Lecture 2: Becoming Caesar / Lecture 3 - Triumvirate / Lecture 4 - Responses to civil crisis / Lecture 5 - Actium / Lecture 6 - Aftermath of Actium / Lecture 7 - Revival & innovation in religious cults / Lecture 8 - Augustus' Powers / Lecture 9 - Social legislation / Lecture 10 - Senate / Lecture 11 - Equites / Lecture 12 - Opposition / Lecture 13 - Imperial household / Lecture 14 - Imperial women / Lecture 16 - Athens / Lecture 17 - Army / Lecture 18 - Empire / Lecture 19 - Ruling Provinces / Lecture 20 - Horace / Lecture 21 - Ovid / Lecture 22 - Statues / Lectures 23-24 - Emperor-worship / Lecture 25 - Urbanization / Lecture 26 - Official art / Lecture 27 - Augustan histories / Lecture 28 - Suetonius / Lecture 29 - The Succession / Lecture 30 - RGDA / Revision
- Seminar 1: Antony and Cleopatra / Seminar 2 - Ludi Saeculares / Seminar 3 - 'Friends' of Augustus / Seminar 4 - Res Gestae / Seminar 5 - Poets / Seminar 6 - Coins
Sort out the basic narrative of events leading up to Caesar's assassination in 44 BC:
@ Lintott, A. (2015) 'The Assassination' in Griffin, ed., A Companion to Julius Caesar [e-book]
@ Rawson, E. (1994) ‘Caesar: Civil War and Dictatorship’, in Cambridge Ancient History IX 2nd edn, 424-67 [e-book]
Please read the following article, considering the following questions:
@F. Millar (1973) ‘Triumvirate and principate’, Journal of Roman Studies 63: 50-67 [JSTOR]
- Who were the triumvirs?
- What was their full title?
- What powers did they have?
- How did they use them?
- How did their actions relate to the traditional Republican institutions?
How does politics impinge upon Virgil's early poetry?
- Read LACTOR G1; G11; G12
For our next lecture, please read carefully the poets' responses to Actium. Assess what image of the battle they give, and when they were composing their poems.
LACTOR G5 (Horace, Epode 9); G38 (Aeneid 8.608-731); G39 (Propertius 4.6).
Week 3 - Please hand in non-assessed gobbets.
What priorities did 'Octavian' adopt in the aftermath of Actium?
- @ R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939) chapter 21 'Dux' [e-book]
Why did the discourse of 'restoring Roman religion' develop under Augustus?
- @ North, J. (1986) 'Religion and Politics, from Republic to Principate', Journal of Roman Studies 76: 251-58 [JSTOR]
Try to work out what exactly happened at the so-called 'First Settlement of 27 BC'. What are the problems in the modern tendency to designate this episode the 'First Settlement?
- @ Lacey, W.K. ‘Octavian in the senate: Jan. 27 B.C.’, Journal of Roman Studies 64 (1974) 176-84 [JSTOR]
In what areas of social practice did Augustus try to legislate and why?
- LACTOR section S
- Wallace-Hadrill, A., Augustan Rome (1993) chap.5 [Learning Grid]
- @Syme, R. (1939) The Roman Revolution chap.29 [e-book]
Start to consider the nature of the relationship between Augustus and the Senate:
- @ P.A. Brunt, 'The role of the Senate in the Augustan regime', Classical Quarterly 34.2 (1984) 423-44 [JSTOR]
How did the equestrian order become better defined under Augustus?
- Nicolet, C. 'Augustus, government, and the propertied classes' in Caesar Augustus. Seven Aspects, eds Millar & Segal (1984) pp.98ff
Please read LACTOR chapter P
Can we hope to evaluate the extent of opposition to Augustus?
@Wallace-Hadrill, A. ch. ‘The imperial court’ in Cambridge Ancient History vol. X [e-book]
Look for the ways in which imperial freedmen had new prominence in public life with the development of an imperial court at Rome , centred around the figure of the princeps.
- Read Fantham, Julia Augusti chapter 1 for background on the traditional place of women in Roman society [e-book]
@Patterson, J. (1992) ‘The city of Rome : from Republic to Empire’, JRS 82: 186-215.
Try to get a feel for some of the main themes underlying Augustus’ transformation of the city of Rome
- Please read Camp (2001) 'Roman Athens', ch 6 in The archaeology of Athens. pp.183-222 [online module bibiography]
- Please read @L. Keppie in Cambridge Ancient History vol.10
- Read Res Gestae ch.26-33. What impression does Augustus give of the Roman empire?
- Please read F. Millar, 'Emperors, frontiers, and foreign relations 31 BC-AD 378', Britannia 13 (1982) 1-23 [JSTOR]
What was the emperor's role in dealing with the empire?
Read some Horace Odes in LACTOR (use index of sources).
How does Horace integrate private and public themes in his poetry?
Read LACTOR G53-5; G47; G56
To what extent is Ovid an 'Augustan' poet?
Please read Smith, R.R.R. (1996) ‘Typology and diversity in the portraits of Augustus’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 9 (1996) 31-47
How were portraits of Augustus adapted locally?
Please read LACTOR L8-19.
- Who instigated emperor-worship?
Please read J.B. Ward-Perkins, 'From Republic to Empire: Reflections on the Early Provincial Architecture of the Roman West', JRS 60 (1970) 1-19
- What factors influenced the spread of Roman architecture in the West?
What monuments in Rome are popularly imitated in private art?
@ R. Syme, 'Livy and Augustus', HSCPh 64 (1959) 27-87
- Did Livy express any support, directly or indirectly, for Augustus' regime?
Please read Suetonius' Life of Augustus
- How does Suetonius characterise Augustus?
Please read LACTOR section J 29-69
- When does it become evident that Augustus is preparing a successor to his position? Who is his first ‘heir apparent’?
Please read the whole of the Res Gestae. What image of himself does Augustus promote?
- Sample Exam Paper (2012): please look through essay titles + gobbets for discussion in our revision sessions in week 3