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Feedback for the Second Essay will take place in Week 10 (Spring Term) and Week 1 (Summer Term). To sign up for a session please follow the information (below) based on your essay topic. Sign up sheets will be posted by Thursday at noon.

Questions 1&2 (Aeneas and Post Roman Writers): Sign up outside Victoria Rimmel's office (H. 237)

Question 3 (Coins) Sign up outside Abigail Graham's office (H.227)

Questions 4&5 (Trimalchio and Roman Art) Sign up outside Helen Acker's office (H.229)


Scroll down for Essay titles and a bilbiography but FIRST: please read the advice and guidelines listed below. The majority of issues in first year essays could be avoided by READING and APPLYING this information.

Write an essay of between 2,250 and 2,500 words on ONE of the following subjects, to be submitted on Tabula by 12 noon Tuesday November 7th 2017 Individual feedback for Essay 1 will be given either on Thurs/ Friday (Week 9) OR Tues & Wed (Week 10) December 2017. Make sure that your essay is only identified by your university number from your library card, and that a cover sheet is attached (this can be downloaded from the same page as the department handout, follow the link below) . You will be required to sign a statement that the essay is your own work, and contains no plagiarism. Please ensure that your pages are numbered, and that you state a word count. For the submisison of essays read the essay submission guidelines in the student dept handbook and online documents for further advice about writing and presenting essays and consult the online styleguide. For all of the essays, it is crucial to focus upon the period from Augustus to Septimius Severus (late first century BC – early third century AD). Do NOT focus upon the Republic (50 BC or earlier) or Late Antiquity (after AD 315).

These essays will not be set as exam questions in the examination paper at the end of the module. Overlap should be avoided between your pre-submitted essays and the questions you answer in the exam. Consult the individual bibliographies handed out at lectures for guidance in your reading. Seminar sheets will also be useful for some titles.

You should consult the module bibliography for advice on what to read in preparation for writing these essays. In addition, essay-specific bibliography follows below. This is a core of material, designed as a starting-point, not as an exhaustive list. You should read beyond it in order to explore the topics in sufficient depth.

READ ME: Writing a University essay: Guidelines & Support

The difficulties of transitioning between expectations of A level and university essay are seldom overrated. There are a number of support services in place including Documents, powerpoints and events such as Skills Workshops (by AC and BX) on Mondays for the first 4 weeks of Autumn term.

On the right margin you will find a number of resources and links (department guidelines, links to online article databases like JSTOR): To ACCESS articles on JSTOR follow the link on the right margin and type in University of Warwick under the "Name of Institution" bar, this will take you directly to the Warwick sign in portal, and then off you go!!.)

Below are a series of support guides written by me and my colleagues: I hope that you will take the time to read these carefully during the process. These address the most common questions, problems and issues with essays. Including:

(1) A advice on how to consolidate lecture material and how to approach sources critically (useful from the first lecture)  Lecture Consolidation

(3) A guide to the most common essay errors and how to avoid them. Highlighted sections are the points that occur in over 50% of essays.   Avoiding common essay mistakes  Essay writing powerpoint

(4) Essay Marking: How is my essay marked? What do the different sections on the feedback form mean? How do fullfill these requirements?  Essay Marking Criteria

(5) Descriptions of Marks: (Word Document)First year marking descriptors < these explain the criteria applied in marking to determine your mark as 1st class (74+) 2nd class upper (2.1) (62-68) 2nd class lower 2.2.(52-58), third class (42-48) or fail (38-).



Essay Titles

1. Analyse the role and function of Aeneas’ (flawed or limited) perspective in Virgil’s Aeneid.

Recommended bibliography

Barchiesi, A. "Ecphrasis." In Martindale (1997) The Cambridge Companion to Virgil. Cambridge, 271-280.

Beck, D. (2007) ‘Ecphrasis, Interpretation and Audience in Aeneid 1 and Odyssey 8’ American Journal of Philology 128.4.

Bettini, Maurizio "Ghosts of Exile: Doubles and Nostalgia in Virgil’s parva Troia (Aeneid 3.294ff.)" Classical Antiquity 16.1 (1997) 8-33

Casali, Sergio, "Aeneas and the Doors of the Temple of Apollo" Classical Journal 91.1 (1995) 1-9.

Casali, S. (2006) ‘The making of the shield: inspiration and repression in the Aeneid’ Greece and Rome 53: 185-204

Conte, G. B. (1986) The Rhetoric of Imitation. Genre and Poetic Memory in Vergil and Other Latin Poets. Translated, edited, and with a forward by Charles Segal. Ithaca.

