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References to Modern Works - Some Standards

The Dissertation must include a full bibliography of all the ancient and modern works consulted. Works included in the bibliography should normally have been specifically referred to in your text or notes. General background reading which you have done, but which has not been referred to in your text, amy be included in a separate section (but avoid 'padding' the Dissertation with irrelevant references). Works referred to by modern authorities in footnotes or otherwise should not be included in the bibliography unless you have consulted them yourself. If you have to include quotations at third hand, the source opf these should be indicated in your text or notes.

There are two basic ways of referring to modern material: 'author and short title' and 'author and date' (sometimes known as the Harvard System). There are many variations of these, and the following examples are no more than examples. The main thing to remember is consistence: ensure you use the same method of referencing throughout.

Referring to ancient authors

Always try to give the traditional references to the text (you can find these most easily in Loebs), NOT the page/line of the Penguin (etc); put in your bibl. a list of the translations used; your text or notes should acknowlegde translators after a quotations thus: (trans. Smith).


Refer as normal to the sourcebook in which you have found the inscription; in addition cite the original document's reference as given in the sourcebook (this will be something like CIL X 110; SEG XXIII 1302).

For further details, please refer to the Departmental Style Guide