# MPAGS Modules Currently Being Offered

- An introduction to Scientific Computing with Python
**Convenor:**Steven Bamford**Academic Year:**2017-18**Start Date:**23/10/2017**Module Code:**AS1**Module Name:**An introduction to Scientific Computing with Python**Duration (Hours):**1.5-2 hours**Duration (Weeks):**5 weeks, 1 session/week**Module Details:**This course will give a general introduction to Python programming, useful for all physics postgrads, but with an emphasis on astronomy. It is primarily aimed at graduate students requiring credits as part of the MPAGS training scheme, but other interested students and staff are welcome to join on request.A reasonable level of undergraduate programming experience is assumed.

The sessions will be timetabled soon. In previous years these have been distributed as one 1.5-2 hour session per week for five weeks in the Autumn semester. There are held in room A6 in the main Nottingham Physics building, and via Access Node broadcasts to various MPAGS and other institutions (Warwick, Birmingham, Bristol, Keele, Leicester, Loughborough, Southampton, ...)

The course will be formatively assessed by the development of a working Python program related to your studies.

Further details are here:

http://stevenbamford.com/python_mpags_2017/

- Astronomy Background Reading
**Convenor:**Simon Dye, Omar Almaini (Nottingham), Andrew Levan (Warwick), Alberto Sesana (Birmingham)**Academic Year:**2017-2018**Start Date:**10/10/2017**Module Code:**AS0**Module Name:**Astronomy Background Reading**Duration (Hours):**2 hours per week**Duration (Weeks):**October-June**Module Details:**The aim of this module is to broaden general knowledge in astronomy & astrophysics, and is designed to complement the more focussed background reading that students will naturally undertake in their own specialist area of research. This is a student-centred module, based around a list of reading topics that are tailored to each research group. Please contact your local convenor for further details.Students must summarize the material that they have learned in a log book, that must be reviewed and signed monthly by their supervisor. Students may maintain this log book as they see fit, but it should be sufficient to demonstrate that the required amount of time per week has been set aside to learn this material. It must be a hardback, bound volume; loose-leaf format will not be acceptable.

Assessment will be via an oral exam in the summer of the first year.

- Bose-Einstein Condensation in Ultra Cold Gases
**Convenor:**Dr Dimitri Gangardt**Academic Year:**2017-2018**Start Date:**10/17/2017**Module Code:**AT1**Module Name:**Bose-Einstein Condensation in Ultra Cold Gases**Duration (Hours):**10**Duration (Weeks):**5**Module Details:**After its theoretical prediction by Sateyndra N. Bose and Albert Einstein in 1925 the phenomenon of Bose -Einstein condensation (BEC) and related phenomenon of Superfluidity was crucial for understanding behaviour of various physical systems, from liquid helium to neutron stars. Its direct experimental observation with ultra cold alkali gases in 1995 leads to impressive growth of experimental and theoretical studies due to unprecedental level of tunability and control achieved with these systems. In this lecture course I will discuss theoretical concepts of BEC and long range order, elementary excitations, quantised vortices and their relation to phenomenon of superfluidity and macroscopic phase coherence of condensates. Where possible I will discuss experimental observation of these effects. I will also present recent developments of the field and discuss effects of strong correlations between ultra cold atoms arising in low dimensional systems and optical lattices. My presentation will be based on the standard theoretical tools of many body physics, such as first and second quantisation as well as path integrals.Learning objectives:

To understand and use in their own research the concepts outlined in the Syllabus (below). Completion of derivation presented in lectures will serve as exercises. A short individual interview with each student during Mid-term MPAGS Workshop will be used to assess students' progress.

Syllabus

0. Short historical introduction. Review of recent experiments with ultracold atoms.

1. Bose and Fermi quantum statistics. One body density matrix, momentum distribution and physical observables. Off Diagonal Long Range order. Thermodynamics of ideal Bose gas. Bose-Einstein condensation and off-diagonal long range order. Influence of harmonic trapping potential on BEC of ideal gas, effect of density of states.

