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Essays

ASSESSED ESSAYS 2018/19

Essay 1 – Titles


1. How did Julius Caesar’s importance to Octavian/Augustus change over time? (44 – c.17 BCE)
2. How seriously should we take the idea of the ‘triumviral mandate’ (res publica constituendae)?
3. To what extent can we reconstruct the civil war experiences of people who were not of the Roman male elite?
4. Were the 20s BCE a decade of stability or crisis?
5. In what ways did the role of the equites change in this period?
6. Discuss the political roles of Livia and/or Octavia.

Essay 1 – Bibliographies


The following bibliographies are not exhaustive.
You should read:
- all of the primary material suggested
- all of the essential secondary reading
- a substantial amount of the recommended reading, according to the direction which you are taking with your argument.

Start your reading early!

To find more primary sources:
- Use sourcebooks (on the time period or relevant themes; start with LACTOR)
- Use the lecture handouts
- Read the main narrative sources for the period: Suetonius Augustus (everyone should know this in detail), Plutarch Life of Antony, Appian Civil Wars books 2 – 5, Cassius Dio Roman History books 44 - 53
- Follow up references you find in your secondary reading

To find more secondary material:
- Use the module bibliography: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/arts/classics/students/modules/aug/bibliography
- Use the Oxford online bibliography (via module page above)
- Use the lecture handouts
- Find relevant chapters in Companions and follow up the suggested reading they provide
- Search for articles on JSTOR
- Keyword search for books on the library catalogue
- BUT be wary of scholarship which is old (pre-1960). Is there something more recent you could use instead? The exception is when an article or book is a ‘classic’ or one of the few things published on a niche subject.

***If you are in doubt about something you have found, ask your lecturer***

1 How did Julius Caesar’s importance to Octavian/Augustus change over time? (44 – c.17 BCE)

Primary Sources:
Cicero Philippics 13.11.4-5
Suetonius Augustus 1-4, 7, 8, 11, 15, 17, 68
Suetonius Julius 56.7, 83, 88
Appian Civil Wars 3.2.11; 4.2.8-11
Dio 45.1-9
Cicero Letters to Atticus 14.12 (22 April 44, Puteoli), 16.8 (2 Nov 44, Puteoli)
Cicero Letters to M. Brutus 1.17 (May 43)
Res Gestae 2, 10, 19-21, 34 (Lactor A)
Tacitus Annals 1.9-10
Virgil Aeneid 1.286-90, 6.826-35 (Lactor G36, G37)
Propertius 4.6.56-60 (Lactor G39)
Ovid Metamorphoses 15.745-867 (Lactor G55)
RRC 490/2, 540 (Lactor H2, K45)
RIC Augustus 251, 338 (Lactor N4, J4)
Pliny Natural History 2.93, 94 (Lactor K44, H3)
Vitruvius On Architecture Preface 1.2 (Lactor R22)
Beard, M., North, J., & S. Price, 1998. Religions of Rome. vol.II. 118-122, 222-3
NB Narrative in Dio books 44 – 55; Appian Civil Wars 2.106 – end book 5

Essential:
Syme, R. (1958) ‘Imperator Caesar: a study in nomenclature’, Historia 7, 172-88. Reprinted in Edmondson, Augustus [JSTOR // DG 279.A197 or ebook of Edmondson].
Levick, B. (2009). ‘Caesar’s Political and Military Legacy to the Roman Emperors’ in A Companion to Julius Caesar, Oxford, 209-23. [DG 261.C76 or ebook]
White, P. (1988). ‘Julius Caesar in Augustan Rome’, Phoenix 42.4, 334-56. [JSTOR]

