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Session 16A-16C 10:00-11:30 // day two

16A - Discrimination, Radicalisation and the Self University of Warwick, Monash University Australia, and Nanyang Technological University

Previous research has shown that depressed individuals interpret emotionally ambiguous faces as more negative, and also show lower levels of electrodermal activity (EDA, referring to changes in electrical activity on the skin surface, caused by changes in sweat, reflecting emotional arousal). This study investigated whether individuals with higher depression scores show differences in EDA, while viewing emotionally ambiguous faces. The present study showed happy, sad and emotionally ambiguous faces to 40 participants, who were required to identify each face as "happy" or "sad" while having EDA measured (using electrodes on the fingertips), after completing a depression questionnaire. Participants with higher and lower depression scores did not differ in EDA levels while viewing ambiguous faces, although those with higher depression scores were more reactive to happy faces, slightly more reactive to sad faces, and demonstrated higher overall EDA levels. Participants with higher depression scores also identified a greater number of happy, but not ambiguous, faces as "sad". These results provide mixed support for a physiological basis of negative attentional biases in depression, and may have been influenced by the study's small sample, differences with previous research in terms of facial stimuli, and potential personality confounds (e.g. neuroticism). The findings have wider implications for the diagnosis of depression, suggesting that, while clinical depression involves lower EDA levels, physiological reactivity to emotional stimuli may be increased in sub-clinical depression (as in this study). Thus, EDA levels while viewing emotional stimuli could be used a biomarker of the progression from sub-clinical to clinical depression.
The science of forensic investigation is crucial to the legal system and the maintenance of a just society. Having a universal standard for measure of a variable, such as time elapsed, is important for any scientific discipline. However, no universal post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation method currently exists for forensic science, despite the fact that knowing when someone died is key to investigation. The aim is to determine if a universal measure of the amount of time elapsed, since an individual deceased, is attainable, and to detail and expand on current research. Findings include that fast and practical methods such as the measurement of eyeball temperature on the scene of a recent death are limited to a specific set of conditions and a small time frame. However, tests such as this can serve as standard procedure in an initial stage of a universal method. The established practice of entomological corpse dating illuminates the idea that the only way to create a universal forensic clock is to have a large database of experimental data that factors as many variables as possible. Hence, the method of multivariable mathematical models holds the most promise for the establishment of a universal method. Measurements of vitreous potassium levels and sequencing of bacterial community succession demonstrate this. In particular, it was highlighted that a new era of forensic PMI estimation could lead to a universal method: the bacterial necrobiome of a corpse and its use as a forensic clock.

The Midday Meal Scheme introduced to all public primary schools in 2001 is the largest school feeding programme in the world. Extended to include Upper Primary schools in 2007, the programme was estimated to benefit 34 million children and cost the government Rs. 73.24 billion.

While the positive externalities of the scheme on primary school children has been widely acknowledged, it is unclear if upper-primary school children can expect the same benefits. Thus, in this paper I have attempted to provide a large-scale assessment of the impact of the meal programme on upper primary school children. This has significant policy implications with 43% of children dropping out before completing upper primary school in India.

To estimate its impact, the author employed a differences-in-differences methodology on a sample of more than 300,000 schools over the period 2009-2011. The data was provided by the District Information System for Education. One found evidence of an increase in overall enrolment levels of 5.7% on average with boys and those in disadvantaged socioeconomic groups benefitting more than others.

The results are significant as with the twofold impact of providing an implicit subsidy to low-income households and improvement in children’s nutrition levels, the programme will reduce not only child labour-force participation, but also improve student educational performance. Hence, the government must invest resources in improving the quality of the meal programme.

With data being limited to new student enrolment and having a short time period, one was unable to investigate the impacts of the scheme on drop-out levels as well as its long run impacts on school-participation levels. Thus, future literature could expand on existing analysis by addressing above limitations.

Terrorism is a global threat which affects societies and is inflicted by individuals or groups, through acts of terror are which are more common and of a greater magnitude in today's world. In the post-modernistic 21st century society, the self is becoming more alienated and misguided. With the proliferation of technological advancements over the past decade, young people now have greater access to a plethora of information which can influence how they construct their identities - through mediums like social media sites, video games etc. This could make young people more vulnerable to being radicalized. This paper aims to bring together concepts of the self (a micro analysis of the individual) with past studies and research done on terrorism to provide another possible angle to collectively understand terrorism and how common stereotypes of terrorism have changed (macro analysis of society). By understanding what makes up the self and how it is influenced by changes, an alternate platform is offered to analyse how the changing landscape of technology is a major contributor to the increased risk of young people becoming radicalized.

