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Session 17A-17C 11:30-13:00 // day two

17A - Interactions of Human and Environment University of Warwick and Nanyang Technological University

This research highlights the importance of the environment/sovereignty nexus because the ecological crisis now presents a great challenge to sovereign states. Decision-makers are forced to make choices about the use of limited natural resources, therefore this work aimed to discuss the concept of green sovereignty as a tool to enhance environmental decision-making. Green sovereignty means transforming society into its environmentally friendly version, by deepening democratic accountability and responsiveness of states to environmental concerns.

It is argued that the green sovereignty concept helps us to enhance environmental decision – making by empowering existing state structures to be more ecologically informed. Unlike other green alternatives that see sovereignty/environment in inherent tension, the leverage of using green sovereignty resides in the fact that it provides us with a possibility to see existing structures play a central role in addressing environmental problems.

Critical political ecology is deployed, stressing importance of state intervention in society and economy to promote social and environmental justice. The implication of this work is that green sovereignty enables us to overcome obstacles that democratic states face when trying to enhance the process of environmental decision-making such as the distribution of power and under-representation of green issues.

Case study is used to analyse the green sovereignty. Case study has been conducted under the qualitative research framework using participant observation during internship I had at a firm undergoing EIA and elite interview with CEO of firm where I had internship. Findings included that the imperfect EIA process would benefit from green sovereignty suggestions

Pinochet’s military coup in Chile in 1973 led to a dictatorship that was responsible for numerous forced disappearances and countless human rights violations. Assisted by the World University Service (WUS), some 900 Chileans came to the UK to both live and study. The University of Warwick had close associations with this movement and consequently holds a large amount of unsorted and under-researched WUS documentation in the Modern Records Centre.

As part of a larger research project to understand the importance of the WUS for early coordinated refugee policy in the UK, I will examine, sort and digitalise the WUS collection in the MRC in order to uncover and begin to analyse the individual narratives and stories of this episode of politically motivate exile. The objective of my work will be to draw out the intersections between personal narratives (the journey to the UK, often via Argentina and further repression during the Junta’s ‘dirty war’) and the procedures and policies of organizing refugee action. A further objective is also to use the visual and written materials in the archive to design webpages that will show the depth of the MRC’s holdings and the usefulness for public engagement.

The research falls within the areas of memory studies and migration, refugee and exile experience. Exile memory is significant in the Chilean context as the legacies of the Pinochet dictatorship were silenced for many years, and recent memory work has focused on victims at home. In documenting my findings and rendering them into a more accessible format I will be able to contribute to highlighting the importance of this episode of forced migration with contemporary Chilean history.

In practice, wetted perimeter is defined as the perimeter of the simplified section geometry of a channel. However, it is unclear to what extent the wetted perimeter should be considered in the present rough boundary. In this study, circles of different diameters were generated to simulate a section of a 2D sediment bed. The ratio of the wetted perimeter over the projected perimeter P/Po was found to be far greater than 1, which means the wetted boundary should not be considered as straight lines. The scale of measurement was also varied in the study to determine how P/Po changes. It also confirmed the scale dependency of roughness. Furthermore, the assumption of a constant hydraulic radius along a channel is shown to lead to an error in the estimation of hydraulic radius.
This paper follows a postcolonial analysis that Edward Said develops in his seminal book Orientalism with particular use of and reference to imaginative geographies. Attention is paid to seemingly innocent and power-neutral circulations of knowledge by examining the role Disney’s Tarzan plays in shaping individual and societal perceptions of a homogenous “Africa”. Knowledge is learned both explicitly and implicitly and absorbed images of Africa (and Africans) which come primarily from the Western perspective whilst African voices are marginalised. The second part of this paper traces how the “African” came to be defined by blackness during the colonising period cementing the development of an Africa opposite in every way to European powers. It is shown how Disney’s Tarzan in part reflects part of the colonial mentality central to the original inspiration for the movie, being Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Tarzan of the Apes. The implication of this is that the systematic development of exclusionary binaries categorising European-ness and African-ness such as White/Black; Same/ Other; Civilised/ Barbaric, many of which have continued till now in less overt forms. These binaries are integral to perceptions of belonging among African diasporic communities and are of particular contemporary relevance in a Britain that claims multi-culturalism and diversity as its defining feature. Those who identity as Anglophone Africans are of special interest in being subjects of difference who are ‘almost the “Same” but not quite’. The African diasporic condition understands that blackness means one must originate from somewhere else that is not Britain. Patronising perceptions are reinforced by suspicious yet broadly accepted epistemologies and ontologies which have in turn contributed to the development and sustaining of nation-spaces being defined by race. For this reason, it is essential to unpack how knowledge and accepted discourse narratives of displacement to the members of Anglophone African diasporic communities in Britain.

