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ASTIR: Advanced Storage Technology Reality - £19M.

Lead partner Jaguar Landrover Ltd with WMG-University of Warwick , Siemens Industry Software, AVL Powertrain UK, Advanced Innergy Solutions, A E Oscroft & Sons.

Funder – APCUK. Project completion 2023.

Vision: Development of a new battery concept for application in Jaguar Land Rover electrified vehicles.


  • Tackle battery system cost, energy density, charging, safety and manufacturing
  • Focus will be centred on the system engineering and non-cell battery components
  • This includes the module, pack, thermal management and the integrated Battery Energy Manager (BEM); which are critical to the vehicle capability and competitiveness
  • Project will deliver significant technical advancements, which require materials, process and modelling technique developments

WMG Input: WMG are working on joining technologies and developing digital twin capability to enable virtual crash analysis of batteries in vehicle.

Battery Degradation

Battery Degradation: Understand fundamental degradation mechanism in Ni-rich Li-ion battery technology - £16M, 60 months.

Lead partner; University of Cambridge; other partners; WMG, NPL, UCL, Imperial College London, Uni. Birmingham, Liverpool, Sheffield, Southampton.

Funder - Faraday Institution. Project completion 2023.

Vision: Installation of the necessary recycling infrastructure for end of life electric vehicles and batteries.


  • Understand why Ni-rich cathodes accelerate degradation of the cells
  • Develop new capabilities, tools and techniques for fully characterizing chemical and physics degradation mechanisms within Ni-rich Li-ion batteries
  • Work with industry partners to translate and commercially exploit knowledge, understanding and IP generated

WMG Input:

  • Workpackage lead for cathode activities of consortium
  • Perform bespoke surface characterization of conditioned electrodes
  • Cycle/test pouch cells of NMC 811 // graphite


ECO2LIB - €8M, 53 months.

Lead partner VARTA MICROBATTERY GMBH with CEA, WMG, VARTA Micro Innovation GmbH, EurA AG, Uppsala Universitet, Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, VARTA Storage GmbH, Uniwersytet Warszawski, ACCUREC Recycling GmbH.

Funder – H2020 EU. Project completion 2024.

Vision: Improved battery materials for energy storage applications with significantly reduced costs per cycle (€/kWh/cycle).


  • Continued effort with the modified objectives of LC-BAT-2-2019
  • Moved focus to a new KPI, the cycle related costs per energy: €/kWh/cycle
  • An extended LCA, cradle-to-grave will be setup to judge the environmental impact of the different options and to choose the best
  • Continue the improvement of the well-established Lithium-Ion system with advanced materials, methods and corresponding recycling-concept

WMG Input: The Electrochemical Materials group are supporting other modelling activities at WMG on silicon anode technology. We are formulating anodes for electrochemical testing and applying Raman spectroscopy to evaluate particle connectivity as a function of cycling and phase changes. This will help to understand heterogeneous ageing. SIMS mapping in 3D will provide chemistry information, including dendrite formation.

Graphene Flagship Core 3

Graphene Flagship Core 3 - €150M, 41 months.

Lead partner CHALMERS TEKNISKA HOEGSKOLA AB + 177 industry and academic participants.

Funder - H2020 EU. Project completion 2023.

Vision: to secure a major role for Europe in the ongoing technological revolution, helping to bring graphene innovation out of the lab and into commercial applications by 2023.


  • A continued transition towards higher technology readiness levels, without jeopardizing our strong commitment to fundamental research
  • A substantial increase in the market-motivated technological spearhead projects, which account for about 30% of the overall budget
  • The consortium that is involved in this project includes over 150 academic and industrial partners in over 20 European countries

WMG Input: This work package develops graphite-silicon hybrid anodes, working with an industry partner Elkem. The anodes are shared with other European partners to fabricate cells with graphene-containing cathodes and solid-state electrolytes. The full cells will be characterised at WMG also and subjected to post-mortem analysis & FIB-SEM tomography.


HPLiSD: High Power Lithium Storage Device - £24m, 45 months.

Lead Partner BMW, with McLaren, Delta Motorsport & WMG. Project completion 2021.

Funder – APCUK. Project completion 2021.

Vision: Increasing the power-density of batteries to accelerate the widespread adoption of electric vehicles and to reduce their weight.


  • To develop a High Power Lithium Storage Device (HP-LiSD), with a modular design and at least 5kW/kg, compared to 1-2 kW/kg for the best hybrid lithium ion batteries today
  • To research, design and develop this battery system for high performance hybrid and full electric vehicle applications
  • Resulting battery system to power both McLaren and BMW Group cars in the future

WMG Input: The electrochemistry team at WMG, University of Warwick optimised electrode formulations and fabrication methodology using state of the art materials, in order to achieve an optimum performance and maximum power density.

Using the Battery Scale-up facilities in WMG’s Energy Innovation Centre, researchers were able to apply new mixing technologies to prepare slurries at an accelerated rate compared to standard industrial mixing methods, demonstrating its potential as a drop-in solution for industry.

Mutli-scale Modelling

Multi-scale Modelling - £17.9m, 60 months.

Lead partner Imperial College London (Lead) with University of Birmingham, University of Bath, University College London, Lancaster University, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Southampton, University of Warwick, UKBIC and 14 industrial partners.

Funder – The Faraday Institution. Project completion 2023.

Vision: To create new methodologies and techniques to measure electrolyte properties, characterise the 3D structure of cells and parameterise models.


