User experience research
New technologies give the opportunity to design new interactions that support the creation of positive experiences, but the design should be based on solid understanding of user and their needs. Our role in the CLoSeR project involved the user experience research to understand the human factors in relation to a number of technologies that could introduced into the railways. We conducted diverse studies to understand current behaviours, preferences, attitudes and needs of train passengers and crew, and to define their perceptions in relation to proposed technologies. These studies comprised:
- Interviews and questionnaires with passengers to design Customer journey maps and personas
- Unobtrusive observation of passengers on platforms to understand where they stand and through which doors they choose to board trains
- Usability study to evaluate two different seat reservation displays
- Large-scale surveys with passengers to rank the proposed features from best to worse using conjoint analysis
- Shadowing and interviewing train crew to understand their work activities and where new technologies would fit
The first step of the project involved interviews with stakeholders, who were invited to explain their point of view in relation to the current state of rail in the UK. Qualitative analysis informed the aspects of the industry in need for innovation. Interviews were conducted with participants from diverse segments. These comprise industry specialists (7 interviewees), senior management personnel (12), systems operations managers (3), and train crew (8). All participants were working for train operating companies (TOCs), rolling stock leasing companies (ROSCOs), related industries in the supply chain, associations and government bodies. The information obtained from this research indicated what innovative technologies could be implemented in order to help improve the efficiency of the rail industry and the passenger experience in the UK. With definitions of system requirements, we proceeded to research the proposed technology and investigate with different user groups their perceptions and acceptance.
Train crew user research
User experience, customer journey map and personas are design tools usually applied for customer research. No studies were found using these tools to investigate the work performed by crew. It was necessary to undertake user research in order to define the experience and prioritise areas for development, which will then results in specific changes being developed and piloted. By understanding experiences throughout crew’s work journey, this research presented a comprehensive picture of their work routines and indicates where technology can improve these experiences. A study with 22 on-board train crewmembers involved semi-structured interviews and in-the-field observations. By shadowing crew as they went about their work shifts, it was possible to obtain a first-hand account of their work experiences. We produced diagrams to describe positive and negative aspects of the journeys from the perspective of on-board staff.
Personas were also created to picture their needs, attitudes and behaviours. Results informed the design of technology that could improve crew’s experience during work. We suggested modifications and improvements for the requirements of the technological systems to better fit train crew journeys and enhance their experiences.
A user research was designed to understand the experience of rail passengers and to identify how the design of technology can improve this experience. We conducted in-depth, face-to-face semi-structured interviews and used additional questionnaires given to passengers on board of trains. Another study involved video recording technology to observe the movements of passengers on platforms to observe the phenomenon of concentrated boarding, when rail passengers congregate in certain areas of the platform and board the train carriages that stop near these areas.
A customer journey map was produced to illustrate the passengers’ experiences at diverse touchpoints with the rail system. The positive and negative aspects of each touchpoint are plotted over the course of a ‘typical’ journey, followed by the explanations for these ratings. Personas were also used to facilitate the understanding of user behaviours, needs, motivations, characteristics and limitations. A set of four personas was produced in order to illustrate who the users of the train systems are as well as their characteristics.
Another study involved a large-scale quantitative research via an online survey. Respondents were asked to quantitatively rank different features aimed to improve the overall passenger journey experience. A best-worst preference questionnaire was developed to evaluate how passengers value different technological improvements to rail transport in the UK. This study also included the segmentation of responses according to passenger type (commuters, business and leisure) and the similarities and differences in responses from the public versus those working directly in the rail industry.
Results indicate which technological innovations can enhance the passenger experience, especially at the problematic touchpoints, e.g. when collecting tickets, navigating to the platform, boarding the train and finding a seat. The research with rail passengers suggested improvements in the requirements for future technological innovations to improve the travelling experience.
Integration and simulation
The final stage of this research involved the integration of all parts of the CLoSeR system into a fully working prototype. Hardware and software were designed and developed, and brought into the 3xD simulator at WMG. Engineering tests were performed, and a usability study was conducted with train passengers. This exercise informed the redesign some of the components of the system in order to improve the usability, ease of use and acceptance of the CLoSeR system.
