Skip to main content Skip to navigation

Meeting Minutes 2010/11

Group Project Meeting - Week 1

October 11, 2011

In attendance

Jeff Clark(notes), Ian Cox, Eneko Igartua, Mercy Mosonik, Karis Ng, Tim Reynolds, Rafael San Juan, Neil Evans (supervisor)

General Discussion

· Mercy will be attending web development training session tomorrow (12th October) to aid in building the website, which should be accessed via the Project pages.

· Neil has arranged to send review papers on biomechanics.

· VICON NEXUS can’t model/predict results, something we need so discussed the use of OpenSim software as a means to link gait experiment results with our model. Have got problems to overcome linking the two together but Neil was confident it can be done.

· Discussed measuring bloodflow, using ultrasonics still seems a good starting point even with it’s issues.

· Privacy issues, consent form templates from last year’s group are a good starting point. Data is more easily made anonymous if not capturing video.

Answers to questions from last meeting posed to Neil:

· What is our particular project specification/ultimate aim? To create personalized (either 100% personalized, or categories) orthoses? To potentially remove the need for EMG in orthosis design?

Ultimate aim is to have patients come to the gait lab, use this data to produce a prototype using RP, test and then manufacture the final shoe.

· Can we use group members for gait analysis?

Yes, shouldn’t be a problem.

· Would it be a possibility to perform a gait analysis on a patient who actually suffers from intermittent claudication?
Not asked.

· Could heated in-soles be an interesting area to explore?
Not asked.

· What do we have to hand in and when?

First deadline will be 25th October composing of a milestone report with tasks for individual members and must be signed by all group members and Neil, large penalties if not handed in on time.

· If we need to access group funds, how do we do so?
Not asked.

· Last year’s group seem to only have explored one shape (parabolic) of shoe sole. How is it possible for us to decide on sole shape? Furthermore, how do we get from the model to the sole shape?

Making physical prototypes of lots of different designs isn’t ideal, much better to produce a decent software model to optimise the profile then verifying the results with testing.

· How much of last years “Recommendations for Further Work” do you consider worthwhile/feasible?
Not asked.

Work To Be Done Before Next Meeting

· Everyone to have completed his or her section of research by the next meeting on Monday.

· Schedule two training sessions planned for next week (dates yet to be arranged) with PhD student for using the gait lab. Recommended for as many people as possible to attend.

· Read whichever of the Main or Technical Report each member did not get to read last week.

Next Meeting:

Monday 17th October, 2011, at 11 a.m., MEng Project Work Room



Group Project Meeting - Week 2

October 18, 2011

In attendance

James Bostock, Jeff Clark(notes), Ian Cox, Eneko Igartua, Mercy Mosonik, Karis Ng, Tim Reynolds, Rafael San Juan, Neil Evans (supervisor)

General Discussion

· Mercy has received rights to edit last year’s group’s webpage.

· Discussed division of work for the milestone report to hand in next Tuesday.

· Changed project title to “Optimal Design of Orthoses for treatment of Intermittent Claudication”.

· Discussed content of Technical Report.

· Have divided the team into three groups as follows:

Computer Modelling/Data Analysis Ian, Mercy, Karis
Gait lab data collection James, Jeff, Eneko
Bridge between data collection/analysis and other work Tim, Rafael

At 11am on October 18th 2011 all group members attended a one hour Gait lab training session led by PhD student, Ceren.

Group Objectives

Optimise the design of a rocker soled shoe for each individual with Intermittent Claudication by experimental and computational methods.

- Establish the most efficient process for consistently acquiring results from the University of Warwick’s Gate Laboratory.

- Investigate the method of using OpenSim to mechanistically model data captured in Vicon and in the Gate Laboratory.

- Investigate the feasibility of using OpenSim to model and establish the optimal design of the rocker sole to suit each patient.

- Investigate the rapid prototyping manufacturing process of producing a shoe or shoe sole.

