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Session 17A-17C 11:30-13:00 // day two

17A - Alternative Systems & Methods University of Warwick and Nanyang Technological University

Blockchains are public, distributed ledgers used to store records of transactions or other data. Research into blockchains has recently seen a huge rise in popularity due to the spread of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and its alternatives. In order to facilitate consensus on transactions or other data, blockchains typically employ a mining procedure - a computationally expensive process which produces some proof that computational work has been performed. At the time of writing, generating proof-of-work for use in blockchains is responsible for 0.27% of the world's electricity consumption, and this figure can be expected to increase in the near feature.

Some cryptocurrencies use mining procedures which accomplish an additional task, such as prime number generation. In this project we form a set of necessary properties of a blockchain mining algorithm, and subsequently implement a number of different appropriate algorithms as proof-of-work. We conclude that viable alternatives must be in the computational complexity class NP \ P, among other properties. Furthermore, we discuss the security implications of different algorithms and outline how they can be implemented and adapted for long-term use.

By analysing the problem of proof-of-work, we can not only assess the quality of existing methods, but also produce a basis for the implementation of blockchains with greater utility. The properties found as a result of this project indicate that problems such as finding solutions to complex logical statements, analysing signals from neutron stars, and even analysing protein structures can be applied in blockchain mining at no detriment to the security or integrity of the blockchain.

Graduate Entry Medicine (GEM) Programmes are accelerated undergraduate degrees only accepting students with a prior degree. Warwick Medical School is the largest UK GEM course, and requires no previous biomedical science knowledge.

Near-peer teaching amongst medical students has been shown to be effective. We hypothesised that near-peer teaching for first years by second years, where both teachers and students have non-biological science (NBS) backgrounds would not only allow for greater understanding of course content, but also provide a supportive community. Two teaching formats were piloted; (i) five pre-module sessions focused on upcoming course content, and (ii) weekly sessions covering topics from the preceding weeks’ lectures. Qualitative and quantitative feedback was collected using anonymous online questionnaires.

Results show 89% of participants ‘agree’ or found it ‘essential’ to their learning that attendees were from similar backgrounds, with over half finding it ‘essential’ to feeling able to raise questions. 100% 'agree' or found pre-module teaching 'essential' to their understanding of formal content.

Qualitative feedback included: "Non-Scientists teaching [has been] absolutely critical to my understanding of complicated topics this year, which were not explained during lectures at a level I could understand ... [it] makes a real difference to be taught by people who understand what is and isn't confusing for a humanities graduate."

Our research suggests near-peer teaching targeting NBS students is a viable and beneficial way of complementing official course teaching, and has the potential to support widening access to medicine to those with a NBS background.

Prolonged patient cycle time is a problem that plagues many healthcare systems. Long cycle times can be due to improper allocation of resources or poor management of patient arrivals, both of which reflect inefficiencies within the system. This research aims to identify reasons behind the long cycle times and proposes solutions that will improve patient waiting times.Preliminary observations were conducted at NTU Medical Centre over multiple days. Arrival and process times (registration, consultation, payment) were collected for the analysis. It is discovered that on average, the value-added time is only 15-18% of the total cycle time of 40-60 minutes. In this case, the prolonged patient cycle time can be attributed to long wait times as patients spend up to 80% of the time waiting. It is also observed that the main bottleneck occurs during the consultation phase when patients wait to see the doctor.To study the clinic’s operation in greater detail, a discrete event simulation model was constructed using the collected data. The model was validated with on-site observations and experiments are being conducted to study the effect of various factors on patient cycle times. This includes managing the arrival to achieve smooth loading on the resources and better allocation of available resources.

Given certain initial conditions of a system, quantum mechanics can predict the measurement outcome with certain possibilities. Therefore, we aim to explore the possibility of interpreting quantum theory as a special case of generalized probabilistic theory. Density cube is a mathematical model which views quantum theory as a special case of a more general probabilistic theory. It can describe quantum behaviour in an accurate manner. This brings up the question: Can the model consistently extend the standard quantum formalism? The extension of quantum formalism will help to answer questions such as the non-existence of 3rd order interference in quantum mechanics. Density Cube has successfully shown that by allowing the existence of higher-order interference, it results in paradoxical consequences - it breaks limits imposed by quantum mechanics. However, this model encounters problems such as the non-ideal probability distribution - it allows transformation that maps a physical state to state that gives complex-valued probability on measurement. Thus, this research aims to understand density cube and tries to solve the problems encountered by this model.