Impact and future developments
The outcomes of this project motivated some of the partners to pursue further funds to bring the proposed technology closer to deployment. A subsequent project named CloseRFIT was awarded £350,000 from RSSB and Innovate UK, from the First of a Kind competition: Demonstrating Tomorrow’s Trains Today. A prototype of the CloseR system was built to allow engagement with each customer individually, enhancing and rewarding the customer’s travelling experience, whilst improving the efficiency of on-train operations. The prototype system is currently being installed onto an in-service coach from a major train operating company to run on a British mainline. The project started on 1st June 2018 and is likely to last for 18 months. On the successful trial, the expectation is to perform a complete fitment of the system to all their fleet carriages.
Funding body: Innovate UK
Competition: Enhancing customer experience in rail travel
Competition code: 1503_CRD2_TRANS_AIR3
Grant Number: 102483
Proposed project grant: £1,210,815
- University of Warwick – Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG)
- Cranfield University – Systems Engineering Group
- Unipart Rail – Specialist provider of aftermarket goods and service for the global rail sector
- TrainFX – Design and supply of leading edge technologies to rail sector clients
- Loyalty Prime – Advanced, dynamic loyalty technology solutions
- Great Western Railway – Inter-city, commuter and outer-suburban services
Dr Stewart Birrell, Associate Professor (WMG lead Investigator, Human Factors)
Dr Rebecca Cain, Honorary Reader (Principal Investigator)
Dr Luis Oliveira (Research Fellow)
Dr Claudia Newton (Research Fellow)
Callum Bradley (Philosophy - Summer Intern)
Vivek Suresh Babu (Mechanical Engineering - Summer Intern)
Catherine Fox (Civil Engineering - Student Project)
Oliveira, L.C., Fox, C., Birrell, S., Cain, R., 2019. Analysing passengers’ behaviours when boarding trains to improve rail infrastructure and technology. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. 57, 282–291. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2018.12.008
Oliveira, L., Bruen, C., Birrell, S., Cain, R., 2019. What passengers really want: Assessing the value of rail innovation to improve experiences. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives. 1, 1–9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2019.100014
Oliveira, L., Bradley, C., Birrell, S., Davies, A., Tinworth, N., Cain, R., 2017. Understanding passengers’ experiences of train journeys to inform the design of technological innovations, in: Re: Research - the 2017 International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) Conference. Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, pp. 838–853. https://doi.org/10.7945/C2R388
Oliveira, L., Bradley, C., Birrell, S., Tinworth, N., Davies, A., Cain, R., 2017. Using Passenger Personas to Design Technological Innovation for the Rail Industry, in: INTSYS - Intelligent Transport Systems – From Research and Development to the Market Uptake. T. Kováčiková et al. (Eds.): INTSYS 2017, LNICST 222, pp. 1–9 Springer, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93710-6_8
Fox, C., Oliveira, L., Kirkwood, L., Cain, R., 2017. Understanding users’ behaviours in relation to concentrated boarding: implications for rail infrastructure and technology, in: Volume 6: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI. pp. 120-125. IOS Press https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-792-4-120
Babu, V.S., Oliveira, L., Birrell, S., Taylor, A., Cain, R., 2017. Comparison of E-ink and OLED screens as train seat displays: a user study, in: INTSYS - Intelligent Transport Systems – From Research and Development to the Market Uptake. T. Kováčiková et al. (Eds.): INTSYS 2017, LNICST 222, pp. 1–7, Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93710-6_30
Court, S., Kirkwood, L., Farnsworth, M., Orlovs, I., Shehab, E., Tinworth, N., 2017. Requirements analysis of digital technology for the rail industry, in: Volume 6: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI. pp. 120-125. IOS Press. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-792-4-201
Farnsworth, M., Kirkwood, L., Court, S., Shebab, E., Tinworth, N., 2017. Optimisation strategy for efficient platform train interface activity, in: Volume 6: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI. pp. 233-238. IOS Press. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-792-4-233.
Miñano, S.P., Kirkwood, L., Court, S., Farnsworth, M., Shehab, E., Tinworth, N., 2017. A review of digital wayfinding technologies in the transportation industry, in Volume 6: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI. pp. 207-212. IOS Press. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-792-4-207
Publications submitted to journals, accepted for publication or under review
Bradley, C., Oliveira, L., Birrell, S.,Cain, R. A new perspective on personas and customer journey maps: proposing egalitarian and systemic UX
Oliveira, L., Birrell, S., Cain, R. Rail crew: Understanding how technology could affect experiences via personas
Oliveira, L., Birrell, S., Cain, R. Using customer journey maps as a tool to understand rail crew experiences
This list will be updated once subsequent publications are accepted and made available online.