Feeney, Denis (1983) "The Taciturnity of Aeneas." Classical Quarterly 33 (1983) 204-219, "

Fowler, Don. (1990) "Deviant Focalisation in Virgil's Aeneid." Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 36 (1990) 42-63. Reprinted in Fowler (2000) Roman Constructions, Readings in Postmodern Latin. Oxford, 40-63.

Giusti, E. (2014) ‘Virgil’s Carthaginians at Aen. 1.430-6: Cyclopes in Bees’ Clothing,’ in The Cambridge Classical Journal 60, 37-58.

Gildenhard, I. (2012) Aeneid 4.1-299: text, commentary and interpretative essays. Cambridge.

Grillo, L (2010) ‘Leaving Troy and Creusa: reflections on Aeneas’ flight’ Classical Journal 106.43-68. Hardie, P. (1998) Virgil. Greece and Rome New Surveys in the Classics. Cambridge.

Hardie, P. (1993) The Epic Successors of Virgil. Cambridge.

Hinds, Stephen.(1997) Allusion and Intertext. Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry. Cambridge.

Laird, Andrew (1997) "Approaching Characterisation in Virgil", in Martindale ed. (1997) The Cambridge Companion to Virgil. Cambridge, 282-93

Most, Glenn W. "Memory and Forgetting in the Aeneid" Vergilius 47 (2001) 148-170.

Putnam, M. (1998) ‘Dido’s murals and Virgilian ecphrasis’ Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 98: 243-75.

Quint, D. (1993) Epic and Empire. Princeton.

Reed, J. D. (2007) Virgil's Gaze: nation and poetry in the Aeneid. Princeton.

Seider, A.M. (2013) Memory in Vergil’s Aeneid. Cambridge.

Smith, Alden (2005) The primacy of vision in Virgil's Aeneid. Austin Texas. T

homas, Richard F. "Virgil's Ecphrastic Centerpieces." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 87 (1983) 175-184.

Weiden-Boyd, B. (1995) ‘non enarrabile textum: trespass and narrative ambiguity in the Aeneid’ Vergilius 41: 71-90.

Williams, R. D. "The Pictures on Dido's Temple (Aeneid 1.450-93)." Classical Quarterly 10 (1960) 145-151.

2. How do post-Augustan Roman writers manipulate and develop Augustan discourses of monumentality, and to what effect? {Focus on either Martial or Tacitus or both}

Secondary reading (further bibliography available on request):

