Convenor: Dr Sarah Wood
This 15-CAT module will be taught via 9 x 1.5 hour seminars in term 1.
Module description and aims
‘Who painted the lion?’ The best-known female character in medieval English literature, the Wife of Bath, was written by a man, yet as that text makes clear, Chaucer made women, their relationships, their trials, and their position in relation to textual culture his favourite themes. Since the 1980s, criticism of medieval literature has increasingly emphasised Chaucer’s understanding of the nature of gender as a social construct. The medieval period before Chaucer had witnessed a remarkable early flowering of religious literature written in Britain in the vernacular for women. The period 1150-1450 also saw the diverse literary outputs of the first named woman author writing in the British Isles (Marie de France), the first woman author writing in English (Julian of Norwich), the first professional woman writer in Europe (Christine de Pizan), and the earliest autobiography in English, written by the wife, mother, and visionary Margery Kempe.
This module explores the centrality of female voices, real and fictional, to the history of medieval writing by studying Chaucer’s women alongside examples of pre- and post-Chaucerian texts written specifically for female audiences. The course will also introduce students to the work of four major female authors writing from the 12th to the 15th centuries in a range of modes (romance, religious vision, love poetry, polemic).
Introduction: Medieval antifeminisms and the female voice
Week 1. Extracts from antifeminist writings; The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale (in the Riverside Chaucer).
The extracts are as follows: Extracts from Ovid, Heloise and Abelard, and Jean de Meun's The Romance of the Rose, in Woman Defamed and Woman Defended: An Anthology of Medieval Texts, ed. by Alcuin Blamires (Oxford, 1992), pp. 17-25, pp. 87-91, pp. 148-63. Extract from Jerome, Against Jovinian, in Sources and Analogues of the Canterbury Tales, ed. by Robert M. Correale and Mary Hamel (Cambridge, 2005), pp. 360-66.
These extracts are provided as scans from the Library; please click on links above for electronic copies.
Week 2. The Legend of Good Women (in the Riverside Chaucer)
Week 3. The Man of Law’s Tale, The Clerk’s Tale, The Physician’s Tale (in the Riverside Chaucer)
Literature for women
Week 4. Anchoritic literature: Ancrene Wisse (ed. by Watson and Savage). Please read Introduction, Part II Outer Senses, Part III Inner Feelings, Part IV Temptations (up until p. 128), Part VII Love, Part VIII Outer Rule.
Week 5. Lives of female saints: The Stanzaic Life of St Margaret of Antioch, The Stanzaic Life of St Katherine of Alexandria, and Osbern Bokenham's The Life of St Anne. All in Middle English Legends of Women Saints, ed. by Reames, available online here.
Four women authors
Week 7. Marie de France, Lais (Penguin translation): please read the Prologue together with Le Fresne, Bisclavret, Lanval, Yonec, Laüstic, Chevrefoil.
Week 8. Julian of Norwich, Showings (Norton edn). Please read chapters 1-9, 16-22, 27-33, 45-52, 58-63.
Week 9. The Book of Margery Kempe (ed. by Staley, TEAMS edition: available online here). Please read the Prologue and chapters 1-7, 11, 21-22, 26-31, 35-36, 52-55, 79-81, 88-89.
Week 10. Christine de Pizan, Selected Writings (Norton edn: Ballads, The God of Love’s Letter, The Debate on the Romance of the Rose (extracts), The Book of Fortune's Transformation (extracts), The Book of the City of Ladies (extracts)).
Books to buy
- L.D. Benson et al. (ed.) The Riverside Chaucer (you should have this book already from EN121)
- A. Savage & N. Watson (eds and tr.) Anchoritic Spirituality: 'Ancrene Wisse' and Associated Writers (Classics of Western Spirituality Series) Paulist Press, 1991
- Marie de France, Lais, trans. by G. Burgess and K. Busby, 2nd edn (Penguin, 2003)
- Julian of Norwich, Showings, ed. Denise Baker (Norton, 2005)
- Christine de Pizan, The Selected Writings, ed. and trans by R. Blumenfeld-Kosinski and K. Brownlee (Norton, 1997)
- Acquire a knowledge of the variety of women’s experience and writing during the European Middle Ages;
- Develop an informed historical understanding of the medieval antifeminist tradition and responses to it;
- Gain an appreciation of the ways in which medieval women navigated their relationships to religious and textual authority;
- Acquire an ability to reflect critically on the gendering of voice and authorial identities in medieval texts, and develop a critical understanding of approaches to medieval texts informed by modern theorisations of gender and sexuality
1 x 5000 word essay, due in term 2, week 1.
Students are expected to have studied EN121 Medieval to Renaissance Literature or to have equivalent prior reading knowledge of Middle English literature.
You may also be interested in the following modules:
Dreaming in the Middle Ages: Fiction, Imagination, and Knowledge (15 CATS, term 1)
Medieval Alterities (15 CATS, term 2)