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Essay Information:

Essays must be submitted on Tabula by noon on the due date. Remember to attach a cover sheet. Your essay must be in an appropriate file format. Tabula will ONLY accept the following file types: .doc, .docx, .odt, .wpd, .ps, .html, .hwp, .rtf, .txt, .pdf, .ppt, .pptx, .ppsx, .pps, .xls, xlsx. If you try and submit a file with a different extension Tabula will not accept the file.

There is a limit of 20MB of size for submission of files. If you are using a lot of pictures and your file is larger than 20MB, save your file as a pdf, and then reduce the resolution. If this still does not solve the problem, please print out a hard copy of the essay, with images, and submit this to the office before the essay deadline.

Autumn Term:

Essay 1 must be submitted before noon on Wed 23 November 2016.

1.) Discuss the public roles of imperial women under the Antonines.
Primary Material:
Historia Augusta, Life of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius (to be used with appropriate caution!)
Fronto, Correspondence
Cassius Dio Books 70-72
Further inscriptions and other monuments are referenced in the secondary reading. Levick (2014) provides a good overview of the primary sources in her first chapter.
Secondary Reading:
Beckmann, (2012). Diva Faustina: Coinage and Cult in Rome and the Provinces. New York [Oversize CJ1003.B43]
@ Boatwright, M. T. (1991). The Imperial Women of the Early Second Century A.C. American Journal of Philology 112: 513-540.
Burrell, B. (2004). Neokoroi: Greek Cities and Roman Emperors. Leiden. (REFERENCE DS 155.B8; use the index to find points on Faustina I, II and Lucilla).
@ Duncan-Jones, R. P. (2006). Crispina and the Coinage of the Empresses. Numismatic Chronicle 166: 223-228.
Fittschen, K. (1996). Courtly Portraits of Women as Patrons of the Arts in the Era of the Adoptive Emperors (AD 98-180) and their Reception in Roman Society. I Claudia. Women in Ancient Rome. D. E. E. Kleiner and S. B. Matheson (eds). New Haven: 42-52. [Oversize N 7588.I2]
@ Levick, B. Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford [DG 292.5.L48]
@ Lusnia, S. S. (1995). Julia Domna's Coinage and Severan Dynastic Propaganda. Latomus 54: 119-139.
@ Mattingly, H. (1948). The Consecration of Faustina the Elder and her Daughter. Harvard Theological Review 41: 147-151.
@ Rowan, C. (2013) 'Imaging the Golden Age: the coinage of Antoninus Pius', Papers of the British School at Rome 81: 211-246.
@ Rowan, C. (2012) 'Communicating a consecratio: the deification coinage of Faustina I', Proceedings of the XIV International Numismatic Congress, Glasgow 2009, vol 1, ed. N. Holmes. (Glasgow): 991-8.

2.) What does Fronto's correspondence reveal about the Antonine age?

Primary Material:

Fronto's letters, available in the Loeb [PA 6156.F7 and online], but there is also student friendly edition of select letters with commentary by Davenport and Manley (currently on order for the library).

Given the differing numbering systems between different editions, please ensure you note which edition you are using and/or also include the page number of the edition.

Secondary Material:

@Bowersock, G. W. (1969). Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire. Oxford.
Champlin, E. (1980). Fronto and Antonine Rome. London. [DG 292.7.F47]
@ Champlin, E. (1974). "The Chronology of Fronto." Journal of Roman Studies 64: 136-159. [JSTOR]
@ Fleury, P. (2012). Marcus Aurelius' Letters. In A Companion to Marcus Aurelius, ed. M. van Ackeren, Malden, MA, pp 62-76
@ Freisenbruch, A. (2007). Back to Fronto: Doctor and Patient in his Correspondence with an Emperor. In Ancient Letters. Classical and Late Antique Epistolography. ed. R. Morello and A. D. Morrison. Oxford: 235-256.
@ Garcea, A. & V. Lomanto (2004) Gellius and Fronto on loanwords and literary models, In The Worlds of Aulus Gellius, ed. L. Holford-Strevens & Amiel Vardi, Oxford, [PA 6391.W6]
@ Gibson, R. (2012). On the nature of ancient letter collections, Journal of Roman Studies 102: 56-78
@ Kemezis, A. M. (2010). "Lucian, Fronto, and the absence of contemporary historiography under the Antonines." American Journal of Philology 131: 285-325.
Keulen, W. (2014). Fronto and Apuleius: two African careers in the Roman Empire. In Apuleius and Africa, ed. B. Todd Lee et al. New York: 129-153 [PA6217.A67] Nisbet, G. (2007). 'Sex lives of the sophists: epigrams by Philostratus and Fronto'. In Severan Culture. ed. S. Swain, S. Harrison and J. Elsner. Cambridge: 114-24 [DG 298.S3]
@ Rees, R. (2007). Letters of Recommendation and the Rhetoric of Praise. In Ancient Letters. Classical and Late Antique Epistolography. ed. R. Morello and A. D. Morrison. Oxford: 149-168.
@ Swain, S. (2004). Bilinguilism and biculturalism in Antonine Rome, In The Worlds of Aulus Gellius, ed. L. Holford-Strevens & Amiel Vardi, Oxford, [PA 6391.W6]
@ Taoka, Y. (2013). Liminal women in Fronto’s Letters, The Classical Journal 108: 419-445
@ Williams, C.A. 2012. Reading Roman Friendship. Cambridge (esp. pp. 238-58).