  • Validate new battery physics: coupled degradation mechanisms, degradation diagnostic tools and predict end-of-life
  • Exploit novel multiscale/multi-physics methods to design better devices; establish new standards for thermal characterisation
  • Integrate research communities across scales and approaches to bring atomistic accuracy into battery simulations
  • Develop a common modelling framework: including PyBaMM, DandeLiion and ONETEP; create a global modelling community
  • Make trusted models, usable by industry; industrially competitive, reflecting a world-leading body of knowledge and understanding

WMG Input: Bringing physical battery models into EV Battery Management Systems.


Nextrode: Electrode Manufacturing - £12m, 48 months.

Lead partner University of Oxford with University of Birmingham, University College London, University of Sheffield, University of Southampton, University of Warwick, UKBIC and 12 industry partners.

Funder – The Faraday Institution. Project completion 2023.

Vision: To research new methods for manufacturing smarter electrodes and to put them onto the path to commercialisation.


  • Support an agile electrode fabrication capability; re-optimise slurry casting parameters, validating at lab, intermediate and production scale
  • Enable the production of Li-ion batteries with smart electrodes: reduce degradation rates and increase energy density at high charge/discharge rates
  • Demonstrate smart electrode manufacturing technology and performance benefits in a scalable battery format
  • Provide a suite of modelling and characterisation tools that link microstructural features to electrochemical performance and design-driven structural optimisation of battery structures, suitable for a broad range of battery formulations

WMG Input: The objectives for WMG are to create an AI based model of the process stages associated with electrode and cell manufacture (e.g. mixing, coating, drying, calendaring), as well as to create a value-chain model for electrode manufacture at different volume scales.
An iterative research approach is being adopted at WMG (akin to established agile software development methods) in which the creation of the AI model for electrode manufacture is decomposed into four tasks: (1) experimental design, (2) data collection and curation, (3) model creation and prediction, (4) optimised electrode manufacture. These tasks are being applied to each manufacturing stage in-turn. Initially the perceived order of study was: coating (1), drying (2), calendaring (3) and mixing (4). The advantage of this scientific approach is: (a) as the research team transitions to each manufacturing stage they will be able to assess the transferability of the AI approach to different processes; (b) it ensures that validation data is available to the project sooner and (c) it facilities greater opportunities for regression testing of the of the AI model(s) as the project progresses and new data/facilities becomes available.


RECOVAS: recycling of EV Cells from Obsolete Vehicles At Scale - £10M, 36 months.

Lead partner EMR with WMG, UKBIC, HSE, BMW, JLR, Bentley, Autocraft, Connected Energy.

Funder – APCUK. Project completion 2024.

Vision: Installation of the necessary recycling infrastructure for end of life electric vehicles and batteries.


  • Install end of life EV and battery recycling infrastructure in the UK
  • Develop best practice guidelines for EV and battery recycling
  • Develop advanced battery pack diagnostic methods to enable informed decisions to be made at end of life

WMG Input:

  • Open up a UK battery recycling scale up centre which allows academic research to be scaled up
  • Design and manufacture a bespoke battery shredder capable of shredding lithium ion battery modules
  • Develop a novel, scalable metal refining process
  • Develop a rapid battery triaging technique


SAFEBATT: Science of Battery Safety - £1.52M, 36 months.

Lead partner UCL - University College London with University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, Newcastle University, University of Sheffield, University of Warwick, + 2 Industrial Partners.

Funder – The Faraday Institution. Project completion 2023.

Vision: This project will improve the fundamental understanding of the root causes of cell failure and the mechanisms of failure propagation.


  • Investigations a materials level including identifying safety signatures and factors that influence battery lifespan and safety
  • Understanding of catastrophic cell failure including the use of state-of-the-art measurement and characterisation techniques and the development of a single cell model
  • Investigations at a systems and process level including conducting responsive failure analysis, investigating the application of sensing and contribute to the development of new standards

WMG Input: WMG will electrochemically test single and polycrystalline NMC-811 vs graphite-silicon in coin and pouch cells. We will use extreme operating conditions of voltage and temperature and establish modes of degradation, including anode-to-cathode cross-talk. Electrolytes will be analysed using ICP-OES and DTA to establish presence of transition metals and ageing dynamics.


SIMBA: Sodium-Ion and sodium Metal Batteries for efficient and sustainable next-generation energy storage - €7.9m, 42 months.

Partners: Technische Universität Darmstadt; Uppsala University; University of Birmingham; University of Warwick – Warwick Manufacturing Group; Karlsruher Institut für Technologie; Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives; Institute for Energy Technology; Slovak Academy of Science; Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme; Johnson Matthey PLC; Elkem ASA; Yunasko-Ukraine LLC; Saft Groupe S.A.; Altris AB; TES-Recupyl SAS; Uniresearch B.V.

Funder – H2020 EU. Project completion 2024.

Vision: Development of a highly cost-effective, safe, all-solid-state-battery with sodium as mobile ionic charge carrier for stationary energy storage applications.


  • Safer batteries with a novel Solid-State Electrolyte (TRL3-5): developing a new class of single-ion conducting polymers & production method
  • Higher energy density and more durable anodes by developing materials up to TRL5 using sustainable manufacturing methods
  • Low-cost and higher energy cathode materials, by developing ultra-low-cost Prussian White and high energy density layered oxides (P2/O3)
  • Obtaining deep understanding of fundamental mechanisms incl. degradation phenomena, taking place at the SEI and within the battery components
  • Demonstration of a scaled-up highly efficient 12V, 1Ah battery module incl. BMS to validate the re-use of materials, recyclability, performance, LCA etc

WMG Input: WMG will develop a robust processing method for producing solid state sodium ion batteries and to ultimately demonstrate this in the form of a 1 Ahr pouch cell. This will involve optimisation of the slurry formulation, including identification of most appropriate binders and conductive additive. Also to be determined is the most efficient routes to slurry preparation and electrode coating.