- Analyse and investigate the commercial feasibility of producing a process of the optimisation of a rocker soled shoe for each individual with Intermittent Claudication by experimental and computational methods.

Individual Allocated Tasks to Be Completed By Milestone 2

- Introduction – Tim, Rafa

- Poster for Open Day – Tim, Rafa

- Overview role between the Gate Lab Team and the Modelling Team – Tim, Rafa

- Group Leader role ensuring that the team works well and perform tasks to a high standard and to an appropriate schedule – Tim

- Literature review on allocated subjects:

o Muscoskeletal models – Ian, Jimi

o Intermittent Claudication – Jeff

o Blood Circulation – Rafa, Eneko

o Hill-type Modelling – Tim

o Rocker-soled Shoes – Mercy

o Gait Lab Experimentation – Karis, Jimi

- Attempt to get the Vicon files in to OpenSim and attempt to do some modelling on the data using OpenSim – Ian, Mercy, Karis

- Attend the Gate Lab Training Session – All

- Conduct initial data collection experiments in the Gate Lab and start work on the Gate Lab data collection process – Jimi, Jeff, Eneko

- Complete an ethical consent form – Jimi, Jeff, Eneko

- Ensure that the files that are created in the Gate Lab are backed up on the Engineering Backup System and that a process is in place to have them deleted and the backup deleted at the end of the project – Jimi, Jeff, Eneko

- Complete Risk Assessment for the Gate Lab and the project as a whole – Jimi, Jeff, Eneko

- Get the admin rights for the website, create a functional and attractive web page and keep it up to date – Mercy


Next Meeting:

Thursday 20th October, 2011, at 2 p.m. Gait lab (second training session)
Monday 24th October, 2011, at 11 a.m., MEng Project Work Room



Group Project Meeting - Week 3

Tuesday October 25th2011, 11am, H0.01



1. Attendance and review of Minutes from previous meeting (18/10/2011)

2. Milestone report 1

3. Discussion of Collaboration with Physics Department Research project

4. C3D extraction Toolbox

5. Possibility of using computers in project room for Matlab, Opensim etc

6. Matters arising from Topics discussed

7. AOB



1. Attendance and Review of minutes from previous meeting

In attendance: James Bostock, Jeff Clark, Ian Cox (minutes), Eneko Igartua, Mercy Mosonik, Karis Ng, Tim Reynolds, Rafael San Juan, Neil Evans (supervisor)

Nothing to report on previous meeting minutes.


2. Milestone Report 1

Agreed and signed by all group members and project supervisor. All members to obtain a copy and keep in personal files.


3. Discussion of Collaboration with Physics Department Research project

o Group querying how it would fit into the project.

o Clarification and summary from Neil

§ Usually models of skeletal system and muscular system are developed and motion files from vicon are used to obtain results from these models; inverse kinematics can be used to calculate torques and forces between the joints, and hence muscle activity can be modelled

§ The current process uses EMGs as validation of the model, as they provide data on muscle excitation activity.

§ “McKibben Muscles”, artificial mechanical models can behave like real muscles. An experimental model using these could be used to validate the mathematical model

§ Proposed work on this entails building a mechanical model and a test rig which allows the model to move in a running motion. This would then be captured in the gait lab and compared to the biological testing.

§ Important part of this for our project is how the muscle activation is linked to the pumping mechanism

o Rafa- asked about what the model would entail and if it would be tailored to a specific test subject

§ Artificial model could be based on eg the Hill Model, with known forces, lengths, activation

§ Generic model would be used, scaling required to fit it to particular subjects

o Tim- raised issue of large number of muscles involved, queried how many we should model

§ Not all muscles would be needed, some could possibly be grouped together and simplified for the model. The key muscles would be the muscles spanning the joints


o Neil is to discuss the work further with Professor Adrian Wilson (Physics). Neil has requested any specific questions to be sent to him for discussion. Possible group meeting with Prof. Wilson to be arranged

o Neil will also put paper on mathematically modeling muscles into project files space.


