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FR322 Module Outline

  • Revolution and Empire Term 1

Week Lecture Seminar
Week 1 The Ancien Régime Introduction to the module
Week 2 The National Assembly

The origins of the Revolution

Presentation: the impact of Enlightenment philosophy on the revolutionaries

Set reading for all:

§ Doyle, Oxford History of the French Revolution, chapters 1-3

§ Cahier de doléance extract (to be handed out in lecture)

§ Letter from Catherine de Saint-Pierre in Dieppe (to be handed out in lecture)

Recommended reading:

§ Censer/ Hunt chapter 1 (online at http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap1a.html)

Topics for discussion:

§ the monarchy in the ancien régime

§ Society in the ancien régime

Week 3 War and the downfall of the monarchy

1789

Presentation: the Déclarations des droits de l'homme: what they represented, their importance, their impact

Presentation reading: Les déclarations des droits de l'homme de 1789 / textes réunis et présentés par Christine Fauré (1988)

Set reading for all:

§ Doyle, chapters 4-5

§ Mercier, Adieux à l'année 1789

§ Déclaration des droits de l’homme

Topics for discussion:

§ the estates general

§ the fall of the Bastille

§ the regeneration of France

§ the key achievements of 1789

Week 4

Women in the Revolution and the

Déclaration des droits de la femme et de la citoyenne, Olympe de Gouges

Students must have carefully read this text and bring a printed copy in class

The fall of the monarchy

Set reading for all:

§ Doyle, Oxford History of the French Revolution, chapters 6-8

§ 'Séance du 21 juin', Club des Cordeliers (to be handed out in class)

§ Revolutionary pamphlets (on gallica):

§ Louis XVI et Antoinette, traités comme ils le méritent (1791)

§ Antoinette d'Autriche ou Dialogue entre Catherine de Médicis et Frédégonde, reines de France, aux enfers (1789)

§ Républicains, guillotinez-moi ce jean-foutre de Louis XVI, et cette putain de Marie-Antoinette, d'ici à quatre jours, si vous voulez avoir du pain... (1793)

Topics for discussion:

§ the flight to Varennes

§ 10 August

Presentation: Marie-Antoinette: myth and reality

Presentation reading: The Wicked Queen, Thomas, esp. chapter 4

Week 5 Introduction to Theatre of the Revolution

Theatre of the Revolution

Hands-on session in the Modern Records Centre: Introduction to the Marandet collection and digitisation project

Week 6 Reading week Reading week
Week 7 Olympe de Gouges and Marie-Joseph Chénier

Art and Revolution

Set reading:

De Gouges, Mirabeau aux Champs Elysées

Chénier, Charles IX

Presentation: Jacques-Louis David

Presentation reading: '"Charles IX, ou l'École des Rois": Tragédie Nationale' by H. C. Ault, MLR, Vol. 48, No. 4 (Oct., 1953), pp. 398-406 on JSTOR at http://www.jstor.org/stable/3718653

Topics for discussion:

the problems of producing political theatre

Recommended reading:

Leith, James A., The Idea of Art as Propaganda in France, 1750-1799: a study in the history of ideas (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965)

Week 8 The trials of the King and Queen

The trials of the King and Queen

Set reading: Censer/Hunt, Chapter 6 (available at http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap6a.html)

Descente de Louis Capet aux enfers, introduit par le patriote Moustache

Dialogue entre Charles Ier et Louis le Dernier

Presentation: the Revolutionary Calendar

Topics for discussion:

Trace the representation of the monarchy through the images provided in the ‘Symbolic decline’ section of Chapter 6 (22 images in total).

Compare the types of depiction in the visual images with the written pamphlets studied earlier in the term.

‘The trial of Marie-Antoinette was a showpiece of revolutionary hatred’ (Andress (2005), p. 225)). Discuss.