16B - Issues of Sexuality and Gender University of Warwick, Monash University Australia, and Monash University South Africa

Despite the significant progress towards gender equality made across Australian workplaces, the sporting domain sees Australian women greatly disadvantaged. The lack of female sports shown in the media, and conceptions of ‘gendered sports’ has contributed to the barriers young women face in accessing sports programs. This study exploring the experiences and attitudes of young women in Melbourne in regard to the current sporting landscape, aims to support existing research challenging traditional patriarchal ideologies, in order to construct evidence based solutions to the current gender inequality in sport.

In-depth interviews of female participants ages 18 – 25 were conducted and the findings of the study revealed three consistent themes raised by respondents; ingrained male hegemony, the media’s role, and the perceived benefits of sport. The final theme clearly expressed in the experience of one participant involved in the traditionally male sport of gridiron, she attributes her management of anxiety and depression to the mental heath benefits of exercise. The benefits extending to the positive influence on body image,

“Playing sport can really change your perception of your body. You’re sweaty, makeup-less, red faced, bruised and battered, and you’ve just play one hell of a game.”

Ultimately the research aims to enhance the opportunities for women to access the vast physical, social and financial benefits of sport, to an equal level of their male counterparts.

Objectives: Over the past two decades, there has been a steady increase in Syphilis cases among Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Victoria. Interventions such as campaigning, rapid testing, and opt-out syphilis testing strategies have attempted to reduce the epidemic with varying success. This project’s goal is to analyse syphilis testing data, and design a mathematical model to see the effect of different interventions. Methods: We developed a dynamic compartmental model, using parameters from data collected from the Victorian Primary Care Network for Sentinel Surveillance (VPCNSS). The model was then run with different interventions to determine the effect on the epidemic in Victoria. Results: Adherence to testing guidelines causes a significant decrease in incidence over the long term. Opt-out syphilis testing with other STI tests, increasing testing coverage, and improving testing sensitivity all result in a long term decrease in incidence in Victoria. All the testing strategies have synergy in reducing the syphilis epidemic if run together. Conclusion: A combination of interventions to increase testing frequency and coverage among MSM, and improve test sensitivity is the most effective way to reduce the syphilis epidemic in Victoria.

Society is aware of “sexting” and the dangers associated with the practice including the growing use of social media in relation to young people, however the recent introduction of laws to criminalise the practice impacts more heavily on post 16 young people. In an attempt to protect young people from sexual exploitation the law has threatened young people’s right to sexual exploration, expression and sexual identity.

During the rise of feminism, second wave feminists argued that certain sexual practices such as prostitution, pornography and exotic dancing were exploitative and objectified women. However following on from this third wave feminists have taken a different stand point and argue that women should celebrate and explore their sexuality which in turn empowers women. This research explores the views of post 16 young people at a local city college and demonstrates that young people’s views differ from previous generations and also that they share the views of the third wave feminists and see “sexting” as a normal part of their sexual exploration and development and believe that the laws that impact on their age group specifically are redundant.

The implications of the findings is that legislation is not necessarily the correct tool to address the practice of sexting in post sixteen young people. Education is key in preparing young people to explore their sexuality in a digital age. In turn guidance supports young people so as not to smother their own feminist views and supports individuals to understand other methods of freedom, expression and empowerment.

BackgroundApproximately 70% of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is in sub-Saharan Africa. A novel advancement in HIV prevention is the use of antiretroviral treatment to prevent HIV acquisition among HIV-negative individuals, scientifically known as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP is recommended for populations at high risk which include female sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSMs). Nonetheless, several challenges have been documented.PurposeThis literature review aims to highlight barriers to uptake and use of PrEP among female sex workers and MSMs in sub-Saharan Africa and the possible impact on HIV prevention.MethodologyA literature search was done using the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus. Inclusion criteria was as follows: Qualitative and quantitative peer-reviewed journal articles, published from 2010-2016 and comprising of keywords ‘barriers’, ‘PrEP uptake’, ‘sex workers’, ‘MSMs’ and ‘sub-Saharan Africa’. Key themes were then identified from the review.ResultsThe uptake of PrEP faces challenges such as non-adherence to drug regimen, low perception of HIV risk, misunderstanding of recommended use, fear of side effects and the associated stigma of being on the PrEP regimen. Another key barrier is reluctance, owing to the lack of understanding that PrEP does not replace other effective conventional methods such as condom-use.ConclusionPre-exposure prophylaxis is projected to effectively reduce HIV incidence among high risk populations such as female sex workers and MSMs. However, barriers to uptake should be addressed by increasing awareness. Furthermore, a holistic and multi-strategy approach should incorporate both PrEP and conventional prevention methods.

