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Essay Feedback for the SPRING TERM essays will take place in WEEK 1 of the Summer Term, on days set out by Zahra (Thursday the 25th) and Elena (Friday the 26th). ***Zahra marked the material culture questions (questions no. 3-5) and Elena marked literary questions (questions 1-2). Please sign up on the sheets outside their office doors for a feedback time.

Scroll down for Essay titles and a bilbiography but FIRST: please read the advice and guidelines listed below. The majority of issues in first year essays could be avoided by READING and APPLYING this information.

Write an essay of between 2,250 and 2,500 words on ONE of the following subjects, to be submitted on Tabula by 12 noon Tuesday November 13th 2018 Individual feedback for Essay 1 will be given either on Thurs/ Friday (Week 9) OR Tues & Wed (Week 10) December 2018. Make sure that your essay is only identified by your university number from your library card, and that a cover sheet is attached (this can be downloaded from the same page as the department handout, follow the link below) . You will be required to sign a statement that the essay is your own work, and contains no plagiarism. Please ensure that your pages are numbered, and that you state a word count. For the submisison of essays read the essay submission guidelines in the student dept handbook and online documents for further advice about writing and presenting essays and consult the online styleguide. For all of the essays, it is crucial to focus upon the period from Augustus to Septimius Severus (late first century BC – early third century AD). Do NOT focus upon the Republic (50 BC or earlier) or Late Antiquity (after AD 315).

These essays will not be set as exam questions in the examination paper at the end of the module. Overlap should be avoided between your pre-submitted essays and the questions you answer in the exam. Consult the individual bibliographies handed out at lectures for guidance in your reading. Seminar sheets will also be useful for some titles.

You should consult the module bibliography for advice on what to read in preparation for writing these essays. In addition, essay-specific bibliography follows below. This is a core of material, designed as a starting-point, not as an exhaustive list. You should read beyond it in order to explore the topics in sufficient depth.

READ ME: Writing a University essay: Guidelines & Support

The difficulties of transitioning between expectations of A level and university essay are seldom overrated. There are a number of support services in place including Documents, powerpoints and events such as Skills Workshops (by AC and BX) on Mondays for the first 4 weeks of Autumn term.

On the right margin you will find a number of resources and links (department guidelines, links to online article databases like JSTOR): To ACCESS articles on JSTOR follow the link on the right margin and type in University of Warwick under the "Name of Institution" bar, this will take you directly to the Warwick sign in portal, and then off you go!!.)

Below are a series of support guides written by me and my colleagues: I hope that you will take the time to read these carefully during the process. These address the most common questions, problems and issues with essays. Including:

(1) A advice on how to consolidate lecture material and how to approach sources critically (useful from the first lecture)  Lecture Consolidation

(3) A guide to the most common essay errors and how to avoid them. Highlighted sections are the points that occur in over 50% of essays.   Avoiding common essay mistakes  Essay writing powerpoint

(4) Essay Marking: How is my essay marked? What do the different sections on the feedback form mean? How do fullfill these requirements?  Essay Marking Criteria

(5) Descriptions of Marks: (Word Document)First year marking descriptors < these explain the criteria applied in marking to determine your mark as 1st class (74+) 2nd class upper (2.1) (62-68) 2nd class lower 2.2.(52-58), third class (42-48) or fail (38-).


Second Essay Due Monday 25th of February 2019

Essay Titles

1. ‘Nostalgia is one of the strongest emotions in the Aeneid.’ Discuss.
Recommended bibliography


  • Cairns, F. (1989), Virgil’s Augustan Epic, Cambridge.
  • Conte, G. B. (1986), The Rhetoric of Imitation. Genre & Poetic Memory in Virgil and Other Latin Poets (trans. C. Segal et al.), Ithaca.
  • Hardie, P. R. (1986) Virgil’s Aeneid. Cosmos and Imperium, Oxford.
  • Hardie, P. R. (1998), Virgil, Oxford.
  • Harrison, S. J. (ed.) (1990), Oxford Readings in Vergil's Aeneid, Oxford.
  • Heinze, R. (1915), Virgil’s epic technique (trans. H. & D. Harvey & F. Robertson, 1993), London.
  • Martindale, C. (ed.) (1997) The Cambridge Companion to Virgil, Cambridge.
  • Perkell, C. (ed.) (1999) Reading Vergil’s Aeneid, an interpretive guide, Oklahoma.
  • Pöschl, V. (1962) The art of Virgil: image and symbol in the Aeneid (trans G. Seligson), Ann Arbor.
  • Quint, D. (1993), Epic and Empire, politics and generic form from Virgil to Milton (Princeton)