  • Edwards, C. (1996) Writing Rome. Textual Approaches to the City. Cambridge.
  • • Elsner, J. (2003) ‘Iconoclasm and the preservation of memory’ in R.S.Nelson and M.Olin (eds.) Monuments and Memory, Made and Unmade. Chicago and London, pp.209-231.
  • Farrell, J. (1999) ‘The Ovidian corpus: poetic body and poetic text’ in P.Hardie, A.Barchiesi and S.Hinds (eds.) Ovidian Transformations. Cambridge, pp127-41.
  • • Fearnley, H. (2003) ‘Reading the imperial revolution: Martial Epigrams 10’ In A.J.Boyle and W.J.Dominik (eds.) Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text. Leiden, pp.613-36.
  • Fitzgerald, W. (2007) Martial. The World of the Epigram. Chicago.
  • Fowler, D. (2000) Roman Constructions. Readings in Postmodern Latin. Oxford, Ch 9 (‘The ruin of time: monuments and survival at Rome’, pp193-217).
  • Gowing, A.M. (2005) Empire and Memory. The Representation of the Roman Republic in Imperial Culture. Cambridge.
  • Harrison, S. (2007) ‘Horatian self-representations’ in S.Harrison (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Horace. Cambridge, pp22-35.
  • Harrison, S.J. (2007) ‘From man to book: the closure of Tacitus’ Agricola’ in S.J. Heyworth (ed.) Classical Constructions. Papers in Memory of Don Fowler, Classicist and Epicurean. Oxford, pp.310-19.
  • Hinds, S. (1998) Allusion and Intertext. Dynamics of Appropriation in Roman Poetry. Cambridge.
  • Ingleheart, J. (2015) ‘Exegi monumentum: exile, death, immortality and monumentality in Ovid Tristia 3.3’ Classical Quarterly 65: 286-300.
  • Kraus, C.S. (2000) ‘The path between truculence and servility: Prose literature from Augustus to Hadrian’ in O.Taplin (ed.) Literature in the Roman World. Oxford, pp.154-183.
  • Lowrie, M. (2007) ‘Horace and Augustus’ in S.Harrison (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Horace. Cambridge, pp77-89.
  • Lowrie, M. (2009) Writing, Performance and Authority in Augustan Rome. Oxford.
  • Newlands, C. (2002) Statius’ Silvae and the Poetics of Empire. Cambridge (esp. ch.1, ‘Embodying the statue..’)
  • Rimell, V. (2008) Martial’s Rome. Empire and the Ideology of Epigram. Cambridge, pp.51-93.
  • Roche, P. (2011) ‘The Panegyricus and the monuments of Rome’ in P.Roche (ed.) Pliny’s Praise. The Panegyricus in the Roman World. Cambridge, pp.45-66.
  • Roman, L. (2001) ‘The representation of literary materiality in Martial’s Epigrams’ Journal of Roman Studies 91: 113-45.
  • Sailor, D. (2004) ‘Becoming Tacitus: significance and inconsequentiality in the Prologue of AgricolaClassical Antiquity 23: 139-77.
  • Sailor, D. (2008) Writing and Empire in Tacitus. Cambridge.
  • Whitmarsh, T. (2006) ‘ “This in-between book”: language, politics and genre in the Agricola’ in B.McCing and J.Mossman (eds.) The Limits of Ancient Biography. Swansea, pp.305-33.
  • Woodman, A.J. and Kraus, C.S. (2014) Tacitus Agricola. Cambridge.
3. What does imagery on Roman coins reveal about the values of Roman Society?
Focus on a few coins from a specific time, place and/or with a specific type of imagery.
  • Burnett, A. (1987). Coinage in the Roman World. London [CJ 833.B8]
  • Butcher, K. (1988) Roman Provincial Coins: an introduction to the 'Greek Imperials'. London. [CJ 837.B8]
  • Harl, K. W. (1987) Civic Coins and Civic Politics in the Roman East AD 180-275. Berkeley. [Oversize CJ 1091.H2]
  • @ Horster. M. (2013). Coinage and images of the imperial family: local identity and Roman rule. Journal of Roman Archaeology 26, 243-61.
  • @ Howgego, C. (1995). Ancient History from Coins. London
  • Howgego, C., Heuchert, V., et al., (eds.) (2005) Coinage and Identity in the Roman Provinces. Oxford. [CJ 1017.C6]
  • Metcalf, W. (ed.) (2012) The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage. Oxford. [CJ 339.O9]
  • @ Metcalf, W. E. (2006) 'Roman Imperial Numismatics', in A Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. D. S. Potter. Oxford: 35-44.
  • @Noreña, C. F. (2001) 'The Communication of the Emperor's Virtues', Journal of Roman Studies: 146-68.
  • Noreña, C. (2011) Imperial Ideals in the Roman West: Representation, Circulation, Power. Cambridge. [DG 271.N67]
  • Noreña, C. (2011) 'Coins and Communication', in The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World, ed. M. Peachin. Oxford, Oxford University Press: 248-68. [DG 78.O9]
  • Paul, G.M. |& Ierardi, M. (1999). Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire. Ann Arbor. [CJ 975.R6]
  • Price, M. J. and Trell, B. L. (1977) Coins and Their Cities. London. [CJ 161.A72]
  • @Rowan, C. (2011) 'The Public Image of the Severan Women', Papers of the British School at Rome 79: 241-73.
  • Rowan, C. 2012. Under Divine Auspices: Divine Ideology and the Visualisation of Imperial Power in the Severan Period. Cambridge, (Chapter 2). [BL803.R69]
  • @ Rowan, C. 'Imaging the Golden Age: the coinage of Antoninus Pius', Papers of the British School at Rome 81 (2013): 211-246.
  • @ Sobocinski, M. G. (2006) 'Visualizing Ceremony: The Design and Audience of the Ludi Saeculares Coinage of Domitian', American Journal of Archaeology 110: 581-602.
  • @ Wallace-Hadrill, A. (1986) 'Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus', Journal of Roman Studies: 66-87.

Source Books:

  • (multiple volumes) Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum [CJ 969.C6]
  • (multiple volumes) - Roman Imperial Coinage [CJ 969.M2], also available online at The Online Coins of the Roman Empire,
  • (multiple volumes) Roman Provincial Coinage [CJ 837.B8] (for the Antonine period the catalogue is online, see

See also the resources listed at

4. Roman art: imitation or innovation (discuss).
Be sure to focus on a specific theme or type of Roman Art, as this will shape your answer.

