6C Joint University of Warwick and Monash University, Australia
6D Joint University of Warwick, Kyushu University and Nanyang Technological University
Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a single-hidden layer feed-forward neural network with an efficient learning algorithm. Conventionally an ELM is trained using all the data based on the least square solution, and thus it may suffer from overfitting. In this paper, we present a new method of data and feature mixed ensemble based extreme learning machine (DFEN-ELM). DFEN-ELM combines data ensemble and feature subspace ensemble to tackle the overfitting problem and it takes advantage of the fast speed of ELM when building ensembles of classifiers. Both one-class and two-class ensemble based ELM have been studied.
Experiments were conducted on computed tomography (CT) data for liver tumor detection and segmentation as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for rodent brain segmentation. To improve the ensembles with new training data, sequential kernel learning is adopted further in the experiments on CT data for speedy retraining and iteratively enhancing the image segmentation performance. Experiment results on different testing cases and various testing datasets demonstrate that DFEN-ELM is a robust and efficient algorithm for medical object detection and segmentation. Besides, two-class imbalance problem is also addressed in the liver tumor segmentation experiment since we would expect â€œhealthyâ€� pixels exceed greatly â€œcancerousâ€� pixels under most of the cases. Experiment results show that by alleviating two-class imbalance problem, the segmentation results can be more accurate and more stable.
Part of the work was accepted by Multimedia Tools and Applications international journal publisher.
6E Joint University of Warwick and University of Western Australia
The trap lane and option lane configurations (the intersection between a freeway facility and its connecting on- or off-ramp) are evaluated against various performance measures at a selection of sites along the Mitchell Freeway, located in Perth, Western Australia.
To determine the impact that lane configuration has on freeway performance, both a theoretical and an empirical analysis are undertaken to assess the current freeway conditions. Both these analyses show that changes to lane configuration can have an impact on freeway performance, as the vehicle demand is in excess of capacity during peak times and below capacity at other times. Prior research considered ramps only in isolation, and used capacity as a sole measure of performance.
Results from a microsimulation model showed that for a high-volume environment, a trap lane configuration offered better average travel times. Changes in lane configuration can provide improvement to the Level of Service of a freeway facility, although other factors exist which can affect the performance of a freeway.
In this day and age, the objectionable nature of colonialism is beyond dispute. However, seventeen colonies still remain and there has been no change to the United Nations List of Non-Self-Governing Territories since 2002. The effectiveness of the UN decolonisation process is therefore questioned, especially by the remaining seventeen colonies and their Administering Powers. The 2006 Constitution of Gibraltar establishes a modern, non-colonial relationship between the United Kingdom and Gibraltar. However, Gibraltar is still included in the List of Non-Self-Governing Territories. The matter is further complicated by the existence of a third party, Spain, claiming sovereignty rights over Gibraltar with no regard to the wishes of the people of Gibraltar. Some of the most contentious criteria to be fulfilled in order for a territory to be recognised as having achieved a full measure of self-government will be assessed. A comparison will be drawn with territories in similar circumstances which have been removed from the UN List of Non-Self-Governing Territories, in an attempt to expose the inconsistency of the UN’s approach to the case of Gibraltar. Although there is some literature on the constitutional status of Gibraltar, and plenty of academic opinion on the right to self-determination, an in-depth analysis of Gibraltar’s current Constitution and what it means for Gibraltar’s constitutional status generally, is an original concept, which I hope will provide the audience with the necessary information to understand the difficulties faced by the remaining ‘colonies,’ in the international fora.
This project will seek to adopt a different perspective on monetary economics, and should offer a logical and credible path for research. It will examine how the monetary system developed, question whether it has been sound and offer some further directions. The development is fascinating in the sense that it reflects a continuous change of initial beliefs. If one takes UK, then one would see there has been a development from classical economists who favoured a 100% gold standard and monopoly over notes issuance, to a situation where there is fiat money and the dominant medium of exchange are bank deposits created by private banks. This may lead one to question the logic of this development. The rationale is plausible if one focuses on the underlying research. Inflation targeting seemed ideal following the new classical revolution, but as unfavourable times have returned, economists appear to question their beliefs if accounted for the focus on regulation, sovereign money or digital currencies. What, then, is sound development? Sound development should be Pareto improvement in its effects ideally. If not, it will include a sensible assessment of welfare comparisons. Inflation targeting offered price stability, but it meant controlling the price in the market, which is not consistent with the first welfare theorem. How do we get sound development? The solution I see is a “Kenneth Arrow” to offer a unified framework to think about monetary economics as Arrow did for aggregation of preferences. This is to say that once the research will offer a complete understanding of the developments in monetary economics through time, thereafter, based on these systems’ advantages and disadvantages it will seek to formulate some desirable properties for the monetary system that will be socially optimal. The research will be conducted at the Institute of Economic Affairs.