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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>Foro Mussolini</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:50:27" n="6611">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>



<person id="nm0048" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm0048, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<person id="sf0049" role="participant" n="s" sex="f"><p>sf0049, participant, student, female</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="m"><p>sl, all, medium group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="4"><p>number of speakers: 4</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Classics</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>





<u who="nm0048"> there's <pause dur="0.2"/> a sign-up sheet starting <pause dur="0.9"/> from him <pause dur="0.5"/> and going <pause dur="0.2"/> to the front hopefully <pause dur="0.8"/> so if you suddenly realize you haven't got it give us a shout <pause dur="0.5"/> now what i want to do today is <pause dur="2.0"/> to look at another case study <pause dur="0.2"/> 'cause we were looking last time at <pause dur="0.5"/> # the Imperial Way Via dell <pause dur="0.3"/> dell'Impero <pause dur="0.2"/> at the centre of Rome connecting the Colosseum up to <pause dur="0.2"/> the Victor Emmanuel monument yes <pause dur="0.7"/> remember that bit <pause dur="0.6"/> maybe <pause dur="0.2"/> bit hazy <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a message also from <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.8"/> that your seminar this week <pause dur="0.5"/> # which if you haven't got the sheets from last time 'cause i gave them out <pause dur="0.3"/> there are some <pause dur="0.2"/> there so collect one on the way out <pause dur="0.3"/> they will be on Friday he's going to put a sheet up <pause dur="0.5"/> on the board <pause dur="0.2"/> to sign up <pause dur="0.5"/> to <pause dur="0.4"/> put you into groups so as usual seminars this week <pause dur="0.2"/> there's no lecture on Thursday <pause dur="1.0"/> right so <pause dur="0.3"/> today we want to look at <pause dur="0.8"/> what is known as Foro Italica it's where the Olympic Stadium is in Rome <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> what was happening <pause dur="0.2"/> in terms of the setting up of that architectural space <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> we want to carry on <pause dur="0.5"/> with our theme <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> looking at

architecture as a setting <pause dur="0.3"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> modern activities <pause dur="0.4"/> in this case with reference to sport in particular <pause dur="0.4"/> in the nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.9"/> nineteen-twenties and nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.6"/> and looking at the references back to antiquity <pause dur="0.5"/> now to do that <pause dur="0.2"/> we have to do a certain amount of modern history <pause dur="0.5"/> which we'll try and keep to the minimum <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean in terms of dates events et cetera things to know <pause dur="0.4"/> so i want to start off with <pause dur="0.2"/> a quick run-through <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> the things which are <pause dur="0.5"/> happening in terms of modern history <pause dur="1.5"/> which are <pause dur="0.9"/> needed <pause dur="0.7"/> for doing <pause dur="1.5"/> this bit of the course <pause dur="0.4"/> right <pause dur="1.6"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> the key thing here is <pause dur="0.6"/> the <pause dur="0.6"/> there's a reference back to antiquity always when it comes to the Olympics by the Olympic movement <pause dur="0.4"/> # on <pause dur="0.6"/> the bibliography there's an article by <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> History department <pause dur="0.3"/> looking at the earlier history of the Olympics so if you want to know more about the Olympics generally <pause dur="1.2"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> key things <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.5"/> what is happening in Rome <pause dur="0.7"/> once again <pause dur="0.5"/> Mussolini isn't starting something completely new <pause dur="0.4"/> it's a key

thing here is it's not completely new <pause dur="0.5"/> nineteen-o-eight <pause dur="0.2"/> Rome had made a bid <pause dur="0.5"/> for the Olympic Games <pause dur="0.7"/> definite bid <pause dur="0.4"/> to get the Olympic Games <pause dur="0.2"/> into Rome <pause dur="0.6"/> there were plans to <pause dur="0.4"/> build a new stadium <pause dur="0.4"/> build a new sporting complex <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> in this case we get <pause dur="0.7"/> an example of something which has been thought of <pause dur="0.3"/> been done before <pause dur="0.5"/> but is going to have a greater relevance in the nineteen-thirties in terms of <pause dur="0.4"/> actual happening <pause dur="1.6"/> the <pause dur="1.0"/> Rome is also making a bid for the Olympics of nineteen-forty and nineteen-forty-four <pause dur="0.3"/> and it was decided in the late thirties that Rome would have the Olympics in nineteen-forty-four which never happened <pause dur="0.6"/> after <pause dur="0.3"/> the Second World War <pause dur="0.7"/> this building <pause dur="0.8"/> over here <pause dur="0.4"/> became the headquarters of the Olympic movement <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> although this is <pause dur="0.2"/> strongly associated with fascist Italy <pause dur="0.4"/> its use today is linked in to that tradition <pause dur="0.3"/> of the Olympics <pause dur="1.9"/> now <pause dur="1.6"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.7"/> what <pause dur="0.9"/> we need to know here <pause dur="1.2"/> there is something called the O-N-B <pause dur="1.2"/> right now the O-N-B <pause dur="1.0"/> is <pause dur="1.0"/> it's on your handout most of the factual details

