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September 2016 - Mortality risk of emergency admissions at the weekend

August 2016 - Chance in Quality and Safety Performance Measures

February 2016 - Blood test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice

November 2015 - Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of pulse oximetry during surgery in low-income countries

November 2015 - Using a simple checklist to prioritise medical devices in low-income countries and as a screening test for full health economic modelling

August 2014 - TRaCKED Study - Test Result Communication, Knowledge, Evaluation and Development


Below is a list of the papers published by Theme 6 within the CLAHRC WM grant period. Where possible, we also include the Altmetric score of each research output. Altmetrics are metrics and qualitative data that are complementary to traditional, citation-based metrics. They can include (but are not limited to) peer reviews on Faculty of 1000, citations on Wikipedia and in public policy documents, discussions on research blogs, mainstream media coverage, bookmarks on reference managers like Mendeley, and mentions on social networks.

  • Aldridge C, Bion J, Boyal A, Chen Y-F, Clancy M, Evans T, Girling A, Lord J, Mannion R, Rees P, Roseveare C, Rudge G, Sun J, Tarrant C, Temple M, Watson S, Lilford R and the HiSLAC Collaborative. Weekend specialist intensity and admission mortality in acute hospital trusts in England: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet. 2016;388(10040):178-186.

  • Manaseki-Holland S, Lilford RJ, Bishop JRB, Girling AJ, Chen Y-F, Chilton PJ, Hofer TP, The UK Case Note Review Group. Reviewing deaths in British and US hospitals: a study of two scales for assessing preventability. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2016;0:1-9.

  • Taylor C. Cyclical quality assurance of examinations is critical but causality needs to be attributed carefully. Education for Primary Care. 2016;1-2. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Chen Y-F, Boyal A, Sutton E, Armoiry X, Watson S, Bion J, Tarrant C and the HiSLAC Collaborative. The magnitude and mechanisms of the weekend effect in hospital admissions: A protocol for a mixed methods review incorporating a systematic review and framework synthesis. Systematic Reviews. 2016;5:84.

  • Aldridge C, Bion J, Boyal A, Chen YF, Clancy M, Evans T, Girling A, Lord J, Mannion R, Rees P, Roseveare C, Rudge G, Sun J, Tarrant C, Temple M, Watson S, Lilford R, HiSLAC Collaborative. Weekend specialist intensity and admission mortality in acute hospital trusts in England: a cross-sectional study. Lancet. 2016 May 10. pii: S0140-6736(16)30442-1.
  • Raine R, Fitzpatrick R, Barratt H, Bevan G, Black N, Boaden R, Bower P, Campbell M, Denis J-L, Devers K, Dixon-Woods M, Fallowfield L, Forder J, Foy R, Freemantle N, Fulop NJ, Gibbons E, Gillies C, Goulding L, Grieve R, Grimshaw J, Howarth E, Lilford RJ, McDonald R, Moore G, Moore L, Newhouse R, O'Cathain A, Or Z, Papoutsi C, Prady S, Rycroft-Malone J, Sekhon J, Turner S, Watson SI, Zwarenstein M. Challenges solutions and future directions in the evaluation of service innovations in health care and public health. Health Services and Delivery Research.2016; 4(16).
  • Schmidtke KA, Poots AJ, Carpio J, Vlaev I, Kandala N, Lilford RJ. Considering Chance in Quality and Safety Performance Measures: An analysis of performance reports by boards in English NHS trusts. BMJ Quality and Safety. 2016; pii: bmjqs-2015-004967.

  • Oyebode O, Kandala NB, Chilton PJ, Lilford RJ. Use of traditional medicine in middle-income countries: a WHO-SAGE study. Health Policy and Planning. 2016; pii: czw022. [ePub ahead of print].

  • Muthuri SK, Oti SO, Lilford RJ, Oyebode O. Salt Reduction Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0149680.

  • Green C, Taylor C, Buckley S, Hean S. Beyond synthesis: Augmenting systematic review procedures with practical principles to optimise impact and uptake in educational policy and practice. International Journal of Research & Method in Education. 2016;39(3):329-344.
  • Martin J, Taljaard M, Girling A, Hemming K. Systematic review finds major deficiencies in sample size methodology and reporting for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials. BMJ Open. 2016;6(2):e010166.

  • Lamont T, Barber N, de Pury J, Fulop N, Garfield-Birkbeck S, Lilford R, Mear L, Raine R, Fitzpatrick R. New approaches to evaluating complex health and care systems. BMJ.

  • Oyebode O, Oti S, Chen Y-F and Lilford RJ. Salt intakes in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-regression. Population Health Metrics. 2016;14:1.

  • Girling AJ, Hemming K. Statistical efficiency and optimal design for stepped cluster studies under linear mixed effects models. Stat Med. 2016;35(13):2113-2296.

  • Taylor G, Girling A, McNeill A, Aveyard P. Does smoking cessation result in improved mental health? A comparison of regression modelling and propensity score matching. BMJ Open. 2015;5(10):e008774.

  • Chen YF, Hemming K, Stevens AJ, Lilford RJ. Secular trends and evaluation of complex interventions: the rising tide phenomenon. BMJ Qual Saf. 2015;0:1-8.

  • Hemming K, Taljaard M. Sample size calculations for stepped wedge and cluster randomised trials: a unified approach. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2016;69:137-46.

  • Litchfield I, Bentham L, Lilford R, McManus RJ, Hill A, Greenfield S. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice. BMJ Qual Saf. 2015; 24(11):691-9.
  • Halligan S, Dadswell E, Wooldrage K, Wardle J, von Wagner C, Lilford R, Yao GL, Zhu S, Atkin W. Computed tomographic colonography compared with colonoscopy or barium enema for diagnosis of colorectal cancer in older symptomatic patients: two multicentre randomised trials with economic evaluation (the SIGGAR trials). Health Technology Assessment. 2015;19(54):1-134.