2. Interatomic interactions. Low energy collisions and scattering length. Mean field description of interactions. Order parameter and Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Role of the phase and irrotational hydrodynamics. Nonuniform condensates: Thomas Fermi regime and small amplitude oscillations. Persistent currents and Quantised vortices.

3. Bogoliubov theory of weakly interacting bosons: excitation spectrum and quantum fluctuations. Quantum hydrodynamics and Beliaev decay of phonons.

4. Landau theory of superfluidity. Elementary excitations and Landau criterion of superfuid flow. Two-fluid hydrodynamics: normal and superfluid components. First and second sound. Rotation of superfluids.

5. Phase coherence of condensates. Absence of phase coherence in low dimensions (Mermin-Wagner theorem). Interference between two condensates. Josephson effect and its quantisation. Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonianof bosons in optical lattices.

Bibliography

The course will be based on the book "Bose Einstein Condensation" by Lev Pitaevskii and Sandro Stringari. Although the material in lectures is intended to be self contained, a basic knowledge of Quantum Mechanics and Statistical Physics will be required. The students are encouraged to use the corresponding Landau&Lifshits volumes (III,V and IX). Additional sources (such as articles and reviews) will be provided during the course.

**Dates and times:**17.10.2017 2pm-4pm

24.10.2017 2pm-4pm

31.10.2017 2pm -4pm

07.11.2017 2pm-4pm

14.11.2017 2pm-4pm

- Classical and quantum phase transitions
**Convenor:**Stephen Powell (Nottingham)**Academic Year:**2017/18**Start Date:**11/7/2017**Module Code:**SM2**Module Name:**Classical and quantum phase transitions**Duration (Hours):**2 hours per week**Duration (Weeks):**5**Module Details:**A phase transition is a sudden qualitative change in the properties of a physical system when a parameter, such as temperature, is tuned through a critical value. In the vicinity of such transitions, remarkable behaviour can be observed, such as universality and (approximate) scale invariance. These critical phenomena can be understood using the "renormalization group", which relates a set of effective descriptions on a range of length scales, and also provides a framework for the calculation of physical observables.This module will give an introduction to phase transitions, critical phenomena, and the renormalization group, mainly in the context of classical and quantum spin models. It is intended mainly for students in condensed matter theory, but much of the material is relevant for other areas of theoretical physics.

Lectures:

Tuesdays and Wednesdays 10:00â€’11:00 from 7 November to 6 December (inclusive)

Topics:

Classical spin models; phase structures and critical properties

Landau theory of phase transitions; Ginzburg criterion

Euclidean field theory; diagrammatic expansion

Renormalization group; momentum-shell RG

Quantum phase transitions; quantum Ising chain

Assessment:

There will be two problem sets covering the material in the module.

Recommended references:

Scaling and Renormalization in Statistical Physics, J. Cardy (Cambridge, 1996)

Lectures on Phase Transitions and the Renormalization Group, N. Goldenfeld (Addison-Wesley, 1992)

Quantum Phase Transitions, S. Sachdev (Cambridge, 2011)

M. E. Fisher, Rev. Mod. Phys. 46, 597 (1974)

K. G. Wilson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 47, 773 (1975)

- Deep Inlastic Scattering (PP4)
Module title: Deep Inlastic Scattering (PP4)

Module convenor: Dr. Orlando Villalobos-Baillie (Birmingham)

Module aims: To provide an introduction to deep inelastic lepton scattering, and to selected other parton-level processes.

Learning objectives:

Basic ideas of deep inlastic scattering: Bjorken scaling, Callan-Gross relation; sum rules;

Comparison of charged lepton and neutrino deep-inelastic scattering. Parity violation;

QCD corrections.

The Drell-Yan Process. Comparison with Double Pomeron Exchange.

Jet production and fragmentation. Direct Photon Production.

Anomalies. "EMC" nuclear effect and spin structure of the nucleon.

Introduction to String model of fragmentation. Artru-Menessier model and the Lund Model.