you'll find are on your handout <pause dur="0.6"/> the <pause dur="0.5"/> O-N-B <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/> is <pause dur="0.8"/> a national organization <pause dur="0.2"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> youth <pause dur="1.1"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> in terms of what it does <pause dur="1.3"/> it's a very male <pause dur="1.1"/> it's called the Opera Nazionale Balilla <pause dur="0.2"/> Balilla was <pause dur="0.4"/> a revolutionary in Italy in the seventeen-forties <pause dur="0.2"/> who revolted against Austria <pause dur="0.3"/> brought Italy away from Austria <pause dur="0.5"/> so it's a reference back to Italian history <pause dur="0.6"/> but if we look at the organization <pause dur="0.9"/> this is the male organization the female organization <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> quite is simple <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms of it's a different structure <pause dur="0.2"/> if you're between the ages of nought and fourteen <pause dur="0.3"/> you are <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the female children of Italy <pause dur="0.4"/> if you're from fourteen to eighteen <pause dur="0.3"/> you are the young women of Italy so again <pause dur="0.3"/> there is a <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> a female aspect to this as well as the male aspect the male aspect <pause dur="0.3"/> has more references back to <trunc>antiqui</trunc> to antiquity <pause dur="1.8"/> the <pause dur="0.4"/> structure of the whole organization <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.6"/> imbued with ideas of antiquity <pause dur="0.6"/> between the ages of nought and eight <pause dur="1.7"/> you're in what's called the groups known as the Sons of the Wolf now we're

straight back to Romulus and Remus here <pause dur="0.6"/> we're straight back into <pause dur="0.4"/> that idea <pause dur="0.2"/> of antiquity <pause dur="1.6"/> but then between the ages of eight to fourteen <pause dur="0.2"/> you're what known <pause dur="0.6"/> you're in what's known as the Balilla <pause dur="0.2"/> the Balilla is again this revolutionary <pause dur="0.3"/> from <pause dur="0.2"/> the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.2"/> so that's a reference to <pause dur="0.2"/> Italian history it's creating <pause dur="0.2"/> the two together <pause dur="1.6"/> in between fourteen and eighteen <pause dur="0.3"/> you become <pause dur="0.5"/> members of the Advanced Guard <pause dur="1.2"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of that structure <pause dur="0.2"/> we have an automatic reference back to antiquity <pause dur="0.5"/> reference to <pause dur="0.5"/> Italian national history <pause dur="0.6"/> and then <pause dur="0.5"/> a reference to what's going on now to seems to # <pause dur="0.2"/> see the Advanced Guard of <pause dur="0.3"/> Fascism and again the cult of youth is very important here <pause dur="1.8"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> when you go <pause dur="1.2"/> through <pause dur="0.2"/> the actual <pause dur="0.2"/> organization as well <pause dur="0.9"/> in terms of how <pause dur="0.8"/> the boys are organized <pause dur="0.9"/> eleven boys <pause dur="0.2"/> is what's known as a squad <pause dur="1.5"/> then you have <pause dur="0.3"/> three squads <pause dur="0.3"/> equals a maniple a maniple is one of those <pause dur="0.3"/> names used for <pause dur="0.3"/> military organizations in ancient Rome <pause dur="1.1"/> then you have three <trunc>mam</trunc> maniples <pause dur="0.3"/> makes up a

century <pause dur="0.7"/> typical <pause dur="0.3"/> idea of <pause dur="0.2"/> Roman organization the century again <pause dur="0.7"/> and then you have <pause dur="0.5"/> three centuries <pause dur="0.2"/> equals a cohort <pause dur="0.3"/> and three cohorts equals a legion <pause dur="0.3"/> they don't <pause dur="0.2"/> replicate antiquity <pause dur="0.5"/> but they <pause dur="0.5"/> make reference <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="0.4"/> antiquity's military organization <pause dur="1.6"/> now what <pause dur="0.6"/> does the O-N-B do <pause dur="0.2"/> really <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a organization <pause dur="0.4"/> for <pause dur="1.0"/> children to be in principally <pause dur="0.9"/> it's also involved <pause dur="0.5"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> physical education <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>physu</trunc> physical education <pause dur="0.3"/> and the setting up <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.6"/> athletics <pause dur="0.2"/> organizations so <pause dur="0.3"/> the link <pause dur="0.2"/> comes from <pause dur="0.6"/> this voluntary organization <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a sort of after school organization <pause dur="0.2"/> you could see parallels with things like the Hitler Youth in Germany <pause dur="2.0"/> the other thing <pause dur="0.2"/> the O-N-B <pause dur="0.4"/> which is all you need to know don't <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="6"/> try and learn the long title <pause dur="3.2"/> what it's doing in Rome <pause dur="0.9"/> is it's setting up <pause dur="0.7"/> plans <pause dur="0.9"/> after it set up in nineteen-twenty-six we see the first plans <pause dur="0.2"/> for the sports <pause dur="0.8"/> complexes <pause dur="0.2"/> in Rome <pause dur="0.9"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> the key here <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>g</trunc> link between sport <pause dur="0.3"/> education <pause dur="0.3"/> and politicalization <pause dur="0.5"/> the three things go together <pause dur="1.3"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> what is also set up in that year <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/>

