With nearly one-fifth of the population African-American and in the South, the difficulties of integration and inclusion were extreme. After Reconstruction, states in the South restricted opportunities with laws that kept races separate in public facilities and allowed few non-whites to vote, and condoned violence (lynching). By 1913, there were anti-miscegenation laws prohibiting the marriages of white and “Negro” (and often other races) in 30 of the 48 states, especially in the South and West. African-American leaders differed on strategy. Booker T. Washington urged an outward show of compromise; W. E. B. Du Bois urged protest; Marcus Garvey wanted racial solidarity and all-black organizations. The War accelerated migration north to the major cities; widespread prejudice limited residential areas which became the 'ghetto'; intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance forged new artistic experiments.
- Why did traditional/customary discrimination against African Americans take legislative form as Jim Crow segregation in the South?
- How did African Americans respond to more restricted opportunities—'accommodation' (Washington), protest (DuBois) and/or separation (Garvey)?
- How did migration to the North enrich African-American culture between the wars?
- Why was Jim Crow culture able to take hold of US society?
Figting Miscegenation Article, Cayton's Weekly
Leslie Brown and Anne Valk, Living with Jim Crow: African-American Women and Memories of the Segregated South (2010) , pp.17-51. [Ebook]
Du Bois, W.E.B, The Souls of Black Folks
Larsen, Nella, Quicksand and Passing
Dossett, Catherine Maria Culture and politics in the Harlem Renaissance
Flamming, Douglas Bound for freedom : Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America
Greenberg, Cheryl Lynn Or does it explode? : Black Harlem in the great depression
Grossman, James R. Land of hope : Chicago, black Southerners and the great migration
Logan, Rayford W. W. E. B. Du Bois: a profile
McMillen, Neil R. Dark journey : black Mississippians in the age of Jim Crow
Sandberg, Carl The Chicago race riots, July, 1919
Smock, Raymond W. Booker T. Washington : Black leadership in the age of Jim Crow
Turner, Elizabeth Hayes Women and gender in the new South : 1865-1945
Woodward, C. Vann The strange career of Jim Crow
Zangrando, Robert L. The NAACP crusade against lynching, 1909-1950