4/5. C3D extraction Toolbox/ Possibility of using computers in project room for Matlab, Opensim etc

These 2 items merged into one discussion as they overlap.


o Tim raised the issue of C3D usage on engineering lab computers since C3D Extraction Toolbox requires software to be downloaded, which would not be possible.

o Need a computer with vicon, opensim, c3d extraction toolbox and matlab.

o Installation of some of these needs to be investigated through F211 staff. To be completed by Jimi and Tim

o Jimi has admin rights to a computer in project room which is not networked. This computer requires matlab installation. Checks to see what software is installed currently to be done by Jimi and Tim

o Neil can lend Vicon dongle on a daily basis

o Export manual sent from Ceren, needs to be circulated, to be done by Ian

o Neil raised possibility of 3rd extraction option- software available through opensimtk forums, supposedly take CSD files straight from vicon to opensim. Has not proved to be successful as of yet, but could be worth investigating.


6. Matters arising from Topics discussed

Actions to be taken summarised below:


Person Action
Neil Discuss with Prof. Wilson about mechanical muscle model.
Neil Post Paper on Mathematical Modelling of Muscles.
All Send questions for Prof. Wilson to Tim
Tim Collate questions and send on to Neil
Tim and Jimi Investigate use of computers in project room and if any additional software installation needs to be done
Ian Re-Circulate Export manual to group
Gaitlab team (Jeff, Jimi, Eneko) Develop ethical consent form, risk assessment and safe system of work.
Opensim users Continue to explore Opensim and complete tutorials. Gather as group next week using project room computers?
Tim Post Opensim manual in filespace
All Obtain and keep copy of milestone report



7. AOB

o Gaitlab practice sessions Wednesday 10-11am, Friday 3-5pm; workshop closes at 4pm on Friday, this will need to be checked before using lab.


o Communication with Leamington rehab could be possible, as they have a motion capture system. It could be useful to be in contact with a clinician.

  • Possible contact: Dera Bradwell- consultant

Next Meeting:

Monday 31st October 2011, at 11 a.m. MEng Project Work Room

NB: Tuesday Morning meetings will be returning to the usual time of 9am from Tuesday 1st November 2011



Group Project Meeting - Week 5

November 8st 2011 - 11am, H0.01

In attendance

James Bostock, Jeff Clark, Ian Cox (minutes), Eneko Igartua, Mercy Mosonik, Tim Reynolds, Rafael San Juan, Karis Ng



General Discussion

Adrian explained what the leg model would entail for most of the meeting.

· Biological materials present more variability than engineering materials. They can be considered “a measure in its own right”. Only realistic way to validate descriptive model

· Model can be used to predict effects of those changes. The Mckibben muscles are a good analog of a muscle.

· The model can be used to measure the relationship between force and extension of the muscles, possibly used to make force extension curves.

· Rafael inquired about how the tendons would be attached to the model, with the solution being to glue them on.

· There are two options when manufacturing the test rig, make it ourselves in the workshop or design it and have it made. It is decided that Rafael and Jim will conform the leg model team and will manufacture the rig in the workshop.

· The knee will be modeled as a pin jointed structure (a needle used for joint), with analogous pair of muscles attached, one pushing and one pulling.

· Experiments should be devised to measure simple movements; the example of freefall was used. It would be useful if the swing face of walking could be reproduced.

· Grooves will be cut into the bone so that the circuit can be tied on.

· Rafael asked how the pneumatics is linked to the model. They would be activated through electronically controlled valves.

· Possible use of labview.

· Possible materials, stainless steel, aluminum tubes. They must have similar properties than those they emulate (density, mass…).

· Soft tissue should be considered when designing the leg model.

Opensim is discussed:

· The file form the gait lab should be in csv format.

· The aim is to quantify the force measured by the force plate.

