17A Joint University of Warwick and Monash University Australia
Since the advent of postmodernism, the increased emphasis on conceptual, nonrepresentational and dematerialized modes of practice, within the realm of the visual arts, has radically altered notions of what constitutes art and artistic skill. This ethos has permeated tertiary institutions and impacted upon the educational foundation provided to students, many of whom graduate without attaining a sound grounding in traditional artistic disciplines such as drawing, painting and sculpture. This ‘deskilling’ of artists in a traditional sense, may be regarded as placing detrimental limitations on the capacity of artists to manifest the cerebral within a corporeal realm and communicate in a sophisticated, nuanced and effective manner. Many contend it de-historicizes artistic practice by disregarding the fact that skills are not merely manual dexterity but forms of knowledge whose acquisition implies access to a body of accumulated wisdom.
However a broader, more intellectualized, pluralistic conception of the visual arts is also ardently championed. It is considered by some to be a welcome, refreshing revision of narrow and archaic academic approaches. By facilitating the development of unique artistic lexicons, dialogues and skillsets, it has perhaps allowed art to maintain its relevance within a contemporary context. Innovations have encompassed diverse avenues such as video, performance, installation and 3-D printing. It is debateable whether the recession of established historical paradigms is a loss which should be remedied or merely part of an inevitable artistic evolution. I will seek to investigate the divergent perspectives regarding this issue and contemplate the trajectory which is being embarked upon. I will also explore the ramifications for young creatives, their audiences and society as a whole.
The Jack the Ripper murders are perhaps the most famous and iconic events of the history of crime. The brutal mutilation of six prostitutes which took place between August and November 1888 in London’s East End has fascinated many ever since, largely because of the unknown identity of ‘Jack the Ripper.’ Due to the exceptional nature of the case, the Whitechapel murders have largely occupied the minds of fans, named ‘Ripperologists,’ but has been widely ignored in the field of historical academic research. The murders are seen as a pin-point of history, and so literature on the case focuses on events within themselves, as opposed to larger trends of the East End or crime.
However, I am both fan and historian, broadly speaking. Research on Jack the Ripper has shown that the murders can be placed in a wider social historical context of London’s East End. Six murders in one square mile is shown to be representative of the Victorian underworld as a whole. Specific focus is placed upon police, the press, prostitutes, and poverty, and how these areas are demonstrated within the murders. The research then produces a social history of Whitechapel, displaying how the case is able to represent the problems of the East End, built up over several decades. Surprisingly, highlighting these problems through crime then led to major short and long term social reform of the area, concluding that the Jack the Ripper murders were both inevitable, and necessary for the East End.
17B Joint University of Warwick and Kyushu University
The study will examine how the stability and duration of party systems in Sub-Saharan Africa, their structure and composition, as well as constitutional constraints and empowerments on parties and legislatures influence the functional development of democratic features and their consolidations. A particular focus of the study will lie on the question under what circumstances (and why) a multi-party system provides a de facto institutionalisation of neopatrimonialism rather than being a vital safeguard of pluralistic competition of interests. Independent variables include ethnic homogeneity, colonial history and economic development. The study employs a macropolitical comparative design, analysing the aforementioned variables across three Sub-Saharan countries through a Most Similar Systems Design.
(the abstract will be extended with further methodology and a summary of the findings, as research progresses over summer)
17D University of Warwick and Nanyang Technological University
The substantial growth in the service sector has resulted in a growing significance of aesthetic and emotional labour in the workplace and recruitment process, increasing pressures for workers to ‘look good’ and ‘sound right’. This brings growing concerns that aesthetic and emotional labour are problematic, especially for those who do not conform to ideas of whiteness, heteronormativity or femininity and masculinity. Therefore, it is fundamental to begin to examine the production of power and how it is reflected through labour. This piece will go beyond existing literature to explore the plights of black women in shot girl work, which is lacking in assessment. Shot girl work is a fascinating yet unanalysed form of labour fitting into the broader night-time economy, of bars and clubs. Shot girls, dress, interact and work in a way no other staff in a nightclub are required to. These increasing pressures need to be assessed through locating power, and examining whether this type of labour is discriminatory.
Furthermore, Black women are victim to greater systems of oppression affecting how they are perceived, treated and their access to work, which will be analysed in the wider context of aesthetic and emotional labour, to begin tackling these issues.
Utilising the methods of a participant observation and content analysis of a range of shot girl recruitment companies, this work will examine the experiences of shot girls from recruitment to work, in order to assess power, inequality, the ‘look’ and position of black women in aesthetic and emotional labour.
Abstract - The definition of Cartoons has long been entrenched in a variety of subtexts. From being seen as a still illustration to even a 3D animation seen on film, the definition or the language of Cartoons has long been lost in finding a definite. In this paper, we proposed to define this indefinite by proposing that ""Cartoons"" have two components that define it: It's visual style and particularly it's motion style. Additionally, this paper will look into the potential and adaptation of this language of Cartoons in the evolving 3D media both across films and video games.
Keywords: cartoons, animation, 3-dimensional technology, language of cartoons, motion style, visual style