3.) Was Commodus 'dangerously deranged'?

Primary Material:

Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus 17
Cassius Dio Epitome of Book 73.
Herodian Book 1.
Historia Augusta, Commodus (to be used with caution!)

Secondary Reading:

Eckstein, A. (2004). Commodus and the limits of the Roman Empire. In Gladiator: Film and History, ed. M.M. Winkler, Blakcwell: 53-72 [PN 3278.G48]
@ Hannah, R. (1986). 'The Emperor's Stars: The Conservatori Portrait of Commodus'. American Journal of Archaeology 90: 337-42
Hekster, O. (2002). Commodus. An Emperor at the Crossroads. Amsterdam. [DG 299.H3]
@ Hekster, O. (2002). 'Of mice and emperors: A note on Aelian "De natura animalium" 6.40'. Classical Philology 97: 365-70 [JSTOR].
Hekster, O. (2005). 'Propagating Power: Hercules as an example for second-century emperors', In Herakles and Hercules: exploring a Graeco-Roman Divinity, ed. L. Rawlings & H. Bowden, Swansea, pp. 205-222. [BL 820.H5]
@ Hekster, O. (2005). Captured in the gaze of of power: visibility, games and Roman imperial representation. In Imaginery Kings: Royal Images in the Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome, ed. O. Hekster & R. Fowler, Stuttgart: 157-76
@Hekster, O. (2012). The Roman Empire after his death. A Companion to Marcus Aurelius. Blackwell, 234-247
@ Potter, S. (2004) The Roman Empire at Bay. Milton Park, Abington. Chapter 3.
@ Rostovtzeff, M. & Mattingly, H. (1923). Commodus-Hercules in Britain. Journal of Roman Studies 13: 91-109
@ Speidel, M. (1993). 'Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army'. Journal of Roman Studies 83: 104-14 [JSTOR]

4.) What messages were communicated by Septimius Severus' building programme in Rome?

Primary Material

These are the monuments of Severus in Rome, as well as the inscriptions, coins and texts that refer to these monuments – be careful to distinguish between those erected/paid for by the emperor, and those erected/paid for by others in the emperor’s honour (there is a difference here, and you need to focus on the former). Lusnia 2014 provides the best overview of the relevant monuments in Rome, and is a key work here.

Secondary Reading

@ Brilliant, R. (1967). The Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman Forum. Rome. [available through JSTOR to download]
@ Gorrie, C. (2001). The Septizodium of Septimius Severus Revisited: the Monument in Its Historical and Urban Context. Latomus 60: 653-670.
@ Gorrie, C. (2004). Julia Domna’s building patronage, imperial family roles and the Severan revival of moral legislation. Historia 53: 61-72
@ Gorrie, C. (2007). The restoration of the porticus Octaviae and Severan Imperial Policy. Greece and Rome 54: 1-17
Longfellow, B. (2011). Roman Imperialism and Civic Patronage: Form, Meaning, and Ideology in Monumental Fountain Complexes. Cambridge. Chp. 6 [NA9415.R7]
Lusnia, S. (2014). Creating Severan Rome: the architecture and self-image of L. Septimius Severus (AD 193-211). Brussels. [DG300.L87]
Lusnia, S. (2006). Battle Imagery and Politics on the Severan Arch in the Roman Forum. In Representations of War in Ancient Rome. S. Dillon and K. E. Welch (eds). Cambridge: 272-299.
@ Lusnia, S. S. (2004). Urban Planning and Sculptural Display in Severan Rome: Reconstructing the Septizodium and its Role in Dynastic Politics. American Journal of Archaeology 108: 517-544.
@ Taylor, R. (2010). Bread and water: Septimius Severus and the rise of the Curator Aquarum et Miniciae. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 55: 199-220 Thomas, E. (2007). Metaphor and identity in Severan architecture: the Septizodium at Rome between 'reality' and 'fantasy'. Severan Culture. S. Swain, S. Harrison and J. Elsner (eds). Cambridge: 327-376.

