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Essays

ASSESSED ESSAYS 2018/19

**Essay 2 titles are now below**

Essay 1 feedback will be returned in week 1 of spring term. Feedback meetings will be on Tues of wk 1 and Mon & Tues of wk 2


***For those taking the module as a Latin option (questions 1 - 3):

1. Analyse the idea of wonder in Aeneid book 8.

2. How might the consideration of audience affect our interpretation of the Res Gestae?

3. What opportunities and/or challenges did biography offer Suetonius in reflecting on the development of the principate?


***For those NOT taking the module as a Latin option (ie everyone else!) (questions 4 - 9):

4. How does Augustus’ reform of the vici (neighbourhoods) of Rome relate to his other projects in the city?

5. How important is the idea of fashion for studying the art of the Augustan period?

6. What light do Rome’s military campaigns against the Germanic tribes shed on Roman imperialism in this period?

7. How important was Augustus’ acquisition of the office of Pontifex Maximus (12 BCE) for his religious reforms?

8. ‘Nothing but triumphalism’. To what extent is this an accurate representation of Augustan poetry?

9. Was there any substance to the idea of Italian unity (tota Italia) in this period?


The bibliographies are not exhaustive.

To find primary sources:
- Use sourcebooks (on the time period or relevant themes; start with LACTOR)
- Use the lecture handouts
- Read the main narrative sources for the period: Suetonius Augustus (everyone should know this in detail), Plutarch Life of Antony, Appian Civil Wars books 2 – 5, Cassius Dio Roman History books 44 - 53
- Follow up references you find in your secondary reading

To find more secondary material:
- Use the module bibliography: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/students/modules/aug/bibliography
- Use the Oxford online bibliography (via module page above)
- Use the lecture handouts
- Find relevant chapters in Companions and follow up the suggested reading they provide
- Search for articles on JSTOR
- Keyword search for books on the library catalogue
- BUT be wary of scholarship which is old (pre-1960). Is there something more recent you could use instead? The exception is when an article or book is a ‘classic’ or one of the few things published on a niche subject.
***If you are in doubt about something you have found, ask your lecturer***

Questions 1 - 3 for those taking the module as a Latin option:

1. Analyse the idea of wonder in Aeneid book 8.


Casali, S. (2006) 'The making of the shield: inspiration and repression in the Aeneid' Greece and Rome 53: 185-204
Fowler, D. (1997) 'Virgilian narrative: story-telling' in The Cambridge Companion to Virgil, ed. C. Martindale
Fowler, D. (1991) 'Narrate and describe: the problem of ecphrasis' JRS 81: 25-35
Galinsky, G.K. 'The Hercules-Cacus episode in Aeneid VIII' repr in Hardie, ed. Virgil: Critical Assessments Vol 4
Hardie, P. (1986) Virgil's Aeneid: Cosmos and Imperium
Lowrie, M. (2009) Writing, Performance and Authority in Augustan Rome - 'Monument and festival in Virgil'
Segal, C. 'Art and the hero: participation, detachment, and narrative point of view in the Aeneid', repr in Hardie, ed. Virgil: Critical Assessments Vol 4
West, D.A. (1975/6) 'Cernere erat: the shield of Aeneas' repr. in Harrison, ed., Oxford Readings in Vergil's Aeneid


2. How might the consideration of audience affect our interpretation of the Res Gestae?

Bosworth, B. (1999) ‘Augustus, the Res Gestae and Hellenistic theories of apotheosis’, JRS 89: 1-18

Cooley, A.E. (2009) Res Gestae divi Augusti
Lowrie, M. (2009) 'Auctoritas and representation: Augustus' Res gestae', in Writing Performance and Authority in Augustan Rome
Ramage, E.S. (1987) The Nature and Purpose of Augustus’ “Res Gestae” (Historia Einzelschriften no.54, Franz Steiner, Stuttgart)
Ridley, R.T. (2003) The Emperor’s Retrospect. Augustus’ Res Gestae in Epigraphy, Historiography and Commentary (Peeters, Leuven-Dudley MA)
Wigtil, D.N. (1982a) ‘The ideology of the Greek ‘Res Gestae’’, ANRW II.30.1 (De Gruyter, Berlin and New York) 624-38
Wigtil, D.N. (1982b) ‘The translator of the Greek Res Gestae of Augustus’, AJPh 103: 189-94
Yavetz, Z. (1984) ‘The Res Gestae and Augustus’ public image’, in Millar and Segal, eds, Caesar Augustus 1-36

3. What opportunities and/or challenges did biography offer Suetonius in reflecting on the development of the principate?

Bradley, K.R. (1991) ‘The Imperial Ideal in Suetonius’ ‘Caesars’’, ANRW 2.33.4, 3701-3732.
Hagg, T. (2012) The art of biography in antiquity
Konstan, D. (2009) 'Reading politics in Suetonius' in Writing Politics in Imperial Rome, eds Dominik, Garthwaite, Roche
Lounsbury, R. (1987) The Arts of Suetonius
Power, T. & Gibson, R. (2014) Suetonius, the biographer: studies in Roman lives
Toher, M. (1990) “Augustus & the Evolution of Roman Historiography” in Raaflaub & Toher (eds) Between Republic & Empire 139-54.
Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1983) Suetonius: the scholar and his Caesars
Wardle, D. (2014) Suetonius, Life of Augustus

Questions 4 - 9 for those NOT taking the module as a Latin option (ie everyone else!):


4. How does Augustus’ reform of the vici (neighbourhoods) of Rome relate to his other projects in the city?

Favro, D. (1996). The Urban Image of Augustan Rome.
Galinsky, K. (1996). Augustan Culture.
Haselberger, L. et al. (2002). Mapping Augustan Rome.
Lott, J.B. (2004). The Neighbourhoods of Augustan Rome.
Patterson, John R. (1992). ‘The city of Rome: From Republic to Empire’. Journal of Roman Studies 82:186–215.
Purcell, N. (1996). Rome and its development under Augustus and his successors’, CAH Vol. X (2nd edn), ch. 15.
Walker, S. (2000). ‘The moral museum: Augustus and the city of Rome’, in J. Coulston and H. Dodge, Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City, 61-75.
Zanker, P. (1988). The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, chs 3 – 6.