On the topic

  • Belfiore, E. S. (1984) ‘Ter frustra comprensa: Embraces in the Aeneid’, Phoenix 38: 19-30.
  • Bettini, M. (1997) ‘Ghosts of Exile: Doubles and Nostalgia in Vergil’s parva Troia (Aeneid 3.294ff.)’, Classical Antiquity 16.8-33.
  • Burnell, P. (1982) ‘Aeneas’ Reaction to the Defeat of Troy (Aen. 2.298ff.)’, Greece & Rome 29: 63-70.
  • Feeney, D. C. (1986), ‘History and revelation in Vergil’s underworld’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 32.1-24.
  • Gurval, R. A. (1995) Actium and Augustus. The Politics and Emotions of Civil War, Ann Arbor.
  • Johnson, W. R. (1976) Darkness Visible, a study of Vergil’s Aeneid, Berkeley.
  • Lyne, R. O. A. M. (1987), Further Voices in Vergil’s Aeneid, Oxford.
  • Nugent, S. G. (1999), ‘The Women of the Aeneid: Vanishing Bodies, Lingering Voices’, in Perkell (ed.) Reading Vergil’s Aeneid, an interpretive guide, Oklahoma, 251-70
  • Parry, A. (1963) ‘The Two Voices of Virgil’s Aeneid’, Arion 2: 66-80.
  • Putnam, M. C. J. (1998), ‘Dido’s Murals and Virgilian Ekphrasis’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 98: 243-75 [reprinted in Putnam (1998) Virgil’s Epic Designs. Ekphrasis in the Aeneid, New Haven]
  • Quint, D. (1982-3), ‘Painful memories: Aeneid 3 and the problem of the past’, Classical Journal 78: 30-38 [reprinted in Quint (1993)]
  • Segal, C. P. (1981), ‘Art and the Hero: participation, detachment and narrative point of view in the Aeneid’, Arethusa 14.67-83 [reprinted in Hardie (1999) Virgil, critical assessments of classical authors Volume iii, London]
  • West, G.-S. (1983), ‘Andromache and Dido’, American Journal of Philology 104: 257-67.
  • Williams, R. D. (1960), ‘The pictures on Dido’s Temple (Aeneid 1.450-93)’, Classical Quarterly 10:145-51 [reprinted in Harrison (1990)]
2. Is Ovid more interested in artistic success or artistic failure in the Metamorphoses?

Episodes from the Metamorphoses (refer to at least THREE episodes)

  • Met. 1.452-567 (Apollo and Daphne)
  • Met. 1.689-712 (Pan and Syrinx)
  • Met. 3.339-510 (Echo and Narcissus)
  • Met. 6.1-145 (Minerva and Arachne)
  • Met. 8.183-235 (Daedalus and Icarus)
  • Met. 10.1-89; 11.1-66 (Orpheus)
  • Met. 10.243-97 (Pygmalion)

Recommended Bibliography


  • Barkan, L. (1986) The Gods Made Flesh. New Haven.
  • Boyd, B. (ed.) (2002) Brill’s Companion to Ovid. Leiden.
  • Fantham, E. (2004) Ovid's Metamorphoses. Oxford
  • Feeney. D. (1991) The Gods in Epic. Oxford.
  • Feldherr, A. (2010) Playing Gods: Ovid’s Metamorphoses and the Politics of Fiction. Princeton.
  • Hardie, P. (ed.) (2002) The Cambridge Companion to Ovid. Cambridge.
  • Liveley, G. (2010) Ovid’s ‘Metamorphoses’: A Reader’s Guide. New York.

On the topic/episodes

  • Anderson, W. S. (1982) ‘The Orpheus of Virgil and Ovid: flebile nescioquid’, in J. Warden, (ed.) Orpheus: The Metamorphosis of a Myth, Toronto, 25-50.
  • Elsner, J. and Sharrock, A. (1991) ‘Reviewing Pygmalion’, Ramus 20: 148-82.
  • Hardie, P. (1988) ‘Lucretius and the delusions of Narcissus’, Materiali e Discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 21: 71-89.
  • Hardie, P. (2002) Ovid’s Poetics of Illusion. Cambridge.
  • Harries, B. (1990) ‘The Spinner and the Poet: Arachne in Ovid’s Metamorphoses’, Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 36: 64-82.
  • Johnson, P. J. (2008) Ovid Before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, Madison, Wis.
  • Knox, P. E. (1990) ‘In pursuit of Daphne’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 120: 183-202.
  • Lateiner, D. (1984) ‘Mythic and Non-Mythic Artists in Ovid’s Metamorphoses’, Ramus 13: 1-30.
  • Leach, E. W. (1974) ‘Ekphrasis and the Theme of Artistic Failure in Ovid’s Met.,’ Ramus 3: 102-142.
  • Liveley, G. (1999) ‘Reading Resistance in Ovid’s Metamorphoses’, in A. Barchiesi, P. Hardie, S. Hinds (eds.) Ovidian Transformations: Essays on the Metamorphoses and its Reception, Cambridge, 197-213.
  • Nicoll, W. S. M. (1980) ‘Cupid, Apollo and Daphne (Ovid Met. 1.452f.)’, Classical Quarterly 30: 174-82.
  • Oliensis, E. (2004) ‘The Power of Image-Makers: Representation and Revenge in Ovid Metamorphoses 6 and Tristia 4,’ Classical Antiquity 23: 285-321.
  • Segal, C. (1998) ‘Ovid’s Metamorphic Bodies: Art, Gender, and Violence in the Metamorphoses’, Arion 5: 9-41.
  • Sharrock, A. (1991) ‘Womanufacture’, Journal of Roman Studies 81: 36-49.
  • Vincent, M. (1994) ‘Between Ovid and Barthes: Ekphrasis, Orality, Textuality in Ovid’s “Arachne”’, Arethusa 27: 361-86.
3. 'How did Augustan art reflect the aims of his regime'
Key texts:

Karl Galinsky (1996) Augustan Culture: an interpretive introduction – ch. 4
Paul Zanker (1988)The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N 5760.Z2]

Other reading:
  • A. Wallace-Hadrill (1986) ‘Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus’ Journal of Roman Studies 76, 66-87
  • Power of images (2): statues
  • Kitty Chisholm and J. Ferguson (1981)Rome: the Augustan Age (Oxford) – section E [DG 279.C4]
  • J.J. Pollitt (1966)The Art of Rome, c. 753 BC - 337 AD Sources and Documents
  • Susan Walker and Andrew Burnett (1981)The image of Augustus
  • J. Toynbee (1953)The Ara Pacis reconsidered and historical art in Roman Italy
  • R.R.R. Smith (1996) 'Typology and diversity in the portraits of Augustus', JRA 9: 30-47
  • R.R.R. Smith (1987) ‘The imperial reliefs from the Sebasteion of Aphrodisias’, JRS 77: 88-138
  • J. Elsner (1991) ‘Cult and sculpture: Sacrifice in the Ara Pacis Augustae’ JRS 81: 50-61.
  • C.B. Rose(1997) 'The imperial image in the eastern Mediterranean', in The Early Roman Empire in the East ed. S.E. Alcock, pp. 108-20 [DG 59.A2]
  • A. Gregory (1994) '"Powerful images": responses to portraits and the political uses of images in Rome', Journal of Roman Archaeology 7: 80-99
  • Beard, M. and Henderson, J. (2001). Classical Art from Greece to Rome,
4. Why were the Romans so keen on imitating the forms of Greek art?
Pay particular attention to the issue of Roman copies of Greek works in either painting or sculpture, and the taste for idealised statues.

General Sources

  • P. Zanker, (2010) Roman art. Los Angeles, Calif. : J. Paul Getty Museum, esp ch 1.
  • D'Ambra, Eve. (1993) Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, esp papers by Marvin and Bartmann.
  • D'Ambra, E. (1998) Roman Art. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge University Press.
  • J. Elsner (1998) Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph. The Art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450. Oxford, 1998.
  • Beard, M. and Henderson, J. (2001). Classical Art from Greece to Rome,
  • Gazda, Elaine K., ed. Roman Art in the Private Sphere. Michigan.
  • Nancy H. Ramage and Andrew Ramage (1996) The Cambridge Illustrated History of Roman Art (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge).
  • D. Strong (1990)Roman Art (Pelican History of Art Series, London: Penguin)
  • S. Tuck, A History of Roman Art. Chichester, West Sussex, [England] : John Wiley & Sons, 2015.

On the reception of Greek art in Rome:

Z. Newby. 2016. Greek Myths in Roman Art. Cambridge University Press. ch 1 (e-book).

M. Miles 2009, Art as Plunder.

S. Rutledge, Ancient Rome as a Museum. Oxford University Press.

Pollitt, J. J. (1978) ‘The impact of Greek art on Rome’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 108: 155-74.


On roman copies and display:

B. S. Ridgway. 1984. Roman copies of Greek Sculpture. Ann Arbor.

M. Marvin, (1993) ‘Copying in Roman sculpture: the replica series’, in D’Ambra, Roman Art in Context: An Anthology: 161-88.
Marvin, M. (1997) ‘Roman sculptural reproductions or Polykleitos: the sequel’, in Sculpture and its Reproductions, eds. A. Hughes and E. Ranfft. London: 7-28. e-book

M. Marvin. 2008. The Language of the Muses. Los Angeles.

R. Kousser, Hellenistic and Roman Ideal Sculpture. (e-book)

E. K. Gazda, ed. 2002. The ancient art of emulation.

Bergmann, B. (1994) ‘The Roman house as memory theater: the house of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii’, Art Bulletin 76: 225-56.
Bergmann, B. (1995) ‘Greek masterpieces and Roman recreative fictions’, Harvard Studies in classical Philology 97. Greece in Rome. 79-120.
Bergmann, B. (1996) ‘The pregnant moment: tragic wives in the Roman interior’, in N. Kampen ed., Sexuality in ancient art, 199-218.