General Sources

  • R. Brilliant (1963) Gesture and rank in Roman art: the use of gestures to denote status [NB 115.B7]
  • D'Ambra, Eve. (1993) Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall,
  • D'Ambra, (1998) Eve. Roman Art. Cambridge, ENG: Cambridge University Press.
  • J. Elsner (1995) Art and the Roman Viewer (1995)
  • (1998) Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph. The Art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450. Oxford, 1998.
  • Gazda, Elaine K., ed. Roman Art in the Private Sphere. Michigan.
  • D. Kleiner "Roman Sculpture" .124-141( Julio-Claudian), 168-182(Flavian),207-212 (Trajanic),237-247 (Hadrianic), 267-282 (Antonine)
  • Nancy H. Ramage and Andrew Ramage (1996) The Cambridge Illustrated History of Roman Art (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge).
  • D. Strong (1990)Roman Art (Pelican History of Art Series, London: Penguin)
  • J. Toynbee (1978)Roman Historical Portraits
  • Walker, Susan. (1995) Greek and Roman portraits
Augustan Imagery
  • A. Wallace-Hadrill (1986) ‘Image and Authority in the Coinage of Augustus’ Journal of Roman Studies 76, 66-87
  • Power of images (2): statues
  • Kitty Chisholm and J. Ferguson (1981)Rome: the Augustan Age (Oxford) – section E [DG 279.C4]
  • J.J. Pollitt (1966)The Art of Rome, c. 753 BC - 337 AD Sources and Documents
  • Karl Galinsky (1996) Augustan Culture: an interpretive introduction – ch. 4
  • Paul Zanker (1988)The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus [N 5760.Z2]
  • Susan Walker and Andrew Burnett (1981)The image of Augustus
  • J. Toynbee (1953)The Ara Pacis reconsidered and historical art in Roman Italy
  • R.R.R. Smith (1996) 'Typology and diversity in the portraits of Augustus', JRA 9: 30-47
  • R.R.R. Smith (1987) ‘The imperial reliefs from the Sebasteion of Aphrodisias’, JRS 77: 88-138
  • J. Elsner (1991) ‘Cult and sculpture: Sacrifice in the Ara Pacis Augustae’ JRS 81: 50-61.
  • C.B. Rose(1997) 'The imperial image in the eastern Mediterranean', in The Early Roman Empire in the East ed. S.E. Alcock, pp. 108-20 [DG 59.A2]
  • A. Gregory (1994) '"Powerful images": responses to portraits and the political uses of images in Rome', Journal of Roman Archaeology 7: 80-99
Later (Tiberius- Hadrian) Imperial Imagery
  • @Barrett, A.A. (1991) 'Claudius' British Victory Arch in Rome' Britannia 22: 1-19
  • Boatwright, M.T. (1987) Hadrian and the City of Rome [ DG 63.T2 + dept office copy + Learning Grid]
  • @Boyle, A.J.,Dominik, W.J. , eds (2003) Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text (Brill, Leiden)
  • Calomino, D. (2015) 'Emperor or God? The posthumous commemoration of Augustus in Rome and the provinces' The Numismatic Chronicle 175: 57-82
  • Fischler, S. (1994) ‘Social stereotypes and historical analysis: the case of the imperial women at Rome’, in L.J. Archer, S. Fischler and M. Wyke (eds.), Women in Ancient Societies 115-33
  • @Flory, M.B. (1996) 'Dynastic Ideology, the Domus Augusta, and Imperial Women: A Lost Statuary Group in the Circus Flaminius' TAPA 126: 287-306
  • @ Flower, H.I. (2006) The Art of Forgetting: Disgrace and Oblivion in Roman Political Culture
  • @ Gibson, A.G.G., ed. (2012) The Julio-Claudian Succession
  • @Højte, J. (2003) ‘The statue bases of Claudius. A reassessment of The Portraiture of Claudius by Meriwether Stuart’, in The Cauldron of Ariantas, Studies Presented to A.N. Sceglov on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday, eds Bilde et al. (Aarhus University Press) pp.365-88
  • @Last, H. (1948) 'On the Flavian reliefs from the Palazzo della Cancelleria', JRS 38: 9-14
  • @ Lobur, J. (2008) Consensus, Concordia, and the Formation of Roman Imperial Ideology
  • Norena, C. (2011) Imperial Ideals in the Roman West: Representation, Circulation, Power [DG 271.N67]
  • Norena, C. (2011) "Coins and Communication," in M. Peachin (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World pp.248-68.
  • @ Norena, C. (2001) "The Communication of the Emperor's Virtues," Journal of Roman Studies 91: 146-68.
  • Rose, C.B. (1997) 'The imperial image in the Eastern Mediterranean', in The Early Roman Empire in the East, ed. S.E. Alcock 108-20 [DG 59 A2]
  • Rose, C.B. (1997) Dynastic Commemoration and Imperial Portraiture in the Julio- Claudian Period [NB1296.3.R67]
  • @Packer, J.E. (2003) 'Plurima et amplissima opera: parsing Flavian Rome' in Flavian Rome. Culture, Image, Text, eds A.J. Boyle, W.J. Dominik (Brill, Leiden) 167-98
  • The Myth of the Toga: Understanding the History of Roman Dress', Greece and Rome 43.2 (1996) 204-220
  • Smith, R.R.R. ‘ Typology and diversity in the portraits of Augustus JRA 10 (1997) 31-47. -
  • - (2000) “Nero and the Sun- God:divine accessorie"s… JRA pp 532-541. 2
  • B. Rose, Dynastic commemoration and Imperial portraiture in the Julio-Claudian Period (1997)
  • Elsner, Jas. Imperial Rome and Christian Triumph. The Art of the Roman Empire AD 100-450. Oxford, 1998.
  • Gazda, Elaine K., ed. Roman Art in the Private Sphere. Michigan.
  • Walker, Susan. (1995) Greek and Roman portraits
  • Vout, C. (2006) 'What's in a Beard? Rethinking Hadrian's Hellenism', in S. Goldhill and R. Osborne, eds. Rethinking Revolutions: the Case of Classical Greece