Week 9 Terror 1793

Terror

Set reading for all:

· Doyle, chapters 11-13

· Robespierre’s speeches Sur les principes de morale politique and Sur les rapports des idées religieuses et morales avec les principes républicains. Full text versions of a number of Robespierre's speeches are available at http://membres.lycos.fr/discours/discours.htm

· Saint-Just, Rapport sur la nécessité de déclarer le gouvernement révolutionnaire jusqu'à la paix (Oct 1793). Full text versions of Saint Just's speeches are available at http://www.royet.org/nea1789-1794/ihm/index_archives_discours_stjust.htm

Recommended reading:

· Blum, C., Rousseau and the Republic of Virtue: The Language of Politics in the French Revolution (1986)

· Haydon, C. and W. Doyle (eds), Robespierre (1999)

· David Jordan, The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre (1989)

Presentation: persuasion and the social vision in Robespierre and Saint-Just

Suggested reading: Négrel, Eric and J.-P. Sermain, Une Expérience rhétorique: L’Eloquence de la Révolution, SVEC 2002:2

Week 10 Terror 1794 Art as Propaganda II

Set reading:

§ Maréchal, Jugement dernier des rois

§ Jean-Marie Apostolides, ‘La Guillotine littéraire’, The French Review 62 (6), 1989, pp. 985-996. Available on JSTOR.

Presentation: a dialogue from Nouveaux dialogues des morts, entre les plus fameux personnages de la Révolution française

Suggested reading: § Jacques Proust, ‘De Sylvain Maréchal à Maiakovski: contribution à l’étude du théâtre révolutionnaire’, Studies in Eighteenth-Century French literature presented to Robert Niklaus (1975), pp. 215-44.

Topics for discussion:

§ Sans-culotte ideology in the play

§ Nature and the sublime

 

Revolution and Empire term 2

Week Lecture Seminar

Week 11

The
Directory

Revolutionary songs

Set reading Chansonnier révolutionnaire:

  • songs 21 (Les Émigrants),
  • 32 (La Marseillaise),
  • 33 (La Carmagnole),
  • 53 (Chanson des sans-culottes),
  • 58 (variant on La Marseillaise),
  • 73 (Hymne à la liberté),
  • 74 (Hymne patriotique relative à l’inauguration du temple de la raison),
  • 92 (Hymne à l’être suprême),
  • 102 (Le Réveil du peuple),
  • 106 (La Contre-Marseillaise),
  • 109 (Le vrai Réveil du peuple)

Recommended reading:

  • Brécy, La Révolution en chantant
  • Mason, L., Singing the French Revolution (1996)
  • Ozouf, M., La Fête révolutionnaire (1976)

Presentation: the representation of women in songs

Topics of discussion:

  • Jones (ed) The French Revolution, section 3, chapters 12-15: gender in the public sphere

Week 12

The
Consulate and the rise of Napoleon

The Directory and the end of the Revolution

Set reading:

Recommended reading: Jourdan, L’Empire de Napoléon, chap 1

Presentation: What were the dangers facing the Republic between 1795 and 1799?

Questions:

  • What was the importance of the coup of fructidor?
  • Did the Directory make any real contribution to the Revolution?
  • Why is it seen as the ‘unheroic’ period of the Revolution? (term used in chapter 7 of

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap7e.html , p. 5.)

  • How is rhetoric being used in the pronouncement from the Directory?

Topics of discussion:

  • Bonaparte in Italy Martyn Lyons,
  • Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution, chapter 3 (in SLC)

Week 13

Theatre:
Pixérécourt, Victor (available on Gallica)

The creation of the Empire

Set reading:

Presentation: How does Napoleon legitimise his position as emperor?

Questions:

  • Was the consulate already a dictatorship?
  • How is the Empire organised?

Topics of discussion:

How did the Concordat provide stability?

(recommended reading: the text of the Concordat, available at http://www.napoleon.org/fr/salle_lecture/articles/files/Concordat_18011.asp )

And Jacques-Olivier Boudon, ‘L'état religieux de la France à la veille de la signature du Concordat’, Revue du souvenir Napoléonien, 432 (2001), 3-11, available at http://www.napoleon.org/fr/salle_lecture/articles/files/etat_religieux_France_veille1.asp

Week 14

The
Empire

Pixérécourt, Victor

  • morality
  • the notion of popular theatre
  • II viii
  • III xi

Presentation: the spectacular spectacle in Victor

Recommended reading:

  • Simone Bernard-Griffiths et Jean Sgard, Mélodrames et romans noirs: 1750-1890 (2000)
  • Jean-Marie Thomasseau, ‘Le Mélodrame et la censure sous le Premier Empire et la Restauration’, Revue des Sciences humaines 162 (1976), 171-82.
  • Jean-Marie Thomasseau, Le Mélodrame (1984)
  • Michael Tilby, ‘Ducray-Duminil’s Victor, ou l’enfant de la forêt in the context of the Revolution’, Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 249 (1987), 407-38

