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Whitehall II Study

The first Whitehall I study showed that men in the lowest employment grades were much more likely to die prematurely than men in the highest grades.

The Whitehall II ( study was set up by Sir Michael Marmot: University College London (UCL) to determine what underlies the social gradient in death and disease and to include women.

The study began in 1985 (non-industrial civil servants; 35 – 55, CV exam)

10,308 individuals (73%) participated in the baseline survey (66.6% men)

In addition to a medical examination all participants were sent a self-completion questionnaire, which covered a wide range of topics.

This first phase was completed in 1987, since when there have been a further six phases of data collection, alternating postal self-completion questionnaires with medical examinations and questionnaires.

Phase 7, completed in September 2004, included a medical examination. Responses were obtained from 6,914 participants (86.7% response rate). In addition to the usual cardiovascular measures - blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipid levels, height, weight, and the cardiovascular tests – data is now available on walking, diet and cognitive functioning, as well as questions relating to retirement.

A DNA sample and data bank is being set up.

Project Supervisor Dr Michelle Miller (Warwick/UCL)



  • Cappuccio FP, Stranges S, Kandala N-B, Miller MA, Taggart FM, Kumari M, Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Brunner E, Marmot MG. Gender-specific associations of short sleep duration with prevalent and incident hypertension: the Whitehall II Study. Hypertension 2007; 50: 694-701
  • Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Cappuccio FP, Brunner E, Miller MA, Kumari M, Marmot MG. Sleep duration and change in sleep duration: associations with mortality in the Whitehall II cohort. Sleep 2007; 30: 1659-66
  • Miller MA, Kandala N-B, Kivimaki M, Kumari M, Brunner EJ, Lowe GDO, Marmot MG, Cappuccio FP. Gender differences in the cross-sectional relationships between sleep duration and markers of inflammation: Whitehall II study. Sleep 2009; 32(7): 857-64
  • Miller MA, Kandala N-B, Kumari M, Marmot MG, Cappuccio FP. Relationships between sleep duration and von Willebrand factor, factor VII and fibrinogen. Whitehall II study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010;30: doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.206987
  • Sanderson SC, Kumari M, Brunner E, Miller MA, Rumley A, Lowe G, Marmot M, Humphries SE. Association between IL6 gene variants -174G>C and -572G>C and serum IL-6 levels: interactions with social position in the Whitehall II cohort. Atherosclerosis 2009;204(2):459-64
  • Stranges S, Cappuccio FP, Kandala N-B, Miller MA, Taggart FM, Kumari M, Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, Brunner E, Marmot MG. Cross-sectional versus prospective associations of sleep duration with changes in relative weight and body fat distribution: the Whitehall II Study. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:321-9
  • Stranges S, Dorn JM, Shipley MJ, Kandala N-B, Trevisan M, Miller MA, Donahue RP, Hovey KM, Ferrie JE, Marmot MG, Cappuccio FP. Correlates of short and long sleep duration: cross-cultural comparison between UK and US. The Whitehall II Study and the Western New York Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 168:1353-64
  • Tabak AG, Brunner EJ, Miller MA, Karanam S, McTernan PG, Cappuccio FP, Witte DR. Low serum adinopectin predicts 10-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels independently of obesity, lipids and inflammation – Whitehall II study. Horm Metab Res 2009; 41: 626-9