5. Is Trimalchio's house meant to resemble a 'real' middle-class Roman House?
Use evidence from sites such as Pompeii and/or Herculaneum to support your answer.

Petronius (see lecture Handout Bibliography)

  • Anderson, G. Ancient Fiction: The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World (1984) PA3040
  • Connors, C. Petronius the Poet: Verse & Literary Tradition in the Satyricon (1998) PA6559
  • Conte, G.B. The Hidden Author: An Interpretation of Petronius' Satyricon. Transl. E. Fantham (1996) PA6559
  • Courtney, E., A Companion to Petronius. Oxford (2001).
  • Dalby, A. Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World. (2000) PA6029.L87
  • Dunbabin, K. The Roman Banquet: Images of Conviviality. Cambridge (2003) TX641 .D85
  • Edwards, C. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge (1993) PA6029.M67
  • Elsner, J. & Masters, J. Reflections of Nero: Culture, History and Representation. (1994). DG285 .R44
  • Freudenburg, K., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Roman Satire.(2005) PA6095 .C36
  • Harrison, S.J., ed. Oxford Readings in the Roman Novel. Oxford (1999) PA6091 .O94
  • Prag, J., and Repath, I., eds. Petronius: A Handbook. Malden, MA (2009) PA6561 P37
  • Rimell, V. Petronius and the Anatomy of Fiction. Cambridge (2002). PA6559 .R495 (also available as an e-book)
  • Scullard, H.H. From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 BC to AD 68. London (1988) repr. DG254 .S35
  • Sullivan, J.P. Literature and Politics in the Age of Nero. Ithaca (1985) PA6029.P64
  • Walsh, P.G. The Roman Novel. London (1995). PA6559
  • Whitmarsh, T., ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Greek and Roman Novel. (2008) PA3040 .C36