the fascist <pause dur="0.5"/> Academy <pause dur="0.2"/> of Physical Education <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> that academy <pause dur="0.7"/> is was going to be <pause dur="0.3"/> in this building here <pause dur="0.8"/> right right next this is the Olympic Stadium <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> people may know from football <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> on this side <pause dur="0.3"/> over here <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> was going to be <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> Academy <pause dur="0.3"/> for Swimming <pause dur="0.6"/> so on this side you have swimming <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> this side you have athletics <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> right in the middle <pause dur="0.4"/> you have <pause dur="0.3"/> the football stadium <pause dur="1.1"/> so what we want to look at here <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.9"/> to think through <pause dur="0.2"/> how this structure is being set up <pause dur="0.3"/> what are the architects doing in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/> references back to antiquity <pause dur="0.2"/> and what are they trying to do in the present <pause dur="0.5"/> so here what we see <pause dur="0.6"/> when <pause dur="0.3"/> we go to Foro Italico <pause dur="0.3"/> sorry over there <pause dur="0.5"/> today <pause dur="0.5"/> we see <pause dur="0.2"/> the setting <pause dur="0.4"/> for this organization <pause dur="0.2"/> the setting up for <pause dur="0.2"/> seeing <pause dur="0.2"/> the idea of sport education and politicalization <pause dur="0.4"/> all running together <pause dur="7.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> just have some more <pause dur="0.6"/> dates on this side and then we're go and look at <pause dur="0.2"/> the actual structures themselves which is probably more <pause dur="0.4"/> interesting <pause dur="1.1"/> now originally <pause dur="1.7"/> what was going to be set up was a Forum of Sport <pause dur="0.5"/>

Forum of Sport had always been on the cards the idea of the ancient concept of a forum <pause dur="0.7"/> this had been <pause dur="0.5"/> an idea floating around from the nineteen-o-eight Olympics bid <pause dur="0.4"/> that there should be a new Forum of Sport <pause dur="1.2"/> now <pause dur="1.6"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> concept <pause dur="0.5"/> the plan to set up in nineteen-twenty-seven <pause dur="1.0"/> and gradually as the plans evolve <pause dur="0.4"/> we find that Mussolini <pause dur="0.2"/> is starting to <trunc>im</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> be put over the top of those plans <pause dur="1.0"/> nineteen-twenty-seven you have to remember was only five years after the march on Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> by Mussolini so the state <pause dur="0.3"/> the fascist state is only five years old <pause dur="2.7"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="6"/> now in nineteen-thirty <pause dur="2.1"/> the Forum <pause dur="0.9"/> of Sport <pause dur="0.5"/> is renamed <pause dur="0.6"/> the Forum <pause dur="0.2"/> of Mussolini <pause dur="0.8"/> today we call it <pause dur="0.7"/> Forum of Italy because it was re<pause dur="0.4"/>named again after the war 'cause it couldn't any longer be called <pause dur="0.5"/> the Forum of Mussolini it wasn't politically <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> we would say today correct or politically acceptable then <pause dur="1.1"/> in nineteen-thirty it's renamed by the architect <pause dur="0.3"/> the Forum of Mussolini <pause dur="1.0"/> at this point <pause dur="0.8"/> there is a linking back <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> the person <pause dur="0.7"/> onto <pause dur="0.5"/> if you

think in the nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.4"/> early nineteen-thirties the excavations <pause dur="0.4"/> of the Forum of Augustus are beginning <pause dur="0.8"/> as we saw last time or the Forum of Julius Caesar <pause dur="0.3"/> or the Forum of Trajan <pause dur="0.4"/> so again <pause dur="0.4"/> the associations of the word forum <pause dur="0.6"/> suggests sort of basically a square around which buildings are placed <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of antiquity <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> by linking it to a named person you have a link back to the emperors of Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> so again <pause dur="0.2"/> we have this link with antiquity <pause dur="2.4"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> the actual <pause dur="0.9"/> structures <pause dur="0.3"/> take <pause dur="0.5"/> have been <pause dur="0.7"/> being constructed <pause dur="0.4"/> up to <pause dur="0.3"/> nineteen-thirty-two <pause dur="0.7"/> and this is the <trunc>te</trunc> for the tenth anniversary <pause dur="0.2"/> of the march on Rome <pause dur="0.6"/> they are inaugurated <pause dur="0.2"/> so again <pause dur="0.2"/> nineteen-thirty-two's a very important date to know <pause dur="0.2"/> as we saw last time <pause dur="0.3"/> when we were talking about <pause dur="0.4"/> the Imperial Way in the centre of Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> connecting the Colosseum <pause dur="0.6"/> to the Victor Emmanuel monument <pause dur="1.1"/> so tenth anniversary Mussolini goes to inaugurate the first buildings are completed <pause dur="0.6"/> and its <pause dur="0.4"/> the first buildings <pause dur="0.5"/> included <pause dur="0.4"/> the