5.) Did Elagabalus' religious changes have a significant impact in the provinces?

Primary Material:

Inscriptions, coins, and building monuments outside Rome, as well as any textual reference to them. The Roman Provincial Coinage has not yet reached the Severans yet, so if you are looking for coins, you will need to look at individual cities (e.g. Antioch, Alexandria, etc -search Encore for coins AND Alexandria, Antioch, etc.). Textual accounts of Elagabalus' reign are:

Herodian Book 5
Cassius Dio, Epitome of Book 80
The Historia Augusta is extremely untrustworthy here, and so should be avoided unless you have other data to support your argument.

Secondary Reading:

de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L. (2010). The emperor Elagabalus: Fact or Fiction? Cambridge [DG 303.A77]
Burrell, B. (2004). Neokoroi: Greek Cities and Roman Emperors. Leiden. (REFERENCE DS 155.B8; use the index to find points on Elagabalus).
@ Fishwick, D. (2000). The Sacred Area at Gorsium. Phoenix 54: 309-331.
@ Harl, K. W. (1987). Civic Coins and Civic Politics in the Roman East AD 180-275. Berkeley. (again, check index for points on Elagabalus)
@ Icks, M. (2009). Empire of the Sun? Civic Responses to the rise and fall of Sol Elagabal in the Roman Empire. In Ritual Dynamics and Religious Change in the Roman Empire. O. Hekster, S. Schmidt-Hofner and C. Witschel (eds). Leiden: 111-120.
@ Kindler, A. (1980). The 'Damnatio Memoriae' of Elagabal on City-Coins of the Near East. Schweizer Münzblätter 30: 3-7.
Oliver, J. H. (1989). Greek Constitutions of Early Roman Emperors from Inscriptions and Papyri. Philadelphia. [DF 239.A1] (no. 274 on p. 527)
@ Rea, J. (1993). A Letter of the Emperor Elagabalus. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 96: 127-132.
Rowan, C. (2012). Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge. Chapter 5.

Spring Term

Essay 2 must be submitted before noon on Wed 22 February 2017.

1.) Does the archaeological evidence support the claim that there was a third century crisis?

Primary Material:
The focus should be on archaeological data from the period AD 235 – 284, e.g. settlements, coins, pottery, inscriptions. You might focus on one set of data or site, or several. Much of the data has been collected in Esmonde 2013, who is key here.

