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Response of glazing systems under fire attack


A CFD model has been developed for predicting the response of glazing systems under fire attack. This includes a spectral radiative heat transfer model based on the discrete ordinates method (DOM). It has been validated for predicting the heat transfer and the transient temperature distribution in a glazing structure subjected to fire heat flux. The model has overcome the shortcomings of existing radiation models used in glass breaking analysis. Validation studies involving different scenarios of radiant heat and glass interaction in the presence of flame heat flux and heat from the hot upper layer have demonstrated excellent agreement between the predictions and the measurements in terms of temperature profiles of the glass surface and the time to the first crack occurrence.


  1. Siaka Dembele, Ricardo A.F. Rosario, Jennifer X. Wen, Thermal breakage of window glass in room fire conditions – Analysis of some important parameters, Building and Environment, 54, pp. 61-70, Feb. 2012.
  2. RAF Rosario, S Dembele, Q Wang, P.D. Warren and J X Wen, Thermal and stress analysis of glazing in fires and glass fracture modelling with a probabilistic approach, 'Numerical Heat Transfer - Part B: Fundamentals', 58(6), Taylor & Francis, pp. 419–439, 2010. (The article is top of the list among the journal’s 10 most-read articles of 2008-2010)
  3. RAF Rosario, S Dembele and J X Wen, Investigation of Glazing Behaviour in a Fire Environment using a Spectral Discrete Ordinates Method for Radiative Heat Transfer, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B Fundamentals, 52(6): 489-506 2007.
  4. Dembele, S*, Rosario, R.A.F and Wen, J.X., Dale, S. and Warren, P.D., Thermal and Stress Analysis of Glazing Systems under Fire Conditions, INTERFLAM 2010, Nottingham, UK, July 2010.
  5. Dembele, A.F. Rosario, J. X. Wen, Numerical study of glazing behaviour in fire conditions, presented at the 3rd Int. Symp. The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program, Tokyo UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE, Japan, 2008.
  6. Dembele, A.F. Rosario, J. X. Wen, P.D. Warren, S Dale, Simulation of Glazing Behaviour in Fires using Computational Fluids Dynamics and Spectral Radiation Modelling, 9th Int. Association for Fire Safety Science Symposium (IAFSS), Sep., Karlsruhe, Germany, 2008.
  7. Dembele, A. F. Rosario, J.X. Wen, J.X. Varma, S Dale, S. Wood, P. D. Warren, "Study of glazing behaviour in fire conditions using advanced radiation heat transfer model and computational fluids dynamics", 7th Asia-Oceania Symposium on Fire Science and Technology, September, Hong Kong, 2007.