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Early and advanced glycation adducts: nomenclature

Nomenclature: Glycation adduct residue, glycation adduct peptides and glycation free adducts

 

GLYCATION ADDUCT RESIDUES

Glycation of proteins forms glycation adducts with the saccharide glycating agent modifying an amino acid residue of the protein substrate. These are glycation adduct residues.

 glyadductresidues.jpg

Glycation adduct residues (yellow) - fructosamine and AGE adducts of proteins. Protein molecular mass > 12 kDa. Image shows a space-filling molecular graphic of hot spot sites of methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone MG-H1 formation in human serum albumin.

 

 

GLYCATION ADDUCT PEPTIDES

Glycation adducts are also found in low molecular mass peptides - for example, AGE peptides - particularly in portal venous plasma of human subjects and in urine

glyadductpeptides

 

Glycation adduct residues of peptides (Molecular mass < 12 kDa)

 

 

GLYCATION FREE ADDUCTS

Cellular proteolysis of glycated proteins and peptides, digestion of ingested glycated proteins and peptides, and glycation of amino acids forms glycated amino acids or glycation free adducts.

 

glyfreeadducts