Syllabus in more detail:

Definition of kinematic variables, pointlike fermion-fermion scattering, Rosenbluth formula and elastic electron-proton scattering, structure functions and deep inelastic scattering, Bjorken scaling, Callan-Gross relation, interpretation of structure functions in terms of parton pdfs, limits on allowed values of pdfs, weak interaction, deep inelastic neutrino scattering, Gross-Llewelyn Smith sum rule, Gottfried sum rule, momentum sum rule, gluons, QCD effects, DGLAP equations, Drell-Yan scattering, Double Pomeron Exchange, characteristic DY angular distribution, quark-quark scattering and jet production, fragmentation functions, direct photon production, nuclear effects, shadowing and the “EMC effect”, spin structure functions, the “spin crisis”, the Ellis-Jaffé and Bjorken sum rules, the Atru-Menessier string model, the Lund model.

- Epitaxy fundamentals
**Convenor:**Dr Maksym Myronov**Academic Year:**2017-2018**Start Date:**15/01/2018**Module Code:****Module Name:**Epitaxy fundamentals**Duration (Hours):**12, 1 hour per session**Duration (Weeks):**6 weeks, 2 hours per week**Module Details:**Most of modern electronic, optoelectronic, spintronic, thermoelectric, photovoltaic and sensor devices are fabricated of thin film semiconductor materials, which are epitaxially grown on a substrate. Due to precise control over chemical composition, doping, and dimensions of a thin film made possible by modern epitaxial techniques, one can obtain a material with entirely novel physical properties which are often based on quantum phenomena arising from the confinement of charge carriers in very tiny volumes, comparable with their De Broglie wavelengths. In order to understand epitaxial growth, relevant thermodynamic and kinetic processes and phenomena which make the transition from a disordered phase, i.e. gas or liquid, to an ordered crystalline phase possible have to be known.The proposed lecture course offers an introduction to the epitaxy fundamentals. Application examples of epilayers used in various existing and potentially new devices will accompany discussion and review on each topic. The course consists of 12 lectures provisional titles of which are outlined below.

1) Introduction

2) Thin films deposition

3) Epilayers characterization techniques

4) Substrates for epitaxy

5) Epitaxial growth modes

6) Planar and selective epitaxy

7) Chemical Vapour Deposition

8) Liquid Phase Epitaxy

9) Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

10) Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

11) Pulsed Laser Deposition

12) Atomic Layer Deposition

- Formation of planetary systems
**Convenor:**Richard Alexander**Academic Year:**2017/18**Start Date:**02/11/2017**Module Code:**AS8**Module Name:**Formation of planetary systems**Duration (Hours):**2**Duration (Weeks):**5 weeks, 1 session per week**Module Details:**This module aims to give students a broad overview of how planets form. We will primarily consider planet formation from an astrophysical perspective (rather than a planetary science or cosmochemistry approach), and the course will cover both observational and theoretical research into planets and their origins. We will review observations of both the Solar System and exoplanets, and discuss observations and models of the structure and evolution of protoplanetary discs (which are the sites of planet formation). We will then consider the dynamics of solid bodies, and discuss how sub-micron-sized dust grains grow to form larger bodies. From this point our theory of planet formation remains incomplete, but we will discuss and critique the leading models for both terrestrial and giant planet formation. Finally we will discuss planet migration and the dynamics of young planetary systems, and how these processes shape the architectures of planetary systems.-----------

Existing course web-pages are here:

- Group Theory for Particle Physics
**Convenor:**Dr O. Villalobos Baillie (Birmingham)**Academic Year:**2017-18**Start Date:**30/10/17**Module Code:**PP5**Module Name:**Group Theory for Particle Physics**Duration (Hours):**10 1 hour sessions**Duration (Weeks):**4**Module Details:**Learning objectives:Review properties of groups and how they can be applied in particle physics

Get overview of relevant concepts in Lie groups and Lie algebra;

Get introduction to the application of these groups to the static Quark Model;

Study structure of SU(3) multiplets and their coupling.

Lecture notes are available at

http://epweb2.ph.bham.ac.uk/user/ovb/problems/

- Higgs Boson Physics
**Convenor:**Dr K Nikolopoulos

**Academic Year:**2017-2018

**Start Date:**16/01/2018

**Module Code:**PP7

**Module Name:**Higgs Boson Physics

Duration:

2

**Duration Weeks:**2

**Module Description:**To provide an introduction to the phenomenology of the Higgs boson and the relevant experimental results and techniques. Emphasis will be given to the Standard Model case, while some elements of beyond the Standard Model Higgs boson phenomenology and searches will be introduced. The prospects of Higgs boson studies and searches in future machines will be also discussed.

