If waste heat, kinetic or potential energy in vehicle powertrains can be accessed and suitably stored until needed, then large efficiency gains leading to a significant reduction in tailpipe CO2 emissions are possible.
Methods of energy recovery include exhaust heat extraction for warm up (cabin, engine, battery and electronic systems), the use of the organic Rankine cycle, thermoelectric generator using thermoelectric materials (Seebeck effect), electrical turbocompound, thermo-voltaic heat-pumps and chemical reactions. Intrinsically linked with this challenge is the identification and development of storage technologies to hold collected energy.
Both recovery and storage technologies have challenges that must be overcome to facilitate mainstream application. If cost effective solutions can be established then such technology is likely to be a critical element in future low carbon vehicles
A technology survey indicating state of the art developments in energy recovery, waste heat recovery (from high grade and low grade heat) in the form of ‘Heat to Power’ or ‘Heat to Cool’ systems
A suite of validated computer simulation models capable of analysing energy flows and assessing which amount of energy (thermal/mechanical/electric) can be recovered and/or stored over different real world and legislative drive cycles
- System and sub-system FMEAs indicating good design practices
- Data from practical tests on selected systems
- Material characteristic data from Thermolectric Generator and Phase Change Material test rigs
- Simulation study into ‘Heat to Cool’ (absorption, adsorption) for Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) applications
- Assessment of magneto caloric heating and cooling for EV and REEV applications - linked with high efficiency HVAC systems
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
The project partners have generated material parameter data from the hardware test rigs to enhance the accuracy of the modelled systems and understanding of material behaviour.