· The toolbox seems to be a better route than the plug-in.

· Lab specific settings need to be changed, as there can be different coordinates between vicon an opensim.

Group objectives

- Research on drive forces and how to control the test rig.

- Create design and rough sketch with dimensions.

- The leg model team will make risk assessment and SSoW forms.

Next Meeting:

Monday 14th November, 2011 at 11 am MEng work room



Group Project Meeting - Week 7

November 15th   2011 - 11am, H0.01

In attendance

James Bostock, Jeff Clark, Ian Cox, Eneko Igartua, Mercy Mosonik, Tim Reynolds, Rafael San Juan, Karis Ng



General Discussion

· No one has a problem with minutes from last week

· Rafa saw the technicians and they were told that they would get a space in the workshop but should take care of the tools because they are dangerous.

· Neil will check on how to acquire the materials as the university has a policy of where to get the supplies( approved suppliers)

· A purchase order needs to be filled. The link of the purchase order form is online on the projects web page.

· Literature reviews are almost finished.

· Tim will work on the poster this week (screenshots of the gait lab are required).

· Check if there’s a deadline for the poster.

· Opensim team tried to arrange a meeting with Ceren but she was ill so meeting will be held today at 11am.

· Gait Lab team will meet with Ceren at 10am.

· Get dongle from Neil and try and see if the reconstruction will work appropriately.

· The opensim team still has a problem with getting the extraction toolbox to work. The right files are being produced but they can’t get them to opensim.

· Going through the manual on the warwick files will be very good especially for scaling and inverse kinematics purposes.

· Plug in gaits and marker set files are available on the SimtK

· The team has to look for a way of including the sole in the model.

· Neil is still looking for volunteers for the open day so email him if interested. The first open day will be on the 7th/8th of December.

Group objectives

- Meet with Ceren to try and sort out the different obstacles we are facing.

- Work on the poster this week.

- Complete the Safe System work this week.

Next Meeting:

Monday 21st November, 2011 at 11 am MEng work room



Group Project Meeting - Week 8

Week 8- November 22nd,2011 - 9am, HO.01

In attendance

James Bostock, Jeff Clark, Ian Cox, Eneko Igartua, Mercy Mosonik, Tim Reynolds, Rafael San Juan, Karis Ng, Neil Evans (Supervisor)



General Discussion

1. Discuss long-term strategy with Neil

a. It is recommended that we look at what we need in OpenSim, and then think of what we need to put in VICON. We need to identify what we actually need to get the data into OpenSim, what the file structures look like, and how to use the data in OpenSim. For example, .trc file defines information such as marker names and positions, and then basically it’s just trajectories for those markers i.e. xyz for all markers, against parameters.

b. VICON has an export trc due to coordinate difference, therefore it is necessary to map coordinates in VICON to the coordinates in OpenSim, and this transformation is done by the Korean guy programme, which it strips out the .csv file, things relating to marker positions. The motion file is more difficult but can get it out from the .csv file. The idea is to know the marker positions of the model, as well as the virtual markers on the model, scale it and then relate the motion to that.

c. Is it because of coordinate transformation if we did not get .trc file in VICON? When input it into OpenSim, .xml file is needed. It is all the static file for .xml, so we need the marker set xml which the scaling routine uses. The .xml file defines where the markers are in relation to the model. Therefore .trc and .mot files are needed for ground reaction force, which we will need for inverse kinematics.

d. Export SIMM option will generate .mot file. Only export SIMM on static file, so make sure scaling is done in static.

e. Jeff to check how to get trc file out from VICON.

