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Lecture Preparation

Lecture 2: Becoming Caesar / Lecture 3 - Triumvirate / Lecture 4 - Responses to civil crisis / Lecture 5 - Actium / Lecture 6 - Aftermath of Actium / Lecture 7 - Revival & innovation in religious cults / Lecture 8 - Augustus' Powers / Lecture 9 - Social legislation / Lecture 10 - Senate / Lecture 11 - Equites / Lecture 12 - Opposition / Lecture 13 - Imperial household / Lecture 14 - Imperial women / Lecture 16 - Athens / Lecture 17 - Army / Lecture 18 - Empire / Lecture 19 - Ruling Provinces / Lecture 20 - Horace / Lecture 21 - Ovid / Lecture 22 - Statues / Lectures 23-24 - Emperor-worship / Lecture 25 - Urbanization / Lecture 26 - Official art / Lecture 27 - Augustan histories / Lecture 28 - Suetonius / Lecture 29 - The Succession / Lecture 30 - RGDA / Revision

Lecture 2: Becoming Caesar

Sort out the basic narrative of events leading up to Caesar's assassination in 44 BC:

@ Lintott, A. (2015) 'The Assassination' in Griffin, ed., A Companion to Julius Caesar [e-book]

@ Rawson, E. (1994) ‘Caesar: Civil War and Dictatorship’, in Cambridge Ancient History IX 2nd edn, 424-67 [e-book]

Lecture 3 - Dividing up the World: the Triumvirate of Caesar, Antony, and Lepidus

Please read the following article, considering the following questions:

@F. Millar (1973) ‘Triumvirate and principate’, Journal of Roman Studies 63: 50-67 [JSTOR]

  • Who were the triumvirs?
  • What was their full title?
  • What powers did they have?
  • How did they use them?
  • How did their actions relate to the traditional Republican institutions?
Lecture 4 - Responses to Civil Crisis

How does politics impinge upon Virgil's early poetry?

  • Read LACTOR G1; G11; G12
Lecture 5 - Actium: mirage and reality

For our next lecture, please read carefully the poets' responses to Actium. Assess what image of the battle they give, and when they were composing their poems.

LACTOR G5 (Horace, Epode 9); G38 (Aeneid 8.608-731); G39 (Propertius 4.6).

Week 3 - Please hand in non-assessed gobbets.

Lecture 6 - The Aftermath of Actium

What priorities did 'Octavian' adopt in the aftermath of Actium?

  • @ R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939) chapter 21 'Dux' [e-book]
Lecture 7 - Revival & innovation in religious cults

Why did the discourse of 'restoring Roman religion' develop under Augustus?

  • @ North, J. (1986) 'Religion and Politics, from Republic to Principate', Journal of Roman Studies 76: 251-58 [JSTOR]
Lecture 8 - Augustus' Powers

Try to work out what exactly happened at the so-called 'First Settlement of 27 BC'. What are the problems in the modern tendency to designate this episode the 'First Settlement?

  • @ Lacey, W.K. ‘Octavian in the senate: Jan. 27 B.C.’, Journal of Roman Studies 64 (1974) 176-84 [JSTOR]
Lecture 9 - Social legislation: the re-ordering of society

In what areas of social practice did Augustus try to legislate and why?

  • LACTOR section S
  • Wallace-Hadrill, A., Augustan Rome (1993) chap.5 [Learning Grid]
  • @Syme, R. (1939) The Roman Revolution chap.29 [e-book]
Lecture 10 - Augustus and the Senate

Start to consider the nature of the relationship between Augustus and the Senate:

  • @ P.A. Brunt, 'The role of the Senate in the Augustan regime', Classical Quarterly 34.2 (1984) 423-44 [JSTOR]
Lecture 11 - Consolidating the equestrian order

How did the equestrian order become better defined under Augustus?

  • Nicolet, C. 'Augustus, government, and the propertied classes' in Caesar Augustus. Seven Aspects, eds Millar & Segal (1984) pp.98ff
Lecture 12 - Opposition to Augustus

Please read LACTOR chapter P

  • Can we hope to evaluate the extent of opposition to Augustus?
Lecture 13 - Imperial Household

@Wallace-Hadrill, A. ch. ‘The imperial court’ in Cambridge Ancient History vol. X [e-book]

  • Look for the ways in which imperial freedmen had new prominence in public life with the development of an imperial court at Rome , centred around the figure of the princeps.
Lecture 14 - Imperial women
  • Read Fantham, Julia Augusti chapter 1 for background on the traditional place of women in Roman society [e-book]
Lecture 15 - City of Rome

@Patterson, J. (1992) ‘The city of Rome : from Republic to Empire’, JRS 82: 186-215.

Try to get a feel for some of the main themes underlying Augustus’ transformation of the city of Rome

Lecture 16 - Augustus and Athens
  • Please read Camp (2001) 'Roman Athens', ch 6 in The archaeology of Athens. pp.183-222 [online module bibiography]
Lecture 17 - Professionalization of the Army
  • Please read @L. Keppie in Cambridge Ancient History vol.10
Lecture 18 - Empire without boundary
  • Read Res Gestae ch.26-33. What impression does Augustus give of the Roman empire?
Lecture 19 - Ruling the provinces
  • Please read F. Millar, 'Emperors, frontiers, and foreign relations 31 BC-AD 378', Britannia 13 (1982) 1-23 [JSTOR]
    What was the emperor's role in dealing with the empire?
Lecture 20 - Horace and Minor Poets

Read some Horace Odes in LACTOR (use index of sources).

  • How does Horace integrate private and public themes in his poetry?
Lecture 21 - Ovid

Read LACTOR G53-5; G47; G56

  • To what extent is Ovid an 'Augustan' poet?
Lecture 22 - Power of Images: Statues

Please read Smith, R.R.R. (1996) ‘Typology and diversity in the portraits of Augustus’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 9 (1996) 31-47

  • How were portraits of Augustus adapted locally?
Lectures 23-24 - Emperor worship

Please read LACTOR L8-19.

  • Who instigated emperor-worship?

Lecture 25 - Urbanization

Please read J.B. Ward-Perkins, 'From Republic to Empire: Reflections on the Early Provincial Architecture of the Roman West', JRS 60 (1970) 1-19

  • What factors influenced the spread of Roman architecture in the West?
Lecture 26 - 'Official art' and its impact on private art
P. Zanker, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (1991) ch.7
  • What monuments in Rome are popularly imitated in private art?
Lecture 27 - Augustan histories

@ R. Syme, 'Livy and Augustus', HSCPh 64 (1959) 27-87

  • Did Livy express any support, directly or indirectly, for Augustus' regime?
Lecture 28 - Suetonius Life of Augustus

Please read Suetonius' Life of Augustus

      • How does Suetonius characterise Augustus?

        Lecture 29 - The succession

        Please read LACTOR section J 29-69

        • When does it become evident that Augustus is preparing a successor to his position? Who is his first ‘heir apparent’?
        Lecture 30 - Res Gestae

        Please read the whole of the Res Gestae. What image of himself does Augustus promote?

        Revision
        • Sample Exam Paper (2012): please look through essay titles + gobbets for discussion in our revision sessions in week 3