Houses & Housing

  • Vitruvius, De Architectura (Loeb translation by M.H. Morgan).
  • Adam, J.P. Roman Building (English trans. 1994)
  • Allison, P. M., Pompeian households : an analysis of material culture (2004)
  • Barton, I. M., ed., Roman Domestic Buildings (1996)
  • Bergmann, B. ‘Art and nature in the villa at Oplontis’ in T. A. McGinn ed,
  • Pompeian brothels, Pompeii’s Ancient history, mirrors and mysteries
  • (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplement 47, 2002) 87-120.
  • Berry, J. The Complete Pompeii (2007)
  • Claridge, A. Rome (Oxford Archaeological guides 1998)
  • Clarke, J.R., The Houses of Roman Italy (1991)
  • Cleary, S. E. Chedworth. Life in the Roman Villa. (The History Press 2013)
  • Cooley, A.E., Pompeii (London, 2003)
  • Cooley, A.E. and Cooley, M.G.L., Pompeii: A sourcebook (London, 2004)
  • D’Ambra, E., Art and Identity in the Roman World (1998)
  • D’Ambra, E., Roman Art in Context. An Anthology (1993)
  • Dunbabin, K. M. D., The Roman Banquet (2003)
  • Dwyer, E. J., Pompeian Domestic Sculpture (1982)
  • Ellis, S. P., Roman Housing (2000)
  • Gazda, E., Roman Art in the Private Sphere (1991)
  • Hales, S. The Roman House and Social Identity (Cambridge, 2003)
  • Laurence, R. & Wallace-Hadrill, A., Domestic Space in the Roman World (1997)
  • Laurence, R., Roman Pompeii: Space and Society (1994)
  • Macdonald, W.L. The Architecture of the Roman Empire vols. I and II (1986)
  • Macready, S. and Thompson, F.H., Roman Architecture in the Greek World (London, 1987)F. Sear, Roman Architecture (rev. ed. 1989)
  • Nevett, L., Domestic space in Classical Antiquity (2010)
  • Percival, J., The Roman Villa (2nd ed., 1981)
  • Slater, W., Dining in a classical context (1991)
  • Smith, J. T., Roman Villas. A Study in Social Structure ( 1997)
  • Wallace-Hadrill, A., Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum (1994)
  • Ward -Perkins, J. Roman Imperial Architecture
  • Yegul, F.K., ‘ “Roman” Architecture in the Greek World,’ Journal of Roman Archaeology 94 (1990) 345- 355 [Arts Periodical - 3rd floor, over the bridge]
  • Zanker, P., Pompeii, Public and Private Life (eng trans, 1998)

Autumn Term 2017

Questions, Bibliographies & some advice on answering each questions can be found below**

1. To what extent did a person's career define his/her identity in the ancient world?

Consider how different sources (market spaces or guilds ors houses, inscribed objects (amphorae, tools, coins, mosaics, funerary monuments, and/or literary evidence) contribute to our understanding of the ancient economy and/or identity. Focus on a few specific sources from specific sites (e.g. Ostia, Pompeii, Rome, Roman Britian).

Use the seminar bibliography in conjuction with the bibliographies from Lectures of Economy, Identity, Family, Army and/or Death a Burial.

2. Who was the most important female role model in Roman society? Why?

An answer to this question could be a deity, it could be a real person (e.g.the Roman Empress Livia), or it could be a female role (e.g. mother, widow, daughter). Choose ONE and use specific literary, archaeological, and/or epigraphic evidence to support your point.

  • Dixon, S. (1992) The Roman Family [DG 91.D4]
  • @Fantham, E. et al (1994) Women in the Classical World, ch. 11 ‘Women, family, and sexuality in the age of Augustus and the Julio-Claudians’ [DE 61.W6]
  • @Gardner, J.F. (1998) Family and Familia in Roman Law and Life [DG 88.G2]
  • Harlow, M. (2008) 'Roman society' in Roman Europe, ed. E. Bispham
  • Kleiner, D.E.E. and Matheson, S.B., eds (1996), I Claudia. Women in ancient Rome, esp. ‘Introduction’, ‘Women in Roman society’, ‘Representations of Roman women in literature’, + catalogue entries [N 7588.I2] •
  • Kleiner, D.E.E. and Matheson, S.B., eds (2000) I Claudia II: Women in Roman Art and Society [N 7588.I2]
  • Peachin, M. (2011) The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World [DG 78.O9]
  • @Rawson, B., ed. (1986) The family in ancient Rome: new perspectives [DG 91.F2] • Rawson, B. (2010) 'Family and society', in Barchiesi, A. and Scheidel, W., eds, The Oxford Handbook of Roman Studies [DG 209.O94] •
  • Rawson, B. ed. (2011) A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds [HF 8025.C6] •
  • Treggiari, S. (1991) Roman Marriage [DG 91.T7]
  • Sourcebooks

