The focus is on diamond surfaces, but the content is relevant for other structurally related materials such as Si, Ge, III-V, II-VI semiconductors and the surfaces of other semiconductors, insulators and metals.
The students will gain a working knowledge of surface-specific characterisation methods widely applied in research and industrial laboratories for the characterisation of the structural, electronic and chemical properties of surfaces, interfaces and coatings. The course outline is:
Lectures 1-2: Physical structure of surfaces and interfaces (John Foord)
Structure and nomenclature for surface atomic structure in comparison with the bulk crystal structure; the principal low index faces of FCC, BCC and wurzite; atomic rearrangement in real surfaces (reconstruction); surface-specific defects (point defects, step edges, terraces) surfaces as templates for epitaxial growth.
Lectures 3-4: Surface Chemistry (John Foord)
Surface chemistry: adsorption of atoms, molecules from molecules to thin films and coatings; physisorbed and chemisorbed species; adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics; adsorbate-induced structural changes; thin film growth modes.
Lectures 5-6: Surface Chemical Analysis (John Foord)
Surface chemical analysis: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS); Auger Spectroscopy and Microscopy; Low Energy Electron Loss Spectroscopy (EELS); FT-IR.
Lectures 7-8: Surface electronic properties (Andy Evans)
2-d electronic band structure; work function and ionisation energy; surface and interface states; surface conductivity; band-bending; Fermi level pinning; metal-insulator transition; negative electron affinity; transfer doping.
Lectures 8-9: Interfaces and coatings (Andy Evans)
Metal contacts; insulator coatings; organic coatings; semiconductor heterojunctions; diamond-graphene; biointerfaces.
Lectures 10-11: Surface Structure Methods (Andy Evans)
Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED); Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM); Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED); Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Lectures 11-13: Scanned probe methods (Andy Evans)
Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM), Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy (STS); Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electric Force Microscopy (EFM).
Lectures 14-15: Electronic structure methods (Andy Evans)
Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS); Angle-resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES); Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (IPS).
Lecture 16: Synchrotron Radiation and neutron methods (Andy Evans)
X-ray Diffraction (XRD); X-ray scattering; X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy; Grazing Incidence XRD; Photoelectron Microscopy (PEEM); Neutron scattering.