17B - Medical,Pharmaceutical & Ethics in Research University of Warwick

This paper investigates how and why early modern playwrights wrote legal scenes including female characters. Forensic rhetoric is defined as language used in courts of law; suitable or analogous to pleadings in court. Oration was considered a masculine skill; consequently, the language of female characters in court room scenes has been largely avoided, in favour of a straightforward discussion of the gender of the character. Giving a female character a forensic oration opposes the exclusionary and misogynistic attitudes to women speaking in public spaces, which were prevalent in early modern England. This paper explores a variety of early modern plays, with particular attention given to The White Devil by John Webster (1612), The Merchant of Venice by William Shakespeare (1598), and All Is True (Henry VIII) by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare (1613). Playwrights were knowingly using and abusing the structure of a legal proceeding and the rhetoric associated with it to comment on women as litigants. Some scenes exemplify how women can and should be allowed to take part in the legal process. Others demonstrate how women are disadvantaged in court by attitudes towards masculinity and public spaces. The extent to which these performances are transgressive is lessened by the physical bodies of the actors, because women were played by young men. However, it is easier to contain progressive ideas about women in the public realm within a dramatic tradition where the person performing the part is male, even if the character they are personating is female.

Background: Appetite plays an important role in determining food consumption and blood sugar levels. At high altitude improved blood sugar levels have been documented compared to low altitude, however a link between altitude and appetite is unknown. If appetite is suppressed at high altitude it may provide a novel area for researching medications to treat diseases of overeating like obesity and diabetes.

Aim: To assess whether self-reported appetite is influenced by altitude accounting for physical exertion, age, gender, duration at altitude, physical fitness, illness and medication.

Methods: Ethical approval was obtained and adhered to and all participants gave informed written consent. Resident lowlanders visiting Nepal were invited to complete a questionnaire about appetite and variables including altitude, age and gender to assess whether these were linked to appetite. This was repeated at seven altitudes from 2,600 meters to 5,200 meters. Quantitative data analysis investigating normal distribution, correlations between appetite and altitude, and linear regression was performed using SPSS software.

Results: 149 questionnaires were completed. Participants score for ‘how much can you eat?’ decreased significantly with increasing altitude, while responses to both ‘how full are you?’ and ‘how satisfied are you?’ increased significantly with increasing altitude.

Conclusions: As resident lowlanders travel to higher altitude their appetite is reduced, and satiety is increased with a graded response. These new findings are consistent with existing literature and support the hypothesis of appetite suppression with increasing altitude. Interventional studies may isolate appetite suppression factors that can be used to help alleviate obesity and diabetes.

In 2015, 17 new UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted. SDG 12 set an international target of halving per capita food waste throughout the global food system by 2030.

Alarmingly high levels of global food waste have increased focus on both the problem and on a variety of waste reduction interventions. 15 million tonnes of edible food is wasted across the UK food system, with UK households discarding 22% of food they buy (Quested and Parry, 2015).

It is commonly acknowledged that curbing consumer waste is imperative to tackling the issue. Many UK initiatives fail to understand UK consumer motivations. Assumptive interventions are therefore not achieving the needed level of impact (Quested and Parry, 2015)

To better understand consumer experiences, this study builds on Sartre’s (1968) ‘Progressive-Regressive Method’. Through the lens of food waste, the research assesses how past experiences influence our present behaviour in view of a future outcome (Thompson, 2017). Methods included a focus group, several oral histories, and one case study. The results demonstrate how the food waste habits of participants are shaped by past experiences.

The impact possibilities for further studies, determining where Sartre’s (1968) work could inspire educational resources and how his theory could inform waste reduction initiatives aimed at young people. In order to have a real chance of achieving the SDG targets, we must create and rewrite the food waste biographies of consumers, especially young emergent consumers, with the long term goal of regressive adaption becoming part of their progressive future actions.

Nutrition in the first 1000 days from conception to two years old is critical for child health, affecting not only a child's current health, but also their future health, and the health of subsequent generations. Exclusive breastfeeding, rather than milk formula feeding, is promoted by the WHO and NHS as the infant's best source of nutrition in the first six months. As maternally consumed substances such as caffeine can be transmitted into breast milk, the NHS recommends that breastfeeding mothers moderate their caffeine intake. However, the evidence base for this advice is unclear, and breastfed children have not been considered in recent caffeine reviews. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant occurring naturally in some foods, and is used clinically to treat primary apnoea (cessation of breathing) in premature babies. High caffeine intake can be harmful, but otherwise its health effects are debated.