Recommended:
Beard, M., North, J., & S. Price, (1998). Religions of Rome, Cambridge, vol.I.140-9.
Fishwick, D. (1992). ‘The Statue of Julius Caesar in the Pantheon’, Latomus 51.2, 329-36.
Gurval, R.A. (1997). ‘Caesar’s Comet: The Politics and Poetics of an Augustan Myth’, MAAR 42, 39-71.
Levick, B. (2010). Augustus: Image and Substance, Harlow, chs 1-3.
Osgood, J. (2006). Caesar’s Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge.
Pandey, N. (2013) 'Caesar's comet, the Julian star and the invention of Augustus', TAPA 132.2: 403-47
Ramage, E. S. (1985). ‘Augustus’ treatment of Julius Caesar,’ Historia 34, 223–45
Scott, K. (1933). ‘The political propaganda of 44-30 BC’, MAAR 1933, 7-49.
Sumi, G.S. (2011). ‘Topography and Ideology: Caesar’s Monument and the Aedes Divi Iulii in Augustan Rome’, CQ 61.1, 205-29.
Syme, R. (1939). The Roman Revolution, Oxford. chs. 8, 21-22
Toher, M. (2009). ‘Augustan and Tiberian Literature’ in A Companion to Julius Caesar, Oxford, 224-38.
Welch, K. (2012). Magnus Pius: Sextus Pompeius and the Transformation of the Roman Republic, Swansea. (use index: ‘Caesar, C. Julius (dictator)’)
Zanker, P. (1988). The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, trans. A. Shapiro, Ann Arbor. Ch. 2.


2 How seriously should we take the idea of the ‘triumviral mandate’ (rei publicae constituendae)?

Primary Sources:
Appian Civil Wars 4.1.2, 4.2.8-11
Suetonius Augustus 9 – 17, 26-7
Plutarch Antony 12 – 87
Velleius 2.88 – 91 (Lactor E – but go beyond Lactor excerpt)
BM CM 1995.4-1.1 (Lactor H18)
Documents from Reynolds, J. 1982. Aphrodisias and Rome, ch. 3.
Sherk, R.K., Rome and the Greek East to the Death of Augustus, docs 85 – 103
NB Narrative of the period in Cassius Dio Roman History 46.50 – 53.16; Appian Civil Wars books 4 – 5

Essential:
Lange, C.H. (2009). Res Publica Constituta: Actium, Apollo and the Accomplishment of the Triumviral Assignment, Leiden. Esp. ch.1, 5, 6. [DG 268.L36 or ebook]
Millar, F. (1974). ‘Triumvirate and Principate’, JRS 64, 1974, 50-67. Reprinted in Edmondson Augustus [JSTOR // DG 279.A197 or ebook of Edmondson]
Welch, K. (2012). Magnus Pius: Sextus Pompeius and the Transformation of the Roman Republic, Swansea. [ebook]

Recommended:
Gabba, E. (1971). ‘The Perusine War and Triumviral Italy’, HSCPh 75, 139-60.
Judge,E.A. (1974) "Res publica restituta: a modern illusion?", in J.A.S. Evans, ed. Polis and Imperium: Studies in honour of E.T. Salmon, Toronto; 279-311.
Kearsley, R. (2013) 'Triumviral politics, the oath of 32 BC and the veterans', CQ 63.2, 828-34.
Millar, F. (2000). 'The first revolution: imperator Caesar, 36-28 BC', in La Révolution Romaine après Ronald Syme. Bilans et perspectives 1-30.
Newman, R. (1990). ‘A dialogue of power on the coinage of Antony and Octavian’, AJNMN 2, 37-64.
Osgood, J. (2006). Caesar’s Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge.
Pelling, C. (1996). ‘The Triumviral Period’, CAH 2nd edn., vol. 10.
Rich, J. and Williams J.H.C. (1999) ‘Leges et iura P. R. restituit: a new aureus of Octavian and the settlement of 28-27 BC’, Numismatic Chronicle 159, pp.169-213
Scott, K. (1933). ‘The political propaganda of 44-30 BC’, MAAR, 7-49.
Sear, D.R. (1998). The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators, 49-27 BC, London.
Smith, C. & Powell, A. eds. (2009). The lost memoirs of Augustus and the development of Roman autobiography. Swansea: Classical Press of Wales.
Welch. K. (2002). ‘Sextus Pompeius and the res publica in 42 – 39 BC’, in A. Powell & K. Welch (eds), Sextus Pompeius, ch.2.

