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Ideologies and States (2): Extremism

Associated Skill: Propaganda

Seminar Questions

  1. What was appealing about Socialism and Fascism? Are there more similiarities than differences between fascist and socialist ideologies?
  2. To what extent did Stalin succeed in creating a socialist society?
  3. How and why did Marxism become an ideology of anti-colonial struggle?
  4. Was fascism a transnational movement?
  5. What role did violence play in Fascist ideology and propaganda?

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Background Reading

Document images from the MRC: Ideologies and States

Overall Survey Text

From Owen to Blum: European Socialism Up to World War II

  • Barbara Taylor, Eve and the New Jerusalem (1983)
  • Franz Mehring, Karl Marx: the story of his Life (1936)
  • Karl Kautsky, The Economic Doctrines of Karl Marx (1979)
  • Siegbert Salomon Prawer, Karl Marx and World Literature (1976)
  • Vernon Lidtke, The Alternative Culture (1985)
  • Gary Steenson, After Marx, Before Lenin (1991)
  • Sheila Rowbotham, Edward Carpenter: a life of liberty and love (2009)
  • Peter Gay, The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism (1979)
  • Carl Schorske, German Social Democracy, 1905-1917 (1972)
  • Helmut Gruber and Pamela Graves (eds), Women and Socialism, Socialism and Women (1998)
  • Hendrik De Man, The Psychology of Marxian Socialism (1985)
  • Gerd-Rainer Horn, European Socialists Respond to Fascism (1996)
  • Jerome Mintz, The Anarchists of Casas Viejas (1982)
  • Burnett Bolloten, The Spanish Civil War: revolution and counterrevolution (1991)
  • Martha Ackelsberg, Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women (1991)
  • Martin S. Alexander and Helen Graham (eds), The French and Spanish Popular Front (1981)
  • Michael Torigian, Every Factory a Fortress: The French Labor Movement in the Age of Ford and Hitler (1999)
  • Tom Behan, The Italian Resistance: Fascists, Guerrillas and the Allies (2009)

From Lenin to Stalin: The Soviet Experience to WW II

  • Roy Medvedev, 'Soviets as a Form of Revolutionary Power', in Leninism and Western Socialism (1981), pp. 97-105, 114-133
  • Leon Trotsky, The History of the Russian Revolution (1977)
  • Stephen A. Smith, Red Petrograd (1983)
  • Oskar Anweiler, The Soviets: the Russian Workers, Peasants, and Soldiers Councils, 1905-1921 (1974)
  • Marcel Liebman, Leninism Under Lenin (1975)
  • Daniel Kaiser (ed.), The Workers’ Revolution in Russia (1987)
  • David Mandel, The Petrograd Workers and the Fall of the Old Regime (1983/4)
  • Christopher Read, From Tsar to Soviets (1996)
  • Christopher Read, Lenin: A Revolutionary Life (2005)
  • Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Commissariat of Enlightenment (1970)
  • Robert V. Daniels, The Conscience of the Revolution (1960)
  • Samuel Farber, Before Stalinism (1990)
  • Simon Pirani, The Russian Revolution in Retreat, 1920-24 (2008)
  • Elizabeth Wood, The Baba and the Comrade: Gender and Politics in Revolutionary Russia (1997)
  • Moshe Lewin, The Making of the Soviet System (1985)
  • Moshe Lewin, The Soviet Century (2005)
  • Isaac Deutscher, Stalin: a Political Biography (1967)
  • Suzi Weissman, Victor Serge (2001)
  • Norman LaPorte, Kevin Morgan and Matthew Worley (eds), Bolshevism, Stalinism and the Comintern: Perspectives on Stalinisation, 1917-53 (2008)