  • @Gardner, J.F. and Wiedemann, T. (1991) The Roman Household. A Sourcebook [DG 90.G2]
  • @Lefkowitz, M.R. and Fant, M.B. (1992) Women’s Life in Greece and Rome. A sourcebook in translation (2nd edn) [DE 61.W6] - online version
  • @Parkin, T. & Pomeroy, A. (2007) Roman Social History. A Sourcebook [DG 78.R6 + e-book]
  • Rowlandson, J. (1998) Women and society in Greek and Roman Egypt: a sourcebook [DT 62.W6]
  • Shelton, J-A. (1998) As the Romans Did. A Sourcebook in Roman Social History (2nd ed.) [DG 78.S4]
  • Further reading
  • Bradley, K. (1991) Discovering the Roman Family [DG 91.B7] • Carroll, M. (2006) Spirits of the Dead. Roman Funerary Commemoration in Western Europe [DG 103.C2] •
  • @Corbier, M. (1991) 'Family behavior of the Roman aristocracy, 2nd century BC-3rd century AD,' in S.B. Pomeroy, ed. Women's History and Ancient History 173-96 [DF 93.W6]
  • Dixon, S. (1990) The Roman Mother [DG 91.D4] • Gardner, J.F. (1986) Women in Roman Law and Society [DG 91.G2]
  • James, S.L. and Dillon, S. (2012) A Companion to Women in the Ancient World [HC 8700.C66]
  • Kertzer, D. and Saller, R. (1991) The family in Italy: from antiquity to the present [HC 8025.F2]
  • Rawson, B., ed. (1991) Marriage, Divorce, and Children in Ancient Rome [DG 19.M2]
  • @Shaw, B. (1987) ‘The age of Roman girls at marriage: some reconsiderations’, JRS 77: 30-46
  • @Treggiari, S. (1975) 'Jobs in the household of Livia', Papers of the British School at Rome 43: 48-77 [arts periodical]

3. Imagine that you have travelled back in time: Would you join the Roman Army? Why or Why not?

Be sure to explain your situation (e.g. Where do you live? Are you rich or poor? What has motivated your choices?) Then use specific evidence to support your argument (e.g accounts of military life, depictions of fighting, surviving forts, tombstones...)

• Campbell, J.B. (1984) The Emperor and the Roman Army 31 BC- AD235 [DG 276.5.C2] *Davies, R. (1989) Service in the Roman Army [U35.D2]
• Elton, H. (1996) Gilliver, C. (1999) The Roman Art of War [U 35.G4]
• Keppie, L. (1998) The Making of the Roman Army. From Republic to Empire [U 35 K3]
• Keppie, L. (1983) Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy [DG 105.K3]
• Campbell, B. (1978) ‘The marriage of soldiers under the Empire’ JRS 68: 153-66
• Cherry, D. (1989) ‘Roman soldiers’ marriages’, Ancient History Bulletin 3: 128-30 Gilliver, C. (1996) Battle in Antiquity [U 29.B2]
• Goldsworthy, A. (1996) The Roman Army at War 100 BC – AD 200 [U35.G6]
• Mann, J.C. (1983) Legionary Recruitment and Veteran Settlement during the Principate [U35.M2]
• Maxfield, V.A. Soldier and Civilian: life beyond the ramparts [DG 89.M2]
• Roth, J.P. (1999) The Logistics of the Roman Army at War (264 BC – AD 235) [U 35.W3]

Geographic studies
• Alston, R. (1995) Soldier and Society in Roman Egypt: a social history [DT 93.A5]
• Pollard, N. (2000) Soldiers, cities and civilians in Roman Syria [DG 59.S9]
• Isaac, B.H. (1990) The Limits of Empire: the Roman army in the East [DS62.1.18]
• Dobson, B. & Mann, J.C. (1973) ‘The Roman army in Britain and Britons in the Roman army’, Britannia 4: 191-205
• Blagg, T.F.C. and King, A.C., eds. (1984) Military and Civilian in Roman Britain. Cultural relationships in a frontier province [DA 145.M4]

• Campbell, J.B. (1994) The Roman Army, 31 BC – AD 337. A Sourcebook [U35.C2]
• Le Bohec, Y. (1994) The Imperial Roman Army [U 35.L3]
• Webster, G. (1985, 3rd edn) The Roman Imperial Army [U35.W3]
• Webster, G. (1985) The Roman Imperial Army: a social and economic study [DG 59.A2

4. Can modern concepts and definitions of literacy be applied to the ancient world? Why or why not?

To answer this question you will need to define the term carefully and use a few specific case studies of evidence. Your answer will undoubtedly depend on which type of ancient evidence you choose!

