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Essays

For a general guide to writing essays, please consult the student handbook. The following notes are intended to help with writing essays for this module and are based on problems that have arisen in previous years.

In general, avoid excessive use of quotations when writing essays, particularly when drawing on secondary sources. Use quotes sparingly, for example when you want to emphasise the particular viewpoint of a scholar or when you want to critique the passage you are quoting. Don't use quotes as a substitute for your own words and arguments - marks will not be awarded for use of other people's words. This module introduces you to some very diverse points of view and it will often be necessary to cite the differing views of scholars, but you should try to put those views in your own words as much as possible, unless you intend to analyse the words you are quoting.

Beware of relying on general economic textbooks for the bulk of your argument. This has occasionally happened in the past, probably because the student writing the essay left it too late and found the relevant books had been taken out of the library. While these textbooks can be useful for general background theory, they suppose you are dealing with a world in which hard data are available. They do not suppose that you are dealing with the Roman world, where even the evidence for the very nature of the economy can be debated.

Bibliographies: photocopies of many of the items are available in the Departmental Office, in box files. You can borrow individual items for two days.

Term 1

Essay to be submiited no later than 12.00 noon on Friday 1 December.



1. Is there a case for intensive growth in the Roman world? What sort of evidence is available to support or refute such a case?


Bibliography

Greif, A ‘Comment on Hitchner and Saller’, in Manning and Morris, pp. 239-242.

Hitchiner, R B 2005 ‘“The Advantages of Wealth and Luxury”. The Case for Economic Growth in the Roman Empire’, in Manning and Morris, pp. 207-222.

Hopkins K 1983 ‘Introduction’, in Garnsey, Hopkins and Whittaker, Trade in the Ancient Economy’, 1983, pp. ix-xv.

Millett P ‘Productive to some purpose? The problem of ancient economic growth’, in Mattingly and Salmon, Economies beyond agriculture, pp. 17-48.

Saller R ‘Framing the Debate over Growth in the Ancient Economy’, in Manning and Morris, pp. 223-238.

Woolf, G ‘Regional productions in early Roman Gaul’, in Mattingly and Salmon, chapter 3.


2. Is the model of the 'consumer city' an adequate one for describing the economic role of cities in the Roman world?

Bibliography

Finley M I 1981 ‘The ancient city from Fustel de Coulanges to Max Weber and beyond’, in Finley, M I, Economy and Society in Ancient Greece (eds. R Saller and B D Shaw), London.

Horden, P, and Purcell, N 2000 The Corrupting Sea: A Study in Mediterranean History, Oxford.

Jongman W 1988 The Economy and Society of Pompeii, Amsterdam.

Mattingly, D J and Salmon J (eds.) 2001 Economies Beyond Agriculture in the Classical World, London.

Morley N 1996 Metropolis and Hinterland: the city of Rome and the Italian economy, Cambridge.

Parkins, H and Smith, C (eds.) 1998 Trade, Traders and the Ancient City, London and New York.

Weber, M 1958 The City, New York.

Whittaker C R 1995 ‘Do theories of the ancient city matter?’ in Cornell, T and Lomas, K (eds.), Urban Society in Roman Italy, London, pp. 9-26.


3. Did the Roman empire depend on a heavily integrated economy?

Bibliography

Duncan-Jones, R 1990 Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy, Cambridge.

Duncan-Jones, R 1994 Money and Government in the Roman Empire, Cambridge.

M. Fulford, ‘Economic interdependence among the urban communities of the Roman Mediterranean’, World Archaeology 19 (1987), 41-90 (on JSTOR).

K. Hopkins, ‘Rome, taxes, rents and trade’, in W. Scheidel and S. von Reden (eds), The ancient economy, Edinburgh 2002, 190-230.

Harris V W 1993 ‘Between archaic and modern: some current problems in the history of the Roman economy’, in Harris V W (ed.), The Inscribed Economy: Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in the light of the Instrumentum Domesticum, Ann Arbor: 11-29.