Specialized and intended for high energy physics students.

**Syllabus:**Introduction to the Classical Theory of Fields and demonstration of spontaneous symmetry breaking; Electro-Weak Symmetry Breaking in the Standard Model; Phenomenology of the Standard Model Higgs boson; The Global Electro-Weak fit; Searches for the Higgs boson (pre-LEP, LEP and Tevatron); Higgs boson at the LHC (Discovery, property studies and prospects for HL-LHC); Higgs boson studies at future accelerators; Elements of beyond the Standard Model Higgs boson phenomenology

The lecture notes and the homework assignments can be found here: http://epweb2.ph.bham.ac.uk/user/nikolopoulos/LecturesHiggsBosonJan2016/

Dates and Times:

16/1 11:00-13:00

18/1 11:00-13:00

19/1 11:00-13:00

22/1 11:00-13:00

23/1 11:00-13:00

- Introduction to Particle Physics
**Convenor:**Steven Worm (Birmingham)**Academic Year:**2017-2018**Start Date:**04/10/2017**Module Code:**PP1**Module Name:**Introduction to Particle Physics**Duration (Hours):**10**Duration (Weeks):**4**Module Details:**These lectures give a brief introduction to modern particle physics. Lectures will cover the properties and classification of forces and particles (e.g. leptons, bosons, hadrons, baryons, mesons). They will introduce the relativistic kinematics governing the particle production, decay and lifetime, which touch upon the concepts of reference frames, cross-sections, invariant masses, and Feynman diagrams. A brief introduction to the Standard Model will cover concepts such as weak interactions, QCD and QED. Final lectures revisit conservation laws and symmetries as applied to particle physics, presenting the concepts of angular momentum, spin, isospin and CPT.- Nano Surface Physics
**Convenor:**Gavin Bell**Academic Year:**2017-18 Spring Term (actual dates TBD)**Start Date:**01/01/18**Module Code:**NS1**Module Name:**Nano / Surface Physics I**Duration (Hours):**2**Duration (Weeks):**5 weeks, 1 session per week**Module Details:**The aim is to introduce students to aspects of surface and thin-film physics. The course will be based around 5 sessions, 3 comprising core material and 2 focused on case studies. It will not involve much "advanced" condensed matter physics, building on undergraduate CMP understanding. The course will be assessed by lecture attendance and problem sheets associated with each lecture, for which a reasonable attempt must be made.Lecture 1: Introduction and surface and thin-film structure

Motivation, ultra-high vacuum, electron and X-ray interactions. with surfaces.

Crystallography: from bulk to surface.

Surface relaxation and reconstruction.

Lecture 2: Surface and thin-film diffraction

Low energy electron diffraction (LEED).

Surface and thin-film X-ray diffraction (SXRD).

Lecture 3: Thin-film growth and XPS

Surface growth: examples and underlying theory.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: theory and practice.

Lecture 4: Case Study

Example - epitaxy by pulsed laser deposition (PLD)

Example - MBE growth of epilayers and their analysis by RHEED and synchrotron XRD

Lecture 5: Short Case Study and Revision / Problems

Example - "not just nearly clean, but really clean"... how to get an atomically clean surface

- Particle Detection and Data Analysis
**Convenor:**Dr Kostas Nikolopoulos**Academic Year:**2017-2018**Start Date:**04/10/2017**Module Code:**PP6**Module Name:**Particle Detection and Data Analysis**Duration (Hours):**10**Duration (Weeks):**4**Module Details:**Module aims and learning objectives:To provide an introduction to particle detectors and particle physics techniques.

Specialized and intended for high energy physics students.