2. Contingency plan

a. Neil agrees with the contingency plan, and reminds us that the ultimate goal is to relate all of these to improving the situation of Intermittent Claudication. At some point remember to link between improve blood flow and some measurement from the gait lab.

b. Discussed the plan of testing three soles on three different people. Ideally for the project is have custom-designed sole. However, the contingency plan is to use existing sole to test in the gait lab to see if there could be improvements, so that for any individual, find out which of those three is most suitable. Neil suggests we could talk to some manufacturers and hopefully be able to get some samples for analysis. Even if the case is having one pair, it would be useful to see if the sole have the same impact for two different people because everybody has a unique way of walking.

c. Contingency plan could be to do lots of analysis in VICON. VICON has a lot of capture processing, allowing us to work out joint power, angle, torque etc., such as from the graphs obtained by running the dynamic gait plugin. Compare the gait of different people with and without shoes.

3. Ask Neil about existing sole that the group could possibly use

a. The soles in the gait lab were designed by last year’s group, and prof. Hutchins ‘donated’ them. Neil thinks if the soles are in the gait lab then we can use it, but we need to take good care of it.

4. McKibben muscle

a. Discussed questions regarding the muscle design, and Jimi is emailing Adrian to get some answers.

b. For the pump, options are either to use compressed air or electric air pump. Rafa is going to find out who is incharge of the pneumatic lab.

5. Open Days poster

a. The group read through the poster.

b. Took photos for the poster.

c. Tim to recheck the resolution of the Warwick logo.

6. Milestone report 1

a. Make sure the agreed tasks are done by Week 10.

b. In Milestone report 2, have to report on the progress in relation to Milestone 1.


Gait lab term Jeff Check how to get trc file out from VICON
Eneko Research different types of walking sole
Rafael MicKibben muscle, find out who is incharge of the pneumatic lab
Jimi McKibben Muscle, email Adrian
OpenSim team Ian and Karis- Extraction toolbox; Tim and Mercy- OpenSim
All Discuss Milestone report 2 in the next meeting

Next Meeting:

Monday 28th November 2011 - 11am, MEng Project Room



Group Project Meeting - Week 9

Week 9- November 29th,2011 - 9am, HO.01

In attendance

James Bostock, Jeff Clark, Ian Cox, Eneko Igartua, Mercy Mosonik, Tim Reynolds, Rafael San Juan, Karis Ng, Neil Evans (Supervisor), Prof Adrian Wilson



General Discussion

1. Discussion of Milestone report 3. The report is to be emailed by Tim, group to check and edit the agreed task. Neil will sign it in Tuesday’s meeting (06/12/11), make sure it is correct and will check the individual agreed task from Milestone 2.

2. Discussion of McKibben Muscle design with Adrian

a. Use of material, not keen on using wood due to degradation.

b. Muscle to move a realistic mass of bone, and that mass is to be concentrated within the bone. Also, mass can change with humidity.

c. Jimi presents calculation for diameter of the leg model; 6cm diameter with Aluminium could be less for stainless steel.

d. Discussed about pneumatics, Adrian suggests using bottled gas.

e. Adrian suggests checking electric to pneumatic control valves on RS catalogue, which use pulse control rather than on-off control.

f. Need to find someone who knows how to use LabVIEW for control, mathematical model of muscles and how to measure muscle forces. Daciana Iliescu teaches LabView.

g. Adrian suggests reading LabVIEW user manual over Christmas vacation. (

h. Materials need to be ordered by week 10, hoping to start making the model first week next term.

i. Discussion of pivot bearing for knee; free running bearings with friction surrounding.

3. Discussion of the procedure for buying shoes. They are cheapest online, and need to purchase order soon.

4. Discussion of purchasing surface EMG stickers. Jeff has asked for a quote from Biometrics Ltd. Storing the EMG stickers in the gait lab is not recommended; Ian has offered a locker space, or could store them in the MEng project room.

5. What can we get out of VICON and what can we not get from VICON that we can get out of OpenSim. Possibly an orthoses design using biomechanical model. OpenSim team to read the user manual, the last few chapters in particular.

Next Meeting:

Friday 2nd December, 2011 – 1pm, MEng Project Room

Monday 5th December, 2011 – 11am, MEng Project Room