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What models of masculinity have been endorsed by African-American men in the 19th and 20th centuries?

In what ways of scholars interpreted the impact of enslavement on subsequent gender roles?


Collins, Patricia Hill, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment, Routledge (London and New York, 1990), especially part II.

Gibbs, Jewelle, ed., Young, Black and Male in America: An Endangered Species, Auburn House (Dover, 1988).

Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920, University of North Carolina Press (Chapel Hill and London, 1996).

Hine, Darlene Clark and Earnestine Jenkins, eds., A Question of Manhood : A Reader in U.S. Black Men's History and Masculinity, 2 vol., Indiana University Press, (Bloomington, 1999-2001).

hooks, bell, We Real Cool: Black Men and Masculinity, Routledge (London, 2004).

hooks, bell, Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics, South End Press (Boston, 1990).

Majors, Richard, and Janet Billson, Cool Pose, D.C. Health (Lexington, 1992).

Patterson, Orlando, ‘American Dionysus: Images of Afro-American Men at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century’, in Rituals of Blood: Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries, Civitas (Washington, 1998).

Patterson, Orlando, ‘Broken Bloodlines: Gender Relations and the Crisis of Marriages and Families Among Afro-Americans’, in Rituals of Blood: Consequences of Slavery in Two American Centuries, Civitas (Washington, 1998), especially pp. 25-53.

The Negro Family: The Case for National Action’ [Moynihan Report], March 1965.

Walker, Michelle, Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman, Dial Press (New York, 1978).