Syllabus (preliminary):

Interaction of charged particles with matter;

Interaction of photons and electrons with matter;

Example of a gaseous detector (drift/diffusion/avalanche creation, signal formation and processing);

Statistics in Particle Physics;

The Monte-Carlo method

The lecture notes and the homework assignments can be found here: hhttp://epweb2.ph.bham.ac.uk/user/nikolopoulos/LecturesParticlePhysicsMethodsOct2017/

- QED and the Standard Model
**Convenor:**Konstantinos A. Petridis**Academic Year:**2017/2018**Start Date:**30/10/2017**Module Code:**PP3**Module Name:**QED and the Standard Model**Duration (Hours):**10**Duration (Weeks):**4 weeks**Module Details:**These lectures are designed to give an introduction to the gauge theories of the standard model of particle physics. No formal quantum field theory is assumed so there are times when rigour will be lacking. In the limited time available, the goal will be to understand the underlying physics of fermions and their interactions via strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Lectures will cover topics including:- Link between symmetries and conservation laws

- Fields and symmetry transformations, Noether's Theorem

- Abelian Local Gauge invariance and the QED Lagrangian

- Non-Abelian Local Gauge invariance and QCD Lagrangian

- Chiral Fermions

- Weak interactions and Electroweak theory

- Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson

- Quark couplings and the CKM matrix

- Neutrinos and their mass

- Quantum Field Theory
**Convenor:**Dr Tasos Avgoustidis (Nottingham)**Academic Year:**2017-2018**Start Date:**30/10/2017**Module Code:**QFT**Module Name:**Quantum Field Theory**Duration (Hours):**1 hr ( 2 hrs for 1st )**Duration (Weeks):**4 weeks (10 hrs total; 2-3hrs per week)Resources: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_resources.pdf

Lecture 1: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_1.pdf

Lecture 2: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_2.pdf

Lecture 3: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_3.pdf

Lecture 4: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_4.pdf

Lecture 5: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_5.pdf

Lecture 6: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_6.pdf

Lecture 7: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_7.pdf

Lecture 8: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_8.pdf

Lecture 9: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_9.pdf

Lecture 10: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_lecture_10.pdf

Problem set: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~ppzaa3/QFT_questions.pdf

**Module Details:**Module Aims:This module will provide an introduction to Quantum Field Theory, designed to follow-on from PP2: Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. We will construct Feynman rules from first principles and use them to study elementary processes involving scalars and fermions. Our approach will be through canonical quantisation. This is an introductory course, which will not cover renormalisation. For QED and non-abelian gauge theories, see module PP3.

Syllabus:

Lecture 1: Preliminaries (Classical) - Classical mechanics, Classical Field Theory, Symmetries and Noether currents

Lecture 2: Preliminaries (Quantum) - Canonical Quantization, Schrödinger, Heisenberg & Interaction Pictures, Harmonic Oscillator

Lectures 3-4: Free Fields - Canonical Quantization, Vacuum State, Particle States, Causality, Feynman Propagator

Lectures 5-6: Interacting Fields - S-Matrix, Wick’s Theorem, Feynman Diagrams, examples

Lecture 7: Spinors - Lorentz Group, Spinor representation

Lecture 8: Dirac Equation

Lectures 9-10: Quantization of Dirac Equation - Fermions, Feynman Rules, examples

Lectures 1 and 2 will be given in a single 2-hr session on Mon 30 Oct. All other lectures will be in 1-hr sessions.

- Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
**Convenor:**Dr Thomas Blake**Academic Year:**2017-2018**Start Date:**09/10/2017**Module Code:**PP2**Module Name:**Relativistic Quantum Mechanics**Duration (Hours):**1**Duration (Weeks):**3 with approx 3 lectures per week**Module Details:**Module aims: To provide an introduction to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in High Energy Physics. A more detailed course syllabus is provided below. This course is intended for particle physics Ph. D. students. Course Syllabus: Lecture 1: Special Relativity and Lorentz Invariance Lecture 2: Examples of Lorentz Invariance: Maxwell and Klein Gordon Equations Lecture 3: Perturbation Theory for Particle Scattering Lecture 4: Coulomb Scattering of Charged Spin-0 Particles Lecture 5: Invariant Amplitudes, Feynman Diagrams and Cross-Sections Lecture 6: Calculating Cross-Sections for Spin-0 Scattering Lecture 7: The Dirac Equation Lecture 8: Dirac Equation: Spin, Antiparticles and Feynman Rules Lecture 9: Coulomb Scattering of Charged Spin-1/2 Particles Lecture 10: Spin Sums and Trace Techniques Assessment: The course assessment is based on returned solutions to problems sets. These will be set on a roughly weekly basis with a return deadline one week later. Recommended Texts: The course is largely based on: "Quarks and Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics" by F. Halzen and A. Martin