5. Does Trimalchio's house resemble any of the houses discovered through archaeology?
Use evidence from sites such as Pompeii and/or Herculaneum to support your answer. Focus on one or two specific examples.

Petronius (see lecture Handout Bibliography)

  • Anderson, G. Ancient Fiction: The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World (1984) PA3040
  • Connors, C. Petronius the Poet: Verse & Literary Tradition in the Satyricon (1998) PA6559
  • Conte, G.B. The Hidden Author: An Interpretation of Petronius' Satyricon. Transl. E. Fantham (1996) PA6559
  • Courtney, E., A Companion to Petronius. Oxford (2001).
  • Dalby, A. Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World. (2000) PA6029.L87
  • Dunbabin, K. The Roman Banquet: Images of Conviviality. Cambridge (2003) TX641 .D85
  • Edwards, C. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge (1993) PA6029.M67
  • Elsner, J. & Masters, J. Reflections of Nero: Culture, History and Representation. (1994). DG285 .R44
  • Freudenburg, K., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Roman Satire.(2005) PA6095 .C36
  • Harrison, S.J., ed. Oxford Readings in the Roman Novel. Oxford (1999) PA6091 .O94
  • Prag, J., and Repath, I., eds. Petronius: A Handbook. Malden, MA (2009) PA6561 P37
  • Rimell, V. Petronius and the Anatomy of Fiction. Cambridge (2002). PA6559 .R495 (also available as an e-book)
  • Scullard, H.H. From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 BC to AD 68. London (1988) repr. DG254 .S35
  • Sullivan, J.P. Literature and Politics in the Age of Nero. Ithaca (1985) PA6029.P64
  • Walsh, P.G. The Roman Novel. London (1995). PA6559
  • Whitmarsh, T., ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Greek and Roman Novel. (2008) PA3040 .C36

Houses & Housing

  • Vitruvius, De Architectura (Loeb translation by M.H. Morgan).
  • Adam, J.P. Roman Building (English trans. 1994)
  • Allison, P. M., Pompeian households : an analysis of material culture (2004)
  • Barton, I. M., ed., Roman Domestic Buildings (1996)
  • Bergmann, B. ‘Art and nature in the villa at Oplontis’ in T. A. McGinn ed,
  • Pompeian brothels, Pompeii’s Ancient history, mirrors and mysteries
  • (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 47, 2002) 87-120.
  • Berry, J. The Complete Pompeii (2007)
  • Claridge, A. Rome (Oxford Archaeological guides 1998)
  • Clarke, J.R., The Houses of Roman Italy (1991)
  • Cleary, S. E. Chedworth. Life in the Roman Villa. (The History Press 2013)
  • Cooley, A.E., Pompeii (London, 2003)
  • Cooley, A.E. and Cooley, M.G.L., Pompeii: A sourcebook (London, 2004)
  • D’Ambra, E., Art and Identity in the Roman World (1998)
  • D’Ambra, E., Roman Art in Context. An Anthology (1993)
  • Dunbabin, K. M. D., The Roman Banquet (2003)
  • Dwyer, E. J., Pompeian Domestic Sculpture (1982)
  • Ellis, S. P., Roman Housing (2000)
  • Gazda, E., Roman Art in the Private Sphere (1991)
  • Hales, S. The Roman House and Social Identity (Cambridge, 2003)
  • Laurence, R. & Wallace-Hadrill, A., Domestic Space in the Roman World (1997)
  • Laurence, R., Roman Pompeii: Space and Society (1994)
  • Macdonald, W.L. The Architecture of the Roman Empire vols. I and II (1986)
  • Macready, S. and Thompson, F.H., Roman Architecture in the Greek World (London, 1987)F. Sear, Roman Architecture (rev. ed. 1989)
  • Nevett, L., Domestic space in Classical Antiquity (2010)
  • Percival, J., The Roman Villa (2nd ed., 1981)
  • Slater, W., Dining in a classical context (1991)
  • Smith, J. T., Roman Villas. A Study in Social Structure ( 1997)
  • Wallace-Hadrill, A., Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum (1994)
  • Ward -Perkins, J. Roman Imperial Architecture
  • Yegul, F.K., ‘ “Roman” Architecture in the Greek World,’ Journal of Roman Archaeology 94 (1990) 345- 355 [Arts Periodical - 3rd floor, over the bridge]
  • Zanker, P., Pompeii, Public and Private Life (eng trans, 1998)