16C - History Through the Ages: An International PerspectiveUniversity of Warwick and Kyushu University

Foucault’s assertion that power is diffuse has a significant effect on the way historians interpret sources with ideological and cultural implications. This has led me to look upon some of the most famous works of the Italian Renaissance in a different light. The ultimate aim of this study is to reinterpret the purpose of numerous books on mannerly behaviour and conduct in Italy in terms of their response to the chaos that followed the Italian Wars and Reformation. I also wish to understand the nature of the ideological power behind these works in order to better appreciate their impact.

To achieve these aims this study takes inspiration from cultural historians like Edward Muir, who is known for his analysis of the social codes behind ritual and feuding in Italy. As for my study it begins by considering the purpose behind Baldassare Castiglione’s famous discourse on courtly behaviour in the Book of the Courtier (1528), before tracing its influence across numerous other works. My analysis of the style, authorship and purpose of these works leads me to argue that war and religious crisis created a demand for social order. This in turn caused the spread of the conduct book form, as individuals from all walks of life standardised social codes across diverse institutions from the Church to universities. Therefore the expression of mannerly behaviour and conduct is a form of diffuse power because it is not centralised on a single social or intellectual body.

Propaganda is distorting or emphasizing reality, or fabricating false information so that nations or organizations can manipulate people’s psychology based on a certain purpose. Propaganda has been carried out for a long time wherever politics are done. One of the most famous organizations that carried out propaganda is the former Soviet Communist Party, and the methods were very systematic and crafty. Propaganda especially tends to be carried out on war footing because a feature of wars after the First World War is “total war”, and in order to make people’s eyes be on the victory of wars, organizations have need to provoke people. Therefore, we tend to assume propaganda to be unrelated to the present in Japan. However, as mentioned above, propaganda is carried out wherever politics are done. In other words, this is the case with Japan. In addition, the methods are mostly the same as that of the former Soviet Communist Party. So I will research propaganda from a viewpoint of common points between past propaganda the former Soviet Communist Party and the present in Japan. Why and how propaganda is carried out in the present peaceful Japan? And why is propaganda in the present Japan not known to the people?

With somewhat open border controls, booming international trade, relaxed tax policies and an interconnectivity with the rest of the world, Hong Kong is considered a highly globalised society. At its core lies Chungking Mansions a landmark building considered ‘the most globalised building in the world’ (Matthews, 2011: 7); known for its international trade of small capital goods by South Asian and Sub-Sahara African business owners and small traders. Existing researchers (Bertoncello and Bredeloup, 2007, and Matthews and Yang, 2012) offer an economic perspective into HK’s international community and globalisation, neglecting the social and cultural implications of globalisation.

Globalisation is not only an economic phenomenon, but also a process of interconnectivity and integration of people and cultures, hence it is important to question, ‘to what extent Hong Kong can be considered a highly globalised society?’ This project seeks to answer just that from the perspective of the African community, who are heavily involved in the globalisation process, yet encounter exclusion within society. Using qualitative methods, grounded in non-positivist approaches this research is divided into three stages, consisting of interviews with entrepreneurs, business owners and traders, cultural mapping in order to trace the histories of the African community, and observations of daily life through food processes, language and communal activities. The results will produce an innovative and interesting piece of research that will offer an alternative narrative of globalisation and deeper understanding into the inner workings of globalisation in Hong Kong, and the social and cultural implications of globalisation.

Following the introduction of print to Europe, the mapmaking industry was transformed in Italy. Florence, Rome and particularly Venice became focal points for the production of maps for general public consumption. Quantitative research into the field of cartography, such as Genevieve Carlton’s Worldly Consumers, has revealed that printed maps had a much wider audience in the Renaissance than previously thought: more than 10 per cent of all household inventories in Venice featured at least one map. As such, the “official” map, utilised by state bureaucracies, loses much of its authority; rather, the printed map was a commodity, with a market audience much like any other printed artwork. Above all, maps were cultural objects: the details of these maps, both textual and pictorial, shed light on the nature of the Renaissance itself, both confirming and contradicting common cultural themes in the study of the period: such themes as secularisation, spirituality, the prevalence of humanism, the authority of antiquity and awareness on a global scale can be revealed when conducting a qualitative analysis of printed maps. Previous studies into early modern maps have not fully encompassed the cultural links between the details of maps and their contemporary owners. This study will investigate why Italian consumers chose to purchase cartographic prints and how these choices illuminate the developing identities of early modern urban residents, an elusive and complex historical paradigm which has been at the heart of all cultural studies.