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October 30: The ‘Hopkins model’


Hopkins, K 1980 ‘Taxes and trade in the Roman empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 70, pp. 101-125. Make sure you understand what Hopkins is arguing and be prepared to discuss it in class. What is the ‘Hopkins model’ of taxes and trade? How do you think you would test it? What is the difference between deduction and induction? (If you want to find out more about models, read the first section of Hopkins’s later essay ‘Rome, taxes, rents and trade’, in Scheidel and von Reden, The Ancient Economy, Edinburgh, pp. 191-3.)

January 14: The debate over the function of Roman coinage

Was coinage used by the state as a means of payment only, or did the producers of coin also consider its function as a means of exchange?


M. Crawford, ‘Money and Exchange in the Roman World’, Journal of Roman Studies 60 (1970), pp. 40-8.

C. J. Howgego, ‘Why did Ancient States Strike Coins?’ Numismatic Chronicle 1991, pp. 1-25 (photocopies in the Classics Office).

C. J. Howgego, ‘The Supply and Use of Money in the Roman World’, Journal of Roman Studies 82 (1992), pp. 1-31.


Date tba: Is the distribution of amphoras a good indication of the extent and scale of trade?

Archer, M 1997 'The amphorae' in Soren, D. and Soren, N. (eds) A Roman villa and a late Roman infant cemetery : excavation at Poggio Gramignano. L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1997. DG70.L8

Tyers ND Potsherd website

Tyers 1996 'Roman Amphoras in Britain', Internet Archaeology 1 (16/1/10)

Keay S. and Williams D. (2008) Roman Amphorae: a digital resource (28/12/2009)

Hayes, J. 1997 Handbook of Mediterranean Roman pottery, London, British Museum Press.

Reynolds, P. 1995 Trade in the western Mediterranean, AD 400-700 : the ceramic evidence, Oxford. DE 61.E2

Tyers, P. 1996 Roman pottery in Britain, London, Batsford. NK 3850.T9


Date tba: Was the Roman army a 'total institution'?


Haynes, I. 1999 'Introduction: The Roman Army as a community', in Goldsworthy, A. and Haynes, I. The Roman Army as a Community, JRA Supplementary Series 34.

Pollard, N., 'The Roman army as "total institution"', in D.L. Kennedy (ed.), The Roman Army in the East, JRA Supplementary Series18, Ann Arbor 1996, pp. 211-227

James, S. 2001 'Soldiers and civilians: identity and interaction in Roman Britain', in James, S. and Millett, M., Briton and Romans: advancing an archaeological agenda, pp 77-89 York: CBA Research report 125 (Photocopy in Office)