Week 15

Research session with departmental librarian

Napoleon the legend

Lecture from visiting speaker

Set reading:

  • Annie Jourdan, ‘Images de Napoléon – un imperator en quête de légitimité’, Modern & Contemporary France 8 (4) (2000), p. 433-444 (full text available on-line through Warwick library e-journal access).
  • Philip Dwyer, ‘Napoleon Bonaparte as hero and saviour’, French History 18 (4) (2004), 379-403. (full text available on-line through Warwick library e-journal access)

Images (available on http://www.photo.rmn.fr )

  • David, Jacques Louis (1748-1825), Bonaparte, Premier consul, franchissant le Grand Saint-Bernard, 20 mai 1800
  • François Bouchot (1800-1842), Le général Bonaparte au Conseil des Cinq-Cents, à Saint-Cloud. 10 novembre 1799 (1840)
  • Gros, Antoine-Jean (baron) (1771-1835), Bonaparte au pont d'Arcole (17 novembre 1796) (1796)
  • David, Jacques Louis (1748-1825), Portrait de Napoléon Ier en costume impérial (1805)
  • David, Jacques Louis (1748-1825), Sacre de l'Empereur Napoléon Ier et couronnement de l'Impératrice Joséphine dans l'église Notre dame de Paris, 2 décembre 1804
  • David, Jacques Louis (1748-1825), L'Empereur dans son cabinet de travail aux Tuileries (1812)
  • Gros, Antoine-Jean (baron) (1771-1835), Bonaparte visitant les pestiférés de Jaffa (1804)
  • Girodet, De Roussy-Trioson Anne-Louis (1767-1824), Napoléon Ier recevant les clefs de Vienne à Schönbrunn, le 13 novembre 1805
  • Franque, Jean-Pierre (1774-1860), Allégorie sur l'état de la France avant le retour d'Egypte (1810)


Week 16

Reading week Reading week

Week 17

Theatre
of the Empire

Women in France 1800-1815

‘A society’s treatment of its female citizens is the measure of its civilisation’ (Lucy Moore, Liberty, p. 389.

Set reading:

Recommended reading:

  • Lynn Hunt ’The Unstable Boundaries of the French Revolution’, in A History of Private Life, IV, ed. by Michelle Perrot (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1990), pp. 13-45.
  • Suzanne Desan, ‘Reconstituting the social after the Terror’, Past and Present, 164 (1999), 81-121. (full text available on-line through Warwick library e-journal access)
  • Winegarten, Renee, Accursed politics : some French women writers and political life, 1715-1850 (2003)

Presentation: Joséphine Bonaparte and Marie-Louise

Topics of discussion:

  • Mme de Genlis
  • Mme Récamier

Week 18

Writers
under Napoleon

Esménard, Le Triomphe de Trajan (1807) (on Gallica)

Topics for discussion:

  • Esménard’s’collusion avec l’idéal moral, social et politique de l’Empire'
  • The representation of Trajan
  • 1807 as apogee of Napoleon’s Empire

Presentation: Neoclassicism and the First Empire

Recommended reading: Vincent Deloge, ‘Heurs et malheurs de l’opéra de Paris au XIXe siècle : Le Consulat et l’Empire’, available at http://www.forumopera.com/v1/actu/napo.htm

Week 19

Decline of the Empire

Chateaubriand, René (1802); De Buonaparte et des Bourbons (1814)

Presentation: To what extent does René illustrate the post-revolutionary period?

Questions:

  • How might it be seen to support Napoleon?
  • How does Chateaubriand represent Napoleon and the Empire in 1814?

Week 20

The end of the Empire

Napoleon and the Revolutionary legacy

Set reading:

  • Martyn Lyons, ‘Napoleon and the revolutionary potential of Bonapartism’, Modern & Contemporary France 8(4) (2000), 507-510.
  • Annie Jourdan, chapters 5 & 6

Topics for discussion:

  • Napoléon: Fils de la Révolution? Tyran? Despote éclairé?
  • Jean Tulard : ‘ la dictature napoléonienne, c’est au fond le césarisme de la Rome antique, un compromis entre les nécessités d’un gouvernement de Salut public, en lutte contre l’Europe, et les susceptibilités héritées de la Révolution à l’égard du pouvoir monarchique’, Napoleon ou le mythe du sauveur, p.324.