17B - Individual and Social ConcernsUniversity of Warwick and Monash University South Africs

Aim:South Africa's unemployment rate has been rising regardless of the increase in gross national income. Unemployment is generally expected to decline as gross national income rises. The aim is to find other factors influencing unemployment rate in South Africa.Method:To analyze the relationship between unemployment rate and other factors that influence unemployment rate such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), education quality and inequality, we use historical data collected by organizations such as statsSA and the world bank. Historical data allows us to trace South Africa's unemployment trend and its relationship with the other factors mentioned above.Results:An increase in a country's GDP should typically result in a decrease in unemployment rate. In the case of South Africa, unemployment declines as expected but the rate in which it increases in employment rate is not as significant. This implies that more people in the labour market are discouraged to search for jobs. The data indicates a positive relationship between unemployment rate and inequality, that is, discrimination in the labour market according to gender and race
With the demand of maths and the spread of numbers, maths as a subject has become an essential part of life. The complexities of maths from financial budgeting to working out economic values has meant this subject is a kindle for many employers. As such, the pedagogy of maths is seen as crucial in a child’s education. However, some individuals when presented with such tasks feel anxious and thus feel excluded from future opportunities. In 1972, the term ‘maths anxiety’ was employed to describe this state. In line with this term, this research entails a small scale qualitative case study on female teachers in an early years setting to explore their encounters with maths anxiety. Six teachers were asked to complete mathematical anxiety rating scales (MARS-A) and then semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate that maths anxiety may have various causes which are likely to continue on to later life, if left unresolved. The amalgamation of outcomes in this research linked maths anxiety to the teachers past school experiences and negative encounters in the past. Whilst other factors such as brain structures, gender and parents may have added to this anxiety, teachers were found to be crucial influences in addressing maths anxiety. The most popular strategies of reducing this anxiety were found to be making this subject more enjoyable, engaging and ALIVE for all pupils to be equally capable of mathematics achievement. Assuming these judgments are typical of the effects of maths anxiety, there are implications for the UK government, parents and all pedagogues.
In situations of conflict, women often bear the heavier burden through various forms of sexual violence and torture. Women in conflict situations traditionally have often been perceived as being victims. This has resulted in a limited understanding of the active roles that women in politics play in post-conflict situations. An understanding into these roles provides an opportunity for a more nuanced interpretation that contests traditional gender roles and relations that have inhibited women’s participation in the reconstruction and rebuilding of their countries. This presentation will address the political power of women in post-conflict countries in Africa and will specifically use Rwanda against the backdrop of the Rwandan genocide and atrocities, to assess the role of women in Rwandan politics and their impact on rebuilding the country. The aim is to contribute to scholarly literature on women and politics in Africa, specifically using Rwanda as a case study and analysing what role women in politics have played in rebuilding post-genocide Rwanda.Key findings illustrate that the various roles of women in politics have ensured that they are in the forefront of leading reconciliation and reconstruction efforts. However, despite this numeric increase of women in an already restricted political arena, the role of women in politics has been limited to the elite women. Thus, the extent to which non-elite women have been actively included in the politics of rebuilding post-genocide Rwanda is limited.

Neo-classical economic theorists assumed that agents are utility-maximisers and are perfectly rational, hence they would carry out the best plan without experiencing any self-control problems or mistakes. Nevertheless, behavioural economists argued that humans might not be intelligent enough to attain total rationality, and identified several biases and judgemental mistakes made by agents when choosing their consumption levels.

The aim of the study is to explore the possible relationship between household heads’ education level and their ability to make good financial decisions, which the paper chose households’ net worth as a proxy for; and then attempts to explain the association by comparing and contrasting the results with what being predicted by Neo-classical and behavioural economic theories.

The main dataset used is the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), which reported financial activities of 6026 US households in 2013, and their answers to survey questions revealing their spending habits and attitude to risks. As this dataset employed the Multi-Imputation (MI) technique (which created extra observations for each correspondent, and filled missing data with expected outcomes drawn from appropriate model of regressions considering the available information) to deal with missing data issues; this study will implement the Repeated-Imputation-Inference (RII) in its econometric regressions to account for the consequences.

The result has confirmed the long-standing belief regarding a positive correlation between net worth and academic qualifications. Highly-educated households are also more likely to engage in more sophisticated methods of investments and borrowing. Although this study was able to confirm judgmental mistakes’ existence and the important role it played in households’ spending habits; the evidence regarding behavioural traits and rationality affecting households’ financial standing remains inconclusive.