Secondary Reading:
Boin, D. (2013). Ostia in Late Antiquity. Cambridge. Chapter 3. [DG70.O8]
Butcher, K. (2015). Debasement and the decline of Rome. In Studies in Ancient Coinage in Honour of Andrew Burnett, ed. R. Bland & D. Calomino, London, 181-205 [Oversize CJ 75.B53]
@ Corbier, M. (2005). Coinage and taxation : the state’s point of view, AD 193-337’, The Cambridge Ancient History Vol 12, ed. A. Bowman et al, Cambridge, 327-92
De Blois, L. (2002) ‘The crisis of the third century AD in the Roman Empire: a modern myth?’ in L. de Blois & J. Rich (eds), The Transformation of Economic Life under the Roman Empire, Amsterdam, Gieben, pp. 204-217 [DG 85.I6]
@ Drinkwater, J. (2005) ‘Maximinus to Diocletian and the ‘crisis’ ‘, in A. Bowman et al, (eds), The Cambridge Ancient History XII: The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337, Cambridge, pp. 28-66 [D 57.C2]
@ Esmonde, C.S.A. (2013) The Roman West, AD 200-500: An Archaeological Study, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press [DG311.E76]
@ Estiot, S. (2012). The later third century. In The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. W.E. Metcalf, Oxford, 538-560
@ Harl, K. W. (1987). Civic Coins and Civic Politics in the Roman East AD 180-275. Berkeley.
@ Mitchell, S. (1995). Anatolia: Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor Vol 1. Oxford. Chapter 13. [Oversize DS155.M4 Vol.1]
@ Watson, A. (1999) Aurelian and the Third Century, London, Routledge, Chapter 6.
@ Wilson, A. (2009) Approaches to quantifying Roman trade, Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems, ed. A. Wilson and A. Bowman, Oxford. [HC 39.Q36)
Witschel, C. (2004) Re-evaluating the Roman West in the 3rd century AD, Journal of Roman Archaeology 17, 251-81 [Arts Journals]
@ Ziolkowski, A. (2011). The background to the third-century crisis of the Roman Empire. In The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. Malden, MA. Pp 113-133
2.) Did the imperial image change significantly under the 'soldier emperors'?
Primary Material:
The ancient texts, portraits, inscriptions, coins and other monuments associated with the emperors who ruled from AD 235-284. You may wish to focus on one emperor, or trace themes over time. Some of the primary data can be found in : Dodgeon, M.H. and S.N.C. Lieu. 1991. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (AD 226-363). [DG 271.R6]. In addition to the Roman Imperial Coinage Online (and RPC Online), there is a new website for the period AD 268-276:
Secondary Reading:
@ Ando, C. (2000). Imperial Ideology and Provincial Loyalty in the Roman Empire. Berkeley [DG 59.A2]
Boin, D. (2013). Ostia in Late Antiquity. Cambridge. Chapter 3. [DG70.O8 ]
@ Bland, R. (2012). From Gordian III to the Gallic Empire’, The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. W.E. Metcalf, Oxford, 514-37
@ Abdy, R. (2002). A new coin type of Gallienus found in Hertfordshire. Numismatic Chronicle 162: 346-350
@ Dmitriev, S. (2004). “Good emperors" and emperors of the third century. Hermes 132: 211-244
Hekster, O., and N. Zair (2008). Rome and Its Empire, AD 194-284. Edinburgh. Chapter 4 [DG 298.H45]
@ Kent, J.P.C. (1973). ‘Gallienae Augustae’, Numismatic Chronicle 13: 64-68
@ Lo Cascio, E. (2005). ‘The government and administration of the empire in the central decades of the third century’, in A. Bowman et al, (eds), The Cambridge Ancient History XII: The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337, Cambridge, 156-69 [D 57.C2]
@ Matitngly, H. and G.S. Salisbury. (1924). ‘The reign of Trajan Decius’, Journal of Roman Studies 14: 1-23.
@ Potter, D. (2008). The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180-395. [DG 298.P6]
@ Sviatoslav, D. (2004). ‘Traditions and Innovations in the Reign of Aurelian’, Classical Quarterly 54, 568-78
@ Watson, A. (2003). Aurelian and the Third Century. London [DG 308.W2]
@ Wood, S. (1987). Child-emperors and heirs to power in third century portraiture. In Ancient Portraits in the J. Paul Getty Museum Vol 1, Malibu, 115-36
@ York, J.M. 1972. The image of Philip the Arab. Historia 21: 320-32

3.) Was damnatio memoriae an 'erasure from memory'? Discuss with reference to the memory sanctions employed in the period AD 138-337.

Primary Material:
The texts, inscriptions, coins, portraits, papyri and other material culture associated with emperors whose reigns were subject to memory sanctions. You may wish to focus on one emperor, or focus on one particular body of evidence over time to trace points of continuity and difference.

Secondary Reading:
Flower, H. I. (2000) Damnatio Memoriae and Epigraphy. In Varner, E. R. (ed.) From Caligula to Constantine. Tyranny and Transformation in Roman Portraiture. Atlanta, pp. 58-69. [Oversize NB 164.F7]
Flower, H.I. (2006) The Art of Forgetting: Disgrace and Oblivion in Roman Political Culture, Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press [DG 211. F5]
@ Gleason, M. (2011). Identity theft: doubles and masquerades in Cassius Dio’s Contemporary History, Classical Antiquity 30: 33-86
Haynes, D.E.L. & Hirst, P.E. (1939). Porta Argentariorum. London [DG 67.H2]
@ Kindler, A. (1980). The 'Damnatio Memoriae' of Elagabal on City-Coins of the Near East. Schweizer Münzblätter, 30, 3-7.
Rowan, C. (2013) Under Divine Auspices. Patron Deities and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period, Cambridge , Cambridge University Press, pp. 50-67 [BL803.R69]
Varner, E. (ed). (2000) From Caligula to Constantine: Tyranny and Transformation in Roman Portraiture, Atlanta. [NB 164.F7]
Varner, E. R. (2001). Portraits, Plots and Politics: "Damnatio Memoriae" and the Images of Imperial Women. Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome, 46, 41-93. [JSTOR, not available through encore, but you can read several articles for free on JSTOR if you sign up for a personal account!)
@ Varner, E. R. (2004) Mutilation and Transformation. Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture. Leiden.
@ Wood, S. (1983). A too-successful damnatio memoriae. Problems in third century Roman portraiture. American Journal of Archaeology 87: 489-96

4.) How were saecular festivals utilised by emperors in the period AD 138-337?