5. How important is the idea of fashion for studying the art of the Augustan period?

Clarke, J.R. (2005). ‘Augustan Domestic Interiors: Propaganda or fashion?’ in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus, 264-280.
Elsner, J. (1995). Art and the Roman Viewer
Galinsky, K. (1996) Augustan Culture: an interpretive introduction – ch. 4
Gazda, E.K. (1991) Roman art in the private sphere; Michigan. [N 5760.R6]
Kuttner, A.L. (1995) Dynasty and Empire in the Age of Augustus. The Case of the Boscoreale Cups (University of California Press; Berkeley & Los Angeles)
Pollini, J. (2012). From Republic to Empire: Rhetoric, Religion and Power in the Visual Culture of Ancient Rome (Norman).
Ramage, N.H. and Ramage, A. (1996) The Cambridge Illustrated History of Roman Art
Zanker, P. (1988). The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N 5760.Z2]


6. What light do Rome’s military campaigns against the Germanic tribes shed on Roman imperialism in this period?

Elton, H. (1996) Frontiers of the Roman Empire [DG 59.A2]
Garnsey, P. and Whittaker, C. eds. (1978) Imperialism in the Ancient World (chapter by P.A. Brunt) [D60. C2]
Rich, J. and Shipley, G. eds (1993) War and Society in the Roman World; Routledge, London and New York.
Wells, C.M. (1972) The German policy of Augustus: the archaeological evidence
Gruen, Erich S. (1996). The expansion of the empire under Augustus. In CAH. Vol. X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.–A.D. 69. 2nd edition,147–197.
Schnurbein, S. von. (2003). Augustus in Germania and his new ‘town’ at Waldgrimes East of the Rhine. Journal of Roman Archaeology 16:93–107.
Rich, John W. (2003). Augustus, war and peace. In The representation and perception of Roman imperial power: Proceedings of the Third Workshop of the International Network, Impact of Empire. Edited by L. de Blois et al, 329–357.
Richardson, John. (2008). The language of empire. Rome and the idea of empire from the third century BC to the second century AD. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.


7. How important was Augustus’ acquisition of the office of Pontifex Maximus (12 BCE) for his religious reforms?

Beard, M., North J. and Price S. (1998) Religions of Rome – esp. vol. I, chs. 3-4 [BL 802.B3]
Bowersock, G.W. (1990). ‘The Pontificate of Augustus’, in Between Republic and Empire , 380-94.
Galinsky, K. (1996) Augustan Culture: an interpretive introduction - chap. 6 [DG272 G2]
Scheid, J. (2009). 'To honour the Princeps and venerate the gods: public cult, neighbourhood cults, and imperial cult in Augustan Rome' repr. & trans. in Edmondson, Augustus
Scheid, J. (2005). 'Augustus and Roman religion: continuity, conservatism and innovation' in Galinsky, ed. Companion to Age of Augustus
Galinsky, Karl. (2007). ‘Continuity and change: Religion in the Augustan semi-century’, in A Companion to Roman Religion. Edited by Jörg Rüpke, 71–82.
Gordon, (1990) ‘From Republic to Principate: Priesthood, Religion & Ideology’, in Beard & North (eds.) Pagan Priests, 177-98.
Zanker, P. (1988) The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N 5760.Z2]


8. ‘Nothing but triumphalism’. To what extent is this an accurate representation of Augustan poetry?

Cloud, D. (1993). ‘Roman poetry and anti-militarism’ in J. Rich and G. Shipley, eds War and Society in the Roman World; Routledge, London and New York.
Farrell, Joseph, and Damien P. Nelis, eds. (2013). Augustan poetry and the Roman Republic. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Galinsky, K. (1996) Augustan Culture: an interpretive introduction.
Griffin, J. (1985) Latin Poets and Roman Life (London), [PA 6047.G7]
Lowrie, M. (2009) Writing, performance and Authority in Augustan Rome [e-book]
Powell, ed. (1992) Roman poetry and propaganda in the age of Augustus
White, Peter. (1993). Promised verse. Poets in the society of Augustan Rome. Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard Univ. Press.
Woodman, A.J. and West, D.A. eds (1984) Poetry and Politics in the Age of Augustus (Cambridge)


9. Was there any substance to the idea of Italian unity (tota Italia) in this period?

Cooley, A.E. (2006) ‘Beyond Rome and Latium: Roman Religion in the Age of Augustus’, in Religion in Republican Italy eds C. Schultz and P.B. Harvey jr. (Yale Classical Studies 33/ Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) 228-52
Cooley, A.E. (2016). A Companion to Roman Italy.
Crawford, M. (1996) 'Italy and Rome from Sulla to Augustus', in CAH, Vol. X, 2nd edn. [D 57.C2]
Keaveney, A. (1997) Rome and the Unification of Italy. [DG 257.3.K3]
Torelli, M. (1999) Tota Italia: essays in the cultural formation of Roman Italy (Oxford) 'Epilogue' pp165-83 [qto DG 77 T595]
Keppie, L.F. (1983) Colonisation and veteran settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC. [DG 105.K3]
Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2000) ‘The Roman Revolution and Material Culture’ in La Revolution Romaine après Ronald Syme [DG 231.R3]
Wallace-Hadrill, A. (2008) Rome's Cultural Revolution [DG 77.W35]