3 To what extent can we reconstruct the civil war experiences of people who were not of the Roman male elite?

Primary Sources:
Josephus, Jewish Antiquities 14.217-67, 271-76, 280, 337-491; 15.8-10, 74-79, 88-95, 104-5, 121, 161-2, 183-201.
Strabo Geography 16.2.46
Virgil, Eclogues 1, 4, 9
Plutarch Antony 28
Documents from Reynolds, J. 1982. Aphrodisias and Rome, ch. 3.
Sherk, R.K., Rome and the Greek East to the Death of Augustus, docs 85, 88-90.
Propertius 1.21, 1.22. (Lactor G13, G14)
Laudatio Turiae: text in Osgood, J. (2014) Turia: a Roman woman's civil war
NB Narrative of the period in Cassius Dio Roman History 46.50 – 53.16; Appian Civil Wars 2.106 – end book 5

Essential:
Millar, F. (1984). ‘The Mediterranean and the Roman Revolution: Politics, War, and the Economy’, Past and Present 102, 3-24. [JSTOR]
Osgood, J. (2006). Caesar’s Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge. Esp. the introduction. [DG 279.O84]
Osgood, J. (2014). Turia: a Roman woman's civil war, Oxford. [DG 266.O84]

Recommended:
Agers, S.L. (1991). ‘Rhodes: the rise and fall of a neutral diplomat’, Historia 40, 10-41.
Bowersock, G. W. (1965). Augustus and the Greek World. Oxford: Clarendon.
Burnett, A. (2011). ‘The Augustan Revolution seen from the mints of the provinces’, JRS 101, 1-30.
Dueck, D. (2000). Strabo of Amaseia. A Greek man of letters in Augustan Rome. London and New York.
Gowing, A.M. (1992). ‘Lepidus, the Proscriptions and the “Laudatio Turiae” ’, Historia 41.3, 283-96.
Millar, F. (1974). ‘Triumvirate and Principate’, JRS 64, 1974, 50-67.
Millar, F. (2000) 'The first revolution: imperator Caesar, 36-28 BC', in La Révolution Romaine après Ronald Syme. Bilans et perspectives 1-30 [DG 231.R3]
Owens, E.J. (1976). ‘Increasing Roman domination of Greece in the years 48 – 27 BC’, Latomus 35, 718-29.
Ridley, R. (1980-1). ‘The economics of civil war’, Helikon: rivista di tradizione e cultura classica, 20-21, 27-41.
Sherwin-White, A.N. (1984). Roman Foreign Policy in the East, London. Use index.
Spawforth, A. J. S. (2012). Greece and the Augustan cultural revolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Sumi, G.S. (2004). ‘Civil War, Women and Spectacle in the Triumviral Period’, AncW 35.2, 196-206.


4 Were the 20s BCE a decade of stability or crisis?

Primary Sources:
Cassius Dio Roman History 53.31-32, 54.1-4, 54.15
Suetonius Augustus 19-20, 28, 66
Livy 4.20.7
Suetonius Tiberius 8.1 (Lactor P10)
Velleius 2.88 – 91 (Lactor E)
Propertius 2.7 (Lactor G16)
BM CM 1995.4-1.1 (Lactor H18)
Tacitus Annals 2.43 (Lactor H42)
Macrobius Saturnalia 1.11.21 (Lactor P9)
NB the complete narrative in Cassius Dio Roman History books 51 – 54

Essential:
Levick, B. (2010). Augustus: Image and Substance, Harlow. Ch.2. [DG 279.L44]
Rich, J. (2012). ‘Making the emergency permanent: auctoritas, potestas and the evolution of the principate of Augustus’, in Des réformes augustéennes, ed. Y. Rivière, pp. 37-121. [Available:https://www.academia.edu/3323294/Making_the_emergency_permanent_auctoritas_potestas_and_the_evolution_of_the_principate_of_Augustus]
Badian, E. (1982). ‘Crisis Theories and the beginning of the Principate’, in Romanitas-Christianitas, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Literatur der romischen Kaiserzeit, ed. G. Wirth, 18-41. [available from the lecturer]

