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Physiology, Disease and Therapeutics

The Maillard Reaction in biomedical research


Disease mechanisms and therapeutics


Historical perspective


Physiological formation and processing of glycation adducts

  • Glycation of proteins - fructosamines, AGEs and ALEs
  • Glycation of nucleotides
  • Glycation of basic phospholipids
  • Enzymatic defences against glycation
  • Genetic susceptibility to glycation - evidence frm twin studies


Glycation in disease

  • Kidney failure and dialysis
  • Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease
  • Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Arthritis and inflammatory disease
  • Other diseases




Drug design, development and therapeutics




Inhibition of glycation as primary pharmacological activity

  • Aminoguanidine (Pimagedine)
  • Thiazolium derivatives "AGE breakers"
  • Pyridoxamine
  • Thiamine and Benfotiamine
  • Carnosine
  • Other glycation inhibitors


Inhibition of glycation as secondary pharmacological activity

  • Metformin
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
  • Other therapeutics with anti-glycation activity