Skip to main content


There is one two-hour weekly lecture session, punctuated by a 10-minute break: Thursdays 1-3 p.m., Room S0.21.The lectures will present primary sources (texts and artefacts), providing guidance in assessing their relative strengths and weaknesses as historical evidence, and will highlight some of the main areas of debate. Lectures are meant to be interactive and to give students an opportunity to respond directly to materials and questions ( as you will have to do on essays, exams and in job interviews). It is your chance to ask questions, to practise your analytical abilities and to develop skills in communication. I adjust lectures every year, based on the questions that emerge in class, so the more you are willing to contribute, the more you (and everyone else) will get out of the lecture.

The group will be divided into smaller groups for two seminars in each of the first two terms (term 1 weeks 3, 5 and 10, term weeks 3 and 5 ). Students will be asked to complete some preparatory reading, and come prepared to participate in informal discussion of the topics. Seminar worksheets will be distributed two weeks before each seminar, but may also be accessed online. Please see the SEMINAR PAGE for more details

Students are advised that attendance at every lecture and seminar is compulsory since the assessed essays and exam paper will draw upon the material covered in them. If you have to miss a lecture or seminar for some good reason, please let the lecturer and module convenor know in advance if possible, or as soon as possible thereafter.

Students are expected to do some consolidation work after each lecture, working from the weekly bibliographies. You should aim to read the recommended readings, and then choose a couple of more specialized works. The second seminar in Term 1 (week 5) is designed to illustrate how we consolidate lecture materials: combining further analysis of the material evidence (in handouts and powerpoints) with further reading. For more advice and materials on lecture consolidation, see resources on the ESSAY page. All lecture powerpoints and handouts can be downloaded from the LECTURE POWERPOINTS page.

Pantheon, Rome

Villa Adriana, Tivoli: Large Baths