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Exploiting Next Generation Sequencing to invstigate the genetics of parsnip

root disease and develop a marker assisted breeding strategy.

Aims:


To develop tools to faciliate breeding for quantitative resistance to parsnip root canker diseases caused by Itersonilia and Mycocentrospora spp.


Parsnip Lines

Parsnip Breeding Lines

Background:


Parsnips (Pastinaca sativa) are a speciality crop within the UK, covering an area of around 4100ha and a value of £64M annually. Currently the major constraint to production is the losses associated with root canker diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as Itersonilia and Mycocentrospora spp.

This project aims to address this problem by facilitating breeding for quantitative resistance to these major diseases. Some resistance to parsnip canker exists but is difficult to select for using traditional phenotype screening methods. The main objectives are to further understand the epidemiology of the pathogens involved in parsnip cankers; to develop specific plant bioassays to identify resistant parsnip breeding lines and develop markers for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance.

Resistance screening assays have been developed using both parsnip seedlings and roots. In a root assay using 96 parsnip breeding lines and 10 parent lines, a large range of resistance responses to Itersonilia and Mycocentrospora was observed amongst different lines. A further SNP-genotyped parsnip mapping population will be screened to try and determine the QTLs conferring resistance.

The project will have a direct impact upon the industry by enabling improved sustainability of parsnip production in the UK.


Discard parsnip from processing plant

Discard Parsnip roots from processing factory.


References:


Boekhout, T (1991). Systematics of Itersonilia: a comparative phonetic study. Mycological Research, 95 (2), 135-146.

Channon A G. (1956). Association of a species of Itersonilia with Parsnip Canker in Great Britain. Nature, 178, 217. Channon A. G. (1963). Studies on parsnip canker, I The causes of the disease. Annual of Applied Biology, 51, 1-15.

Channon A G. (1963b). Studies on Parsnip canker, II Observation on the occurrence of Itersonilia pastinacae and related fungi on the leaves of parsnips and in the air within parsnip crops. Annual of Applied Biology, 51, 223-230.

Channon A G. (1964). Studies on Parsnip Canker, III The effect of sowing date and spacing on canker development. Annual of Applied Biology, 54, 63-70.

Channon A G. (1965). Studies on Parsnip Canker, IV. Centrospora acerina (hartig) Newhall – a further cause of black canker. Annual of Applied Biology, 56, 119-128.

Gandy D G. (1966). Itersonilia perplexans on chrysanthemums: alternative hosts and ways of overwintering. Transactions of the British mycological society, 49 (3), 499-507.

Gladders P. (2010) Parsnip: An improved understanding of root blemishes and their prevention – FV366. HDC 1st Year Report (accessed July 2013) (http://www.hdc.org.uk/sites/default/files/research_papers/FV 366 HDC 1st year report parsnip blemish.pdf)

Gladders P (2012) Parsnip: An improved understanding of root blemishes and their prevention – FV366. HDC 2nd Year Report (accessed July 2013) (http://www.hdc.org.uk/sites/default/files/research_papers/FV 366 annual 2012 psg.pdf).

Horita H & Yasuka S (2002). Black streak of edible burdock caused by Itersonilia perplexans in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 68, 277-283.

Ingold C T. (1983) Structure and development in an isolate of Itersonilia perplexans. Transactions of the British mycological society, 80 (2), 365-368.

Ingold C T. (1984). Further observations on Itersonilia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 83 (1), 166-174.

Ingold C T. (1984b). Ballistospore discharge in Itersonilia perplexans. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82 (1), 13-29.

Ingold C T, (1986). Chlamydospore ontongeny in Itersonilia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 86 (3), 501-503.

Ingold C T. (1987). Features of Ballistospores germination in Itersonilia. Transactions of the British Mycologcial society, 89 (4), 575-578.

Machowicz-Stefaniak Z & Zalewska E. (2009) Fungi colonizing various parts of parsnip Pastinaca sativa L. Kerla polonica, 55 (2), 7-17.

McGovern R J., Horita H., Stiles C M. & Seijo T E. (2006). Host range of Itersonilia perplexans and management of Itersonilia Petal Blight of China Aster. Plant Management Network, 72. 185-194.

McPherson G. (2011) Parsnip: An improved understanding of root blemishes and their orevention. HDC Project FV366 Annual Report Year 1. http://www.hdc.org.uk/project/parsnip-improved-understanding-root-blemishes-and-their-prevention-6. Accessed 3.11.2012.

Millanes A M, Diederich P, Ekman S, Wedin M (2011) Phylogeny and character evolution in the jelly fungi (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota, Fungi) Molecular phylogenetics and Evolution, 61, 12-28.

Olive L S (1952). Studies on the morphology and cytology of Itersonilia perplexans Derx. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 79, 126-138.

Sowell Jr, G & Korf R P. (1960). An emendation of the genus Itersonilia based on the studies of morphology and pathogenicity. American Mycologia, 52, 934-945.

Varchney R K, Tuberosa R (2007) Ch.1 Genomics assisted crop improvement: An overview, Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement Vol 1: Genomics Approaches and Platforms.

Wilkinson R E. (1952). Parsnip canker is caused by Itersonilia sp. Phytopathology, 42, 23. Xu Y. (2010) Molecular plant breeding. CABI International Oxfordshire UK, ISBN: 978 1 84593 392 0.

Itersonilia isolate

Itersonilia isolate