To provide an introduction to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in High Energy Physics. A more detailed course syllabus is provided below. This course is intended for particle physics Ph. D. students.

Course Syllabus:

Lecture 1: Special Relativity and Lorentz Invariance

Lecture 2: Examples of Lorentz Invariance: Maxwell and Klein Gordon Equations

Lecture 3: Perturbation Theory for Particle Scattering

Lecture 4: Coulomb Scattering of Charged Spin-0 Particles

Lecture 5: Invariant Amplitudes, Feynman Diagrams and Cross-Sections

Lecture 6: Calculating Cross-Sections for Spin-0 Scattering

Lecture 7: The Dirac Equation

Lecture 8: Dirac Equation: Spin, Antiparticles and Feynman Rules

Lecture 9: Coulomb Scattering of Charged Spin-1/2 Particles

Lecture 10: Spin Sums and Trace Techniques

Assessment:

The course assessment is based on returned solutions to problems sets. These will be set on a roughly weekly basis with a return deadline one week later.

Recommended Texts:

The course is largely based on:

"Quarks and Leptons: An Introductory Course in Modern Particle Physics" by F. Halzen and A. Martin

- Software development with C++
**Convenor:**Mark Slater, Thomas Latham**Academic Year:**2017-18**Start Date:**26/10/2017**Module Code:**Cpp**Module Name:**Software development with C++**Duration (Hours):**7**Duration (Weeks):**3 weeks, 2 days/week**Module Details:**The C++ course is run over 6 days (3 sets of 2 days each) and covers the main aspects, not only of specific C++ coding including fundamental techniques, classes and STL, but also good code development practice including version control, testing and documentation. During the course, the development of a number of classical cypher methods is used as the framework to put these various techniques into practice. Reviews of your code will be done after each two day block as well as 'ideal' solutions being posted for reference.- Statistics
**Convenor:**Jonas Rademacker**Academic Year:**2017/18**Start Date:**27/09/2017**Module Code:**Plop**Module Name:**Statistics**Duration (Hours):**2**Duration (Weeks):**1 week, 5 sessions**Module Details:**Statistics for particle physicists, including basic stastics, probabilities, probability distributions and pdfs, fitting, Monte Carlo methods, Hypothesis testing.- Trigger for Particle Physics (TRI)
Module title: Trigger for Particle Physics (TRI)

Module convenor: Dr. Orlando Villalobos-Baillie (Birmingham)

Module aims: To provide an introduction to the principles of triggers for high energy physics experiments, to study how triggers are implemented in LHC experiments, and to look at future directions in triggering. In addition the assumptions and methods for Van der Meer scans will be discussed.

Learning objectives:

Motivation for triggers in high energy physics experiments

Basic trigger concepts: coincidences, dead time management

Examples: NA57; OPAL

Requirements at the LHC.

Examples: ALICE SPD and TRD triggers: ATLAS L1 calorimeter trigger

Future directions in trigger development

Luminosity measurement with Van der Meer scans.

Syllabus in more detail:

Why triggers are necessary, simple triggering scheme with time budgeting, dead time, advantages of multi-level triggers, advantages of buffering, examples from CERN fixed target experiments, timing at the CERN LEP collider, deadtimeless triggers, trigger timing in the OPAL experiment, timing in an LHC experiment, the RD-14 TTC project, LHCb restrictions, examples of LHC triggers (the ALICE pixel trigger, the ATLAS L1 Calo trigger, the ALICE TRD trigger, High Level triggers, triggering in the Auger experiment, plan for CBM experiment at GSI, continuous triggers, implementation in LHCb and ALICE, the future of triggering.