This presentation will address two main questions: 1) What are the effects on a breastfed child when a breastfeeding mother consumes caffeine? 2) Are the guidelines for breastfeeding mothers to restrict caffeine based on evidence? By undertaking a systematic review of the evidence, I evaluated the effects of maternal caffeine consumption on the breastfed child. In an age when evidence-based medicine is de rigueur, I recommend research which could, and arguably should, be undertaken to improve the poor knowledge base and allow evidence-based public health messaging on this topic which affects many children and mothers.

17C - Legal Systems, Business & Human Rights University of Warwick, University of Leeds and Monash University South Africa

Privacy is a multifaceted concept concerning control over personal information, human dignity, interpersonal relationships and freedom of conscience and expression. This research is concerned with the law on intermediary liability law and its sufficiency related to the recent technological developments. Data processing concerns all areas of our lives, from banking to social media and is increasingly important to fulfil the role of the internet as a platform for democratic participation. The rights of individuals need to stay protected balancing out the freedom of speech and the right to privacy and other fundamental rights.

This research further deals with the current state of the EU law as well as its comparison to other legal systems, in particular the approach of Germany. Critical analysis of the different is undertaken and compared in order to derive the ideal state of law and possible solution to the controversial intermediary liability law.

The problem of the law can be illustrated on the present-day lack of clarity in the ‘notice-and-takedown’ procedure and application of the General Data Protection Regulation. This work ultimately hopes to provide an overview and deduce the best method of protection of fundamental rights in the online space, which would fulfil the needs of the modern society.

The world is changing as it enters into the fourth industrial revolution. It is vital for societies and organisations to be aware of this trend and the impact that it may have on the predicted future. The future roles of managers within this revolution or even if managers will still have a role remains unclear. Henry Mintzberg’s seminal work on managerial roles remain the most suited departure point to understand the new roles that managers will face in the uncertain times to come. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact that the fourth industrial revolution might have on the existing managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1989). The study will explore perspectives regarding the various managerial roles and if they will remain unchanged, become redundant or evolve due to the impact of this revolution. The study consists of in-depth qualitative interviews of the insights, experiences and interpretations of both managers and experts regarding the fourth industrial revolution within the ICT industry. Using thematic analysis the interpretations will be grounded in data from two selected case studies within the ICT industry. The findings will compare, contrast and align the perceptions of managers and experts to the well-established managerial roles. The study will contribute by increasing the understanding of the future managerial roles to ensure that organisational policies align to the findings and be developed and implemented. The study will further allow the identification of critical skills that managers will need to develop to ensure success in this revolution.

This presentation assesses whether corporations are adequately held accountable for their violations of human rights. Part 1 examines the extent to which corporations are held accountable for their violations of human rights under the international human rights law, domestic human rights and notable human rights case law. Part 2 examines whether corporations should be held to a higher standard of account by possessing human rights obligations. Part 3 evaluates various reform strategies in respect of improving corporate human rights accountability in order to determine which strategy may be implemented to improve corporate human rights accountability.

This presentation argues that corporations are not adequately held accountable for their violations of human rights under the law. As a result, corporations should possess human rights obligations to improve the extent to which they are held to account for their violations of human rights. Finally, corporate human rights accountability may improve through the implementation of a mix of self-regulation through codes of conduct, “soft law” initiatives, “hard law” initiatives, and educational initiatives.

As early as 1990, North Korea was targeted by an extensive human rights campaign, yet allegations of gender- based violence, some as recent as 2018, remain overlooked in favour of stories about nuclear weapons. This nation fascinated the West, but ordinary civilians were rarely invited to offer their opinion. Indeed, around 200,000 North Koreans are hidden in China, however few have told their story, causing inaccuracies in our conception of this nation. Instead, our impression was constructed around political opinions.

This research focuses on women in North Korea and China from 1990 until today and questions why they were at particular risk. It examines gender discrimination in North Korea, trafficking and refugee status in China in order to understand how to prevent further abuses. This research focuses on female experiences to increase their visibility and create a more accurate picture of everyday life in North Korea.

The literature review of defector testimony and analysis of quantitative data indicated that sexism and gender-based violence were ingrained in North Korean society. Secondly, Chinese data revealed that legislation, such as condemning trafficked women as ‘illegal immigrants’ increased risks to refugees, despite their protected status internationally. This indicates that trafficking and gender inequality are significant problems for North Koreans, yet these problems were overshadowed by military concerns, thus normalising abuse against refugees. These findings demonstrate that refugee policy should prioritise vulnerable groups over international interests. This would increase the safety of vulnerable individuals and actually improve the lives of ordinary North Koreans.