: the Anthropology of Eating, Washington Square Press (1980) HD5200.F2

Fernández-Aceves, María Teresa, ‘Once We Were Corn Grinders: Women and Labor in the tortilla Industry of Guadalajara, 1920-1940’, International Labor and Working-Class History, No. 63 (2003) online

Ferrero, Sylvia, ‘Comida Sin Par: Consumption of Mexican Food in Los Angeles; ‘Foodscapes’ in a Transnational Consumer Society’, Food Nations: Selling Taste in Consumer Societies, Warren Belasco and Philip Scranton (eds), Routledge (London, 2002). HP912.F6

Few, Martha, ‘Chocolate, Sex, and Disorderly Women in Late-Seventeenth and Early-Eighteenth-Century Guatemala’, Ethnohistory 52:4 (2005), pp. 673-687. online

Fieldhouse, Paul, Food and Nutrition: Customs and Culture (2nd edn, London, 1996).

Fisher, Mary Frances Kennedy, The Art of Eating, Vintage Books (New York, 1976) TX633.F4

Florescano, Enrique, Precios de maiz, crisis agrícola HP6316F5

Folch, Christine, ‘Fine Dining: Race in Prerevolution Cuban Cookbooks’, Latin American Research Review, vol. 43 (2008). Arts Periodicals

Font, Mauricio, ‘Labor System and Collective Action in a Coffee Economy: São Paulo’, in Coffee, Society and Power in Latin America, William Roseberry, Lowell Gudmundson, and Mario Samper (eds), Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, 1995) HP7019.7.C6

Font, Mauricio, ‘Coffee Planters, Politics and Development in Brazil’, Latin American Research Review, vol. 22:3 (1987) Arts Periodicals

Font, Mauricio, Coffee, Contention, and Change in the Making of Modern Brazil, Basil Blackwell (Oxford, 1990). HP7419.7.F6

Forrest, Beth Marie and April Najjaj, ‘Is Sipping Sin Breaking Fast? The Catholic Chocolate Controversy and the Changing World of Early Modern Spain’, Food and Foodways, vol. 15 (2007). online

Forsyth, Donald, ‘Three Cheers for Hans Staden: the Case for Brazilian Cannibalism’, Ethnohistory, vol. 32:1 (1985) SLC

Foster, Nelson, and Linda S. Cordell, eds. Chilies to Chocolate: Food the Americas Gave the World. Tucson: University of Arizona Press (Tuscon, 1992). SB185.C4

Friedander, Judith, Being Indian in Hueyapan: A Study of Forced Identity in Contemporary Mexico (New York, 1975) HC9063.F7

Frundt, Henry, Fair Bananas!: Farmers, Workers, and Consumers Strive to Change an Industry, University of Arizona Press (Tucson, 2009).

Fussell, Betty, The Story of Corn, Knopf (New York, 1992) SB191.62.F8

Gage, Thomas, Travels in the New World (Norman, 1958) F1211.G2

Gallagher, Catherine and Stephen Greenblatt, ‘The Potato in the Materialist Imagination’, Practicing New Historicism, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 2000). SLC

Gallego, José-Andrés, ‘El abastacimiento de México, 1761-1786: semejanzas y diferencias entre la Nueva España y la España Europea’, Revista de Indias, vol. 57 (1997) Arts Periodicals

Galloway, J. H., The Sugar Cane Industry, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1989). HP917.G2

García Alvarez, Alejandro, ‘Santo, seña y ruta histórica del plátano hasta Cuba’, Revista de Indias, vol. 59:221 (2001) Arts Periodicals

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WEBSITES

There are many interesting websites maintained by chocolate manufacturers, coffee producers, etc. Use your search engine.

FILMS

Carmen Miranda: Bananas is My Business, directed Helena Solberg, 1994

Como Era Gostoso o Meu Francês [How Tasty was my Little Frenchman], directed Nelson Pereira dos Santos, 1971.

Like Water for Chocolate, directed Alfonso Arau, 1993.

Macunaíma, directed Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, 1969.


Spanish Banquet