*See Lecture Handout

• Bonner, S.F. (1977). Education in Ancient Rome : from the elder Cato to the younger Pliny

• Clark, M.L. (1971). Higher Education in the Ancient World
• Dominik, W. & Hall, J. (2010). A Companion to Roman Rhetoric
• Grubbs, J.E. & Parkin, T. (eds). (2013). The Oxford handbook of childhood and education in the classical world
• James, S.L. & Dillon, S. (eds). (2012). A Companion to women in the ancient world
• Johnson, W.A., & Parker, H.N. (2009). Ancient Literacies: the culture of reading in Greece and Rome
• Konig, J., Oikonomopoulou, K., & Woolf, G. (eds). (2013). Ancient Libraries
• Matz, D. (2008). Daily Life of the Ancient Romans
• Morgan, T. (1998). Literate Education in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds
• Peachin, M. (ed). (2011). The Oxford handbook of social relations in the Roman world
• Rawson, B. (ed). (2011). A Companion to families in the Greek and Roman Worlds
• Too, Y.L. (ed). (2001). Education in Greek and Roman Antiquity


Joyal, M., McDougall, I., & Yardley, J.C. (2009). Greek and Roman education: a sourcebook

5. Is the portrayal of a person's identity on a Roman funerary monument more or less accurate than a modern Facebook profile page?Explain why or why not.

Through a detailed exploration of a few (1-3) Roman funerary monuments, this essay should consider what values, aspirations, and aspects of life are reflected in the art of Roman tombs.
Claridge, A. (1993) ‘Hadrian’s Column of Trajan’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 6: 1-22 [Arts periodical] •
  • Claridge, A. (1993) ‘Hadrian’s Column of Trajan’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 6: 1-22 [Arts periodical] •
  • *Colvin, H. M. (1991) Architecture and the after-life (New Haven, London: Yale University Press) [NA 6162.C6]
  • Davies, P.J.E. (2000) Death and the emperor (Cambridge) [NB 1875.D2]
  • Hope, V.M. (1997) ‘A roof over the dead: communal tombs & family structure’, in Domestic Space in the Roman World, eds R. Laurence & A. Wallace-Hadrill (JRA Suppl. 22: Portsmouth, RI) 69-88 [DG 97.D6]
  • Hope, V.M. (1997) 'Constructing Roman Identity: Funerary Monuments and Social Structure in the Roman World' Mortality 2: 103-121 [Social science periodical] •
  • Hope, V.M. (1997) 'Words and Pictures: the Interpretation of Romano-British Tombstones' Britannia 28: 245-258 [Arts periodical]
  • (1998) 'Negotiating Identity and Status: the Gladiators of Roman Nimes' in J. Berry and R. Laurence (eds.), Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire (Routledge) 179-195. [DG 78.C8]
  • (2000) ‘Fighting for identity: the funerary commemoration of Italian gladiators’ in The epigraphic landscape of Roman Italy, ed. A.E. Cooley (London: Institute of Classical Studies) [CN 530.E7] •
  • Hope, V.M. and Marshall, E. (eds) (2000) Death and disease in the ancient city (London: Routledge) [DE 61.D3]
  • Chapters by Hope, ‘Contempt and respect. The treatment of the corpse in ancient Rome’, 104-27; Patterson, ‘On the margins of the city of Rome’, 85-103 Hopkins, K. (1966) ‘On the probable age structure of the Roman population’, Population Studies 20: 245-64 [Social science periodical] •
  • *Hopkins, K. (1983) Death and renewal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Sociological studies in Roman history 2) [DG 103.H6]
  • Kyle, D. G. (1998) Spectacles of death in ancient Rome (London: Routledge) [DG 95.K9]
  • *Morris, I. (1992) Death-ritual and social structure in classical antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Key themes in ancient history) [DE 61.D3]
  • Mouritsen, H. (1997) ‘Mobility and social change in Italian towns during the principate’, in Roman urbanism: beyond the consumer city, ed. H. M. Parkins (London: Routledge) [DG 78.R6]
  • Patterson, J. (1992) ‘Patronage, collegia and burial in Imperial Rome’, in S. Bassett, (ed.) Death in towns: urban responses to the dying and the dead, 100-1600 (Leicester: Leicester University Press) 15-27 [GT 3243.D3]
  • Patterson, J. (2000) 'Living and dying in the city of Rome: houses and tombs' in J. Coulston & H. Dodge, eds Ancient Rome: the archaeology of the eternal city (Oxford) 259-89 [DG 65.A6]
  • Pearce, J. et al (eds) Burial, society and context in the Roman world (Oxford: Oxbow, 2000) [DG 103.B8]
  • Price, S. (1987) ‘From noble funerals to divine cult: the consecration of the Roman emperors’ in S. Price & D. Cannadine, (eds) Rituals of royalty: power and ceremonial in traditional societies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press [GT 5010.R4]
  • *Toynbee, J. M. C. (1971) Death and burial in the Roman world (London: Thames & Hudson) [DG 103.T6]
  • *Walker, S. (1985) Memorials to the Roman dead (London: British Museum) [DG 103.W2]