Primary Material:
These are the texts and material culture associated with saecular celebrations, either anniversaries of the founding of Rome (e.g. Antoninus Pius, Philip), the saecular games celebrated under Septimius Severus, or the allusions to saecular festivals found on coins of emperors and usurpers in the later third century.

Secondary Reading:
Cooley, A. (2007) ‘Septimius Severus: The Augustan emperor’ In Swain, S., Harrison, S. & Elsner, J. (eds.) Severan Culture. Cambridge, pp. 385-400. [DG 298. S3]
@ Gorrie, C. (2004). Julia Domna's Building Patronage, Imperial Family Roles and the Severan Revival of Moral Legislation. Historia 53: 61-72.
@ Holden, A. (2008). The Abduction of the Sabine Women in Context: The Iconography on Late Antique Contorniate Medallions. American Journal of Archaeology 112: 121-142.
Lusnia, S. (2014). Creating Severan Rome: the architecture and self-image of L. Septimius Severus (AD 193-211). Brussels. [DG300.L87]
@ Mattingly, H. (1933). FEL. TEMP. REPARATIO. Numismatic Chronicle 51: 182-202
Rowan, C. (2013) Under Divine Auspices. Patron Deities and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period, Cambridge , Cambridge University Press, pp. 50-67 [BL803.R69]
@ Toynbee, J. (1925). Some 'Programme' Coin-Types of Antoninus Pius. Classical Review 39: 170-173.
@ Weigel, R. (1990). ‘Gallienus’ ‘animal series’ coins and Roman religion’, Numismatic Chronicle 150: 135-43

5.) 'Texts and images ran parallel to each other in late antiquity' (MacCormack). Did Latin panegyrics act as a form of propaganda in the period AD 289-337?

Primary Material:
Panegyrici Latini 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, available in translation with commentary in C.E.V. Nixon & B. Saylor Rodgers (1994). In Praise of later Roman Emperors: the Pangyrici Latini. California [PA 6138.P3]
Secondary Reading:
@ Elliott, T.G. (1990). The language of Constantine’s propaganda. Transactions of the American Philological Association 120: 349-53
@ Leadbetter, B. (2004). Best of brothers: fraternal imagery in panegyrics on Maximian Herculius, Classical Philology 99, 257-266
@ MacCormack, S. (1981). Art and Ceremony in Late Antiquity. California [DG 124.M2]
MacCormack, S. (1975). Latin prose panegyrics. In Empire and Aftermath: Silver Latin II, ed. T.A. Dorey. London, 143-205 [PA 6042.D6]
@ Nixon, C.E.V. (1993). Constantius Oriens Imperator: Propaganda and Panegyric. On Reading Panegyric 7 (307). Historia 42: 229-246
@ Rees, R. (2002). Layers of Loyalty in Latin Panegyric, AD 289-307. Oxford. [PA 6083.R3]
Rees, R. (ed) (2012). Latin Panegyric. Oxford [PA 6083.L38] – chapters by Hoffer, Nixon, MacCormack, and Saylor Rodgers
@ van Dam, R. (2011). Remembering Constantine at the Milvian Bridge. Cambridge.

6.) Develop your own essay question.

This is a chance for you to explore an area of interest within the broader framework of the module. If you wish to do this you must arrange a meeting with me (or drop in during my office hours) during Autumn Term to discuss a suitable question and bibliography - this is to ensure the question and reading list are meaty enough to explore in depth and with sophistication! Come to the meeting prepared with an idea, and then we can edit or add to your chosen topic as appropriate, and come up with a final question and reading list that I will then lodge with the secretaries. If you wish to develop your own question it must be approved by the module convenor, and lodged with the secretarial staff by noon on Friday the 9th December. Any student who submits question 6 without the prior approval of the module convenor will be considered to have submitted an incorrect essay question, and will be awarded zero.