From Mao to Lula: Socialism in the Extra-European World

  • V.G. Kiernan, Marxism and Imperialism (1974)
  • Benedict Anderson, Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-Colonial Imagination (2005)
  • Gérard Chaliand, Revolution in the Third World (1977)
  • Samir Amin et al, Transforming the Revolution (1990)
  • Aimé Césaire, Discourse on Colonialism (1972)
  • Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (1967)
  • George Jan Lerski, Origins of Trotskyism in Ceylon (1968)
  • Harold Isaacs, The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution (1966)
  • Livio Maitan, Party, Army and Masses in China (1976)
  • Richard Gott, Guerrilla Movements in Latin America (1970)
  • Michael Löwy (ed.), Marxism in Latin America (1999)
  • James Dunkerley, Rebellion in the Veins: Political Struggle in Bolivia, 1952-1982 (1984)
  • Janette Habel, Cuba (1991)
  • John Holloway and Eloίna Peláez (eds), Zapatista! Reinventing Revolution in Mexico (1998)
  • Sue Branford and Bernardo Kucinski, Politics Transformed: Lula and the Workers’ Party in Brazil (2003)
  • D.L. Raby, Democracy and Revolution: Latin America and Socialism Today (2006)
  • Emir Sader, The New Mole. Paths of the Latin American Left (2011)
  • Paul Buhle, Marxism in the United States (1991)

From Marcuse to Monbiot: Socialism in the Post-WW II Era

  • Tom Behan, The Long-Awaited Moment: The Working Class and the Italian Communist Party in Milan, 1943-1948 (1997)
  • Janet Hart, New Voices in the Nation: Women and the Greek Resistance (1996)
  • Oscar L. Arnal, Priests in Working-Class Blue: The History of the Worker Priests (1943-1954) (1986)
  • Barry Katz, Herbert Marcuse and the Art of Liberation (1982)
  • Wini Breines, Community and Organization in the New Left (1989)
  • Jon Wiener, Come Together: John Lennon in His Time (1995)
  • Sheila Rowbotham, Promise of a Dream: Remembering the Sixties (2002)
  • Gerd-Rainer Horn, The Spirit of ’68 (2007)
  • Martin Klimke and Joachim Scharloth (eds), 1968 in Europe (2008)
  • Dan Georgakas, Detroit: I Do Mind Dying: a study in Urban Revolution (1975)
  • Robert Lumley, States of Emergency: Cultures of Revolt in Italy From 1968 to 1978 (1990)
  • Ernest Mandel, From Stalinism to Eurocommunism (1978)
  • Lucio Magri, The Tailor of Ulm. A Possible History of Communism (2011)
  • Jan Willem Stutje, Ernest Mandel: A Rebel’s Dream Deferred (2009)
  • Gerassimos Moschonas, In the Name of Social Democracy: The Great Transformation from 1945 to the Present (2001)
  • Leo Panitch, The End of Parliamentary Socialism: From New Left to New Labour (2001)
  • Hilary Wainwright, Reclaim the State: Adventures in Popular Democracy (2003)
  • George Monbiot, The Age of Consent: Manifesto for a New World Order (2003)

See also:


  • Geoff Eley, Nazism as Fascism: Violence, Ideology, and the Ground of Consent in Germany 1930-1945 (New York: Routledge, 2013)
  • Richard J. Evans, "The Emergence of Nazi Ideology." In Jane Caplan (ed.), Nazi Germany (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008)
  • Moritz Föllmer, "Was Nazism Collectivistic? Redefining the Individual in Berlin, 1930-1945." Journal of Modern History, 82 (2010), pp. 61-100
  • Peter Fritzsche, Germans into Nazis *Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998)
  • Ian Kershaw, The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation (London: Arnold, 2000)
  • Tim Kirk, Nazi Germany (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
  • Eric Kurlander, "Violence, Volksgemeinschaft and Empire: Interpreting the Third Reich in the Twenty-first Century." Journal of Contemporary History, 46 (2011), pp. 920-934.
  • Philip Morgan, Italian Fascism, 1915-1945 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)
  • George Mosse, The Fascist Revolution: Toward a General Theory of Fascism (New York: H. Fertig, 1999)
  • Sven Reichardt, "Violence and Community: A Micro-Study on Nazi Storm Troopers." Central European History, 46 (2013), pp. 275-297.
  • Michael Wildt, An Uncompromising Generation: The Nazi Leadership of the Reich Security Main Office (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009)
  • Michael Wildt, Hitler's Volksgemeinschaft and the Dynamics of Racial Exclusion: Violence against Jews in Provincial Germany, 1919-1939 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2012)