Recommended:
Eder, W. (1990). ‘Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire’, in Between Republic and Empire, 71ff.
Ferrary, J-L. (2009). ‘The Powers of Augustus’ trans. J. Ednondson, in Edmondson (ed), Augustus, Edinburgh, 90-136.
Flower, H. (2000). The tradition of the Spolia Opima: M. Claudius Marcellus and Augustus. Classical Antiquity 19.1: 34–64.
Kearsley, R. (2009). 'Octavian and augury: the years 30-27 BC', CQ 59.1, 147-66
Millar, F. (1974). ‘Triumvirate and Principate’, JRS 64, 1974, 50-67.
Millar, F. (2000). 'The first revolution: imperator Caesar, 36-28 BC', in La Révolution Romaine après Ronald Syme. Bilans et perspectives 1-30.
Raaflaub, K. A. and L. J. Samons II. (1990). Opposition to Augustus. In Between republic and empire, ed. Raaflaub and Toher, 417–454. Berkeley.
Rich, J. W. (1996). ‘Augustus and the spolia opima.’ Chiron 26, 85–127.
Rich, J. & Williams, J.H.C. (1999). ‘Leges et iura P. R. restituit: a new aureus of Octavian and the settlement of 28-27 BC’, Numismatic Chronicle 159, 169-213.
Sailor, Dylan. (2006). Dirty linen, fabrication, and the authorities of Livy and Augustus. TAPA 136, 329–388.
Smith, C. & Powell, A. (eds). (2009). The lost memoirs of Augustus and the development of Roman autobiography. Swansea.
Syme, R. (1939). The Roman Revolution, Oxford. Chs. 21-3, 31, 33.
Welch, K. (2012). Magnus Pius: Sextus Pompeius and the Transformation of the Roman Republic, Swansea. Ch. 8.
Zanker, P. (1988). The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus, trans. A. Shapiro, Ann Arbor. Ch. 3-4.


5 In what ways did the role of the equites change in this period?

Primary Sources:
Appian Civil Wars 4.50 (Lactor P2)
Suetonius, Divus Augustus: 34, 38-40, 44, 46, 57, 100
Cassius Dio, Roman History 55.13, 15.
Velleius 2.88 (Lactor E)
Tacitus Annals 6.10-11, 2.59, 12.60, 3.30 (Lactor K7, M6, M7, R27)
Tacitus Histories 1.11 (Lactor M8)
Pliny Natural History 6.160, 33.30-32 (Lactor N19, T30)
Strabo Geography 17.1.12, 17.1.53, 16.4.22 (Lactor M9, M11, N18)
ILS 9007 (=Ehrenberg & Jones 224) (Lactor N17)
ILS 8995 (= Ehrenberg & Jones 21) (Lactor P5)
More on Maecenas: Lactor R1 – R13
More inscriptions: ILS 2683, 1314, 1.2700, 2698, (Chisholm & Ferguson C6a, b, c, d)

Essential:
Brunt, P.A. (1988). The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays, Oxford. Ch.3: ‘The Equites in the Late Republic’. [DG 254.B7]
Nicolet C. (1984) ‘Augustus, government and the propertied classes’, in Millar & Segal, eds. Caesar Augustus. Seven Aspects, Oxford. [DG 279.C2]
Rowe G. (2002) Princes and Political Cultures, Ann Arbor. Ch. 2 [JC 89.R69]