  • Oyebode O, Garretta Z, Georgea E, Canginia A, Muscoloa LAA, Warrena S, Nemetha B, Földesia C, Heislerováa M, Gajdošováa E. Evidence Requirements for reimbursement of pharmaceuticals across Europe. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care. 2015;31(1-2):59-67.

  • Lilford R, Chen Y-F. The ubiquitous weekend effect: moving past proving it exists to clarifying what causes it (editorial). BMJ Quality and Safety. 2015;24(8):480-2.

  • Gheorghe A, Roberts T, Hemming K, Calvert M. Evaluating the Generalisability of Trial Results: Introducing a Centre- and Trial-Level Generalisability Index. PharmacoEconomics. 2015;33(11):1195-214.

  • Chen Y-F, Bramley G, Unwin G, Hanu-Cernat D, Dretzke J, Moore D, Bayliss S, Cummins C, Lilford R. Occipital nerve stimulation for chronic migraine - a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2015;10(3): e0116786.

  • Litchfield IJ, Bentham LM, Lilford RJ, McManus RJ, Greenfield SM. Patient perspectives on test result communication in primary care: a qualitative study. Br J Gen Pract.
    2015 Mar;65(632):e133-40.

  • Hemming K, Haines TP, Chilton PJ, Girling AJ, Lilford RJ. The stepped wedge cluster randomised trial: rationale design analysis and reporting. BMJ. 2015;350:h391.

  • Lilford RJ, Burn SL, Diaconu K, Lilford P, Chilton PJ, Bion V, Cummins C, Manaseki-Holland S. An Approach to Prioritization of Medical Devices in Low-income Countries: An Example based on the Republic of South Sudan. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation. 2015;13(1):2.

  • Merriel A, Harb H, Williams H, Lilford R, Coomarasamy A. Global women's health: Current clinical trials in low and middle-income countries. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2015; 122(2):190-8.

  • Hillman KM, Lilford R, Braithwaite J. Patient safety and rapid response systems. Medical Journal of Australia. 2015; 201(11):654-6.
  • Hartley LC, Girling AJ, Bowater RJ, Lilford RJ. A multi-study analysis investigating systematic differences in cardiovascular trial results between Europe and Asia. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2015;69:397-404.

  • Hemming K, Lilford R, Girling A. Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple level designs. Statistics in Medicine. 2014; 34(2):181-96.

  • Diaconu K Chen YF Manaseki-Holland S Cummins C Lilford R. Medical device procurement in low- and middle-income settings: protocol for a systematic review. Systematic Reviews

  • Lord J, Midwinter MJ, Chen Y-F, Belli A, Brohi K, Kovacs ,EJ, Koenderman L, Kubes P, Lilford RJ. The systemic immune response to trauma: an overview of pathophysiology and treatment. The Lancet. 2014;384(9952):1455-65.

  • Chen Y-F, Hemming K, Chilton PJ, Gupta KK, Altman DG, Lilford RJ. Scientific hypotheses can be tested by comparing the effects of one treatment over many diseases in a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2014;67(12):1309-19.

  • Burn SL, Chilton PJ, Gawande A, Lilford RJ. Peri-operative pulse oximetry in surgery in low-income countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation. 2014; 92(12):858-67.

  • Chirwa T, Mantempa J, Kinziunga F, Kandala J, Kandala N. An exploratory spatial analysis of geographical inequalities of birth intervals among young women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): a cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2014;14:271.

  • Litchfield IJ, Bentham L, Lilford RJ, Greenfield SM. Test result communication in primary care: clinical and office staff perspectives. Fam Pract. 2014; 31(5):592-7.

  • Lilford RJ Girling AJ Sheikh A Coleman JJ Chilton PJ Burn SL Jenkinson DJ Blake L Hemming K. Protocol for evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of ePrescribing systems and candidate prototype for other related health information technologies. BMC Health Services Research.

  • Bowater RJ Hartley LC Lilford RJ. Are cardiovascular trial results systematically different between North America and Europe? A study based on intra-meta-analysis comparisons. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2014. pii: S1875-2136(14)00061-8.
  • Kandala NB, Stranges S. Geographic variation of overweight and obesity among Women in Nigeria: A case for nutritional transition in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS One
    2014 Jun 30;9(6):e101103.

  • Kandala NB, Mandungu TP, Mbela M, Nzita K, Kalambayi BB, Kayembe KB, Emina J. Child mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: cross-sectional evidence of the effect of
    geographic location and prolonged conflict from
    a national household survey. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:266

  • Kandala NB, Lukumu FK, Mantempa JN, Kandala JD, Chirwa T. Disparities in modern contraception use among women in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A cross-sectional spatial analysis of provincial variations based on household survey data. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2014; 47(3):345-62
  • Olisemeke B, Chen YF, Hemming K Girling. The effectiveness of service delivery initiatives at improving patients' waiting times in clinical radiology departments: a systematic review. Journal of Digital Imaging. 2014; 27(6):751-78.
  • Ghanouni A, Halligan S, Taylor SA, Boone D, Plumb A, Stoffel S, Morris S, Yao GL, Zhu S, Lilford RJ, Wardle J, von Wagner C. Quantifying public preferences for different bowel preparation options prior to screening CT colonography: A discreet choice experiment. BMJ Open. 2014;4(4):e004327.

Theme 6 links


Meet the team


Theme Lead

Professor Richard Lilford, University of Warwick


  • University of Warwick
  • University of Birmingham