17C - New ways of ThinkingUniversity of Warwick and Nanyang Technological University

As for sensing application, all-fiber Sagnac interferometer are usually quite sensitive to several parameters simultaneously, for example, strain, temperature, bending and so on. In order to eliminate these cross impacts,multi-parameter sensors are needed. We demonstrate the Bragg grating fabrication in a new panda high-birefringence fiber whose two stress rods are made of SiO2-Al2O3-La2O3 (SAL) glass. In combination with this Bragg grating, a Sagnac interferometer based on this SAL panda fiber is applied in the discrimination of temperature and strain. we fabricate a FBG in a new panda Hi-Bi fiber whose two stress rods are made of a SAL glass for the first time. And then, we use this SAL panda fiber with FBG to build up a Sagnac interferometer to discriminate temperature and axial strain. Compared with those cascaded configurations, the proposed sensor inherently eliminates the error caused by the fiber difference by integrating grating and interferometer in the same sensing fiber.

The goal of this project is to formalise Berkeley’s argument for Idealism. It seeks to establish that materialism is incoherent: The world and all its objects are merely ideas in people’s minds. So far, little research has been conducted on how Berkeley’s singular arguments work together to question the concept of matter. This research tries to fill this gap by breaking down Berkeley’s arguments with a classical conception of logic. Accepting four premises, Berkeley’s argument can show that our everyday understanding of matter necessarily leads to a contradiction and thus has to be abandoned. First, Berkeley shows that abstraction cannot be the basis for any general concept. From there, he deduces that existence is linked to perception and initiates the elimination argument against matter. Here, it is shown that matter cannot be perceived nor inferred. Without abstraction, the concept of matter remains consequently empty and has to be abandoned.

Stretchable strain sensors are vital for the emerging soft electronics, including wearable and implantable devices, human-like robots with artificial skins, and bionic sensory systems. For practical use, stretchability, sensitivity, stability as well as the shape of the sensors (4S) are the most important factors for the performance and system integration. Herein, inspired by the Chinese tradition food, Lamian (stretched noodles), we report a fiber-shape stretchable strain sensor with micro-pearls satisfying all those 4S requirements by using our unique strategy: dynamic-lift polymerization. More than 80% stretchability is achieved. The micro pearls can successfully tune the strain distribution in the fiber, significantly improving the sensitivity. The sensor can suffer more than 1000 cyclic tensile strain indicating the good stability. More importantly, its fiber shape, occupying small volume, allows flexible and effective integration with the system of stretchable electronics. Our novel stretchable strain sensors open up the exploration of stretchable fiber-shape strain sensors and the fabrication strategy provides a new perspective upon the fabrication process of stretchable electronics.

Hellenistic art and architecture has influenced western cultures over many generations. The unique style and form has been implemented in our environment today and has changed the way we perceive and understand our surroundings. However, it is important to be aware that it is not only western civilisation that has been influenced by these trends. In 326 BC Alexander the Great entered the River Indus. He explored the city of Taxcila, which is now in Pakistan, and fought the Indian King Porus. Alexander may have been defeated by Porus but he conquered Buddhist art and architecture. The depiction of the Buddha transformed; he was now portrayed in idyllic human form, similar to Greek sculptures of the time, rather than in abstract signs and symbols to represent his presence. Also, Buddhist temples began to adapt to the Hellenistic style, for example acanthus leaves emerged on the columns. The aim of the project is to focus on how Gandhara Buddhist art developed as a result of Alexander the Great’s visit to India. Hellenistic art and architecture has influenced western cultures over many generations. The unique style and form has been implemented in our environment today and has changed the way we perceive and understand our surroundings. However, it is important to be aware that it is not only western civilisation that has been influenced by these trends. In 326 BC Alexander the Great entered the River Indus. He explored the city of Taxcila, which is now in Pakistan, and fought the Indian King Porus. Alexander may have been defeated by Porus but he conquered Buddhist art and architecture. The depiction of the Buddha transformed; he was now portrayed in idyllic human form, similar to Greek sculptures of the time, rather than in abstract signs and symbols to represent his presence. Also, Buddhist temples began to adapt to the Hellenistic style, for example acanthus leaves emerged on the columns. The aim of the project is to focus on how Gandhara Buddhist art developed as a result of Alexander the Great’s visit to India.

By observing the artefacts and analysing the development and change of Buddhist art in the British Museum and researching with the resources in the British Library, I will begin to develop a deeper insight on how the architecture impacted the lives of the Buddhists and in general those who were affected by the Hellenistic trends. It is important to be aware of the basis of one’s surroundings because it is a reflection of how the people lived and their mentality at the time. By completing this project I will reach my personal goal to educate others about eastern civilisations. I want to be able to prove to society that we all impact each other in different ways which will encourage others to celebrate our dynamic global culture.