Recommended:
Alföldy G. (1985) The Social History of Rome, London. Ch. 5.
Bowman, A.K. (1996). ‘Provincial Administration and Taxation’, CAH2 10, 344-370.
Brunt P.A. (1983). "Princeps and equites", JRS 73; pp. 42-75.
Brunt P.A. (1990). Roman Imperial Themes – chapter 10 ('The Administrators of Roman Egypt'). Also published in JRS 65 (1975): 124-47
D’Arms J.H. (1988). ‘Pompeii and Rome in the Augustan age and beyond: the eminence of the Gens Holconia’ in R.I. Curtis, ed., Studia Pompeiana et Classica vol. I; pp. 51-73 [DG 70.P7]
Garnsey, P and Saller, R. (1987). The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture, London, ch.6.
Millar, F. (1977) The Emperor in the Roman World.– chapter 6
Osgood, J. (2006). Caesar’s Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge. Ch.6.
Rawson E. (1987). ‘Discrimina ordinum: the lex Julia Theatralis’, PBSR 55: 83-114
Saller R.P. (1980). ‘Promotion and Patronage in Equestrian Careers’, JRS 60: 38-49.
Syme, R. (1939) The Roman Revolution – chapters 24-27. [DG 231.S9]
Talbert, R. ‘The Senate and senatorial and equestrian posts’, pp. 324-43 CAH2 10, ch 9
Wiseman T.P. (1970) ‘The definition of Eques Romanus’ Historia 19, 67-83.


6 Discuss the political roles of Livia and/or Octavia.

Primary Sources:
Appian Civil Wars 5.64-5, 5.93-4
Suetonius Augustus 29
Plutarch Antony esp. 53-4
Phaedrus 4.16
Dio 54.16.3-5; 55.2.5-6, 56.46.1-47.1, 48.39-41
Ovid Fasti 5.147-59
Tacitus Annals 1.13-14, 5.1-2 (Lactor F, J26)
Horace Odes 3.14 (Lactor G29)
Propertius 3.18 (Lactor G33)
Ovid Fasti 1.529-36, 6.637-49 (Lactor G50, K30)
Younger Seneca, On Consolation 2.2-4 (Lactor J25)
Plutarch Marcellus 30 (Lactor K52)
RPC 1, no. 2496 (Lactor J27)
ILS 8784 (Chisholm & Ferguson D14)

Essential:
Flory M. B. (1993). ‘Livia and the history of public honorific statues for women in Rome’, TAPA 123: 287-308. [JSTOR]
Purcell N. (1985) 'Livia and the womanhood of Rome', in Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, repr. in Edmondson, ed. Augustus [course extracts; ebook]
Severy, Beth. (2003). Augustus and the family at the birth of the Roman Empire. New York and London: Routledge. [DG 279.S3 or ebook]

Recommended:
Barrett, A.A. (2002). Livia: First Lady of Imperial Rome, Yale.
Bartman E. (1999). Portraits of Livia: imaging the imperial woman in Augustan Rome, Cambridge.
Corbier, Mireille. (1995). Male power and legitimacy through women: The domus Augusta under the Julio Claudians. In Women in antiquity: New assessments. Ed. Hawley & Levick, 178–193. London and New York.
Flory, M.B. (1984). ‘Sic Exempla Parantur: Livia's Shrine to Concordia and the Porticus Liviae’, Historia 33.3, 309-30.
Flory, M. (1988). ‘Abducta Neroni uxor: The Historiographical Tradition on the Marriage of Octavian and Livia’, TAPA 118, 343-59.
Huzar, E.G. (1985-86). ‘Mark Antony: Marriages vs. Careers’, CJ 81.2, 97-111.
Levick, B. (2010). Augustus: Image and Substance, Harlow. (use index)
Milnor, Kristina. (2005). Gender, domesticity, and the age of Augustus: Inventing private life. Oxford and New York.
Osgood, J. (2006). Caesar’s Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. Cambridge. (use index: ‘Livia Drusilla’, ‘Octavia’)
Raubitschek, A.E. (1946). ‘Octavia’s Deification at Athens’, TAPA 77, 146-50.
Singer, M.W. (1947). ‘Octavia’s Meditation at Tarentum’, CJ 43.3, 173-78.
Treggiari, S. (2005). 'Women in the time of Augustus' in Galinsky, ed. Companion to Age of Augustus
Welch, K. (2012). Magnus Pius: Sextus Pompeius and the Transformation of the Roman Republic, Swansea. (use index: ‘Livia’, ‘Octavia’)
Wood, S. E. (1999/ 2nd edn 2001) Imperial Women: A Study in Public Images, 40 B.C. - A.D. 68, Leiden.