Howgego, C J 1994 ‘Coin circulation and the integration of the Roman economy’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 7, pp. 5-21.

Wilson, A 2009 ‘Quantifying the Roman economy: integration, growth, decline?’ in Bowman, A and Wilson, A (eds.) Quantifying the Roman Economy: Methods and Problems, Oxford: 3-84.

Woolf, G 1992 ‘Imperialism, empire and the integration of the Roman economy’, World Archaeology 23.3: 283-293.


Term 2

Essay to be submiited no later than 12.00 noon on Friday 2 March.


1. What were the economic consequences of the so-called ‘Antonine Plague’ of the later second century AD?

Bagnall, R 2002 ‘The effects of plague: model and evidence’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 15: 114-120.

Duncan-Jones, R 1996 ‘The impact of the Antonine Plague’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 9: 108-136.

Jongman, W 2006 ‘The rise and fall of the Roman economy: population, rents, and entitlement’, in P. Bang, M. Ikeguchi, and H. Ziche, eds., Ancient Economies, Modern Methodologies. Archaeology, Comparative Historiy, Models, and Institutions, Bari.

@Lo Cascio, E 2007 ‘The early Roman empire: the state and the economy’, in W. Scheidel, I. Morris, R. Saller, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of the Graeco-Roman World, Cambridge: 619-647.

Scheidel, W 2002 ‘A model of demographic and economic change in Roman Egypt after the Antonine Plague’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 15: 97-114.

Van Minnen, P 2001 ‘P.Oxy. LXVI 4257 and the Antonine plague in Egypt’ Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 135: 175-7.


2. Can we speak of technological innovation in the Roman world, and did it influence productivity?

Greene K 1994 ‘Technology and innovation in context: the Roman background to medieval and later developments’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 7: 22-32.

@Greene, K 2000 ‘Technological innovation and economic progress in the ancient world: M. I. Finley re-considered’, Economic History Review 53: 29-59.

Humphrey, J W, Oleson, J P, Sherwood A N, 1998 Greek and Roman Technology: a sourcebook, London. T 16.H8

Scheidel, W 2009 ‘In search of Roman economic growth’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 22: 46-70.

White, K D 1984 Greek and Roman Technology, Cornell. T 16.W4

@Wilson, A 2002 ‘Machines, power, and the ancient economy’, Journal of Roman Studies 92: 1-32

Wilson, A 2009 ‘Indicators for Roman economic growth: a response to W. Scheidel’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 22: 71-82.


3. EITHER

Outline the problems of integrating material evidence with textual evidence for the study of the ancient economy.

OR

Using two different types of artefact, outline how the ancient economy can be studied.

Archer, M 1997 ‘Amphorae’ in Soren, D and Soren N. (eds), A Roman villa and a late Roman infant cemetery: excavation at Poggio Gramignano, Rome, L'Erma di Bretschneider.

Cool, H 2006 Eating and drinking in Roman Britain, Cambridge University Press. Francovich, R, Patterson H and Barker G. 2000 Extracting meaning from ploughsoil assemblages, Oxford: Oxbow.

Finley, M I 1999, The Ancient Economy, University of California Press.

Greene, K 1992 The Archaeology of the Roman Economy, University of California Press.

@Greene, K. 2000 ‘Technological innovation and economic progress in the ancient world: M. I. Finley re-considered’, The Economic History Review 53(1): 29-59. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2599464

Harris, V W 1993 The Inscribed Economy: Production and Distribution in the Roman Empire in the light of the Instrumentum Domesticum, Ann Arbor.

Hingley, R and Willis S. (eds) 2005 Roman finds: context and theory. Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Durham. Oxford: Oxbow.

Keppie, L. 2001 Understanding Roman inscriptions, London: Routledge.

Mattingly D 1988 ‘Oil for export? A comparison of Libyan, Spanish and Tunisian olive oil poduction in the Roman empire’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 1: 33-56.

Mattingly, D J and Salmon J (eds.) 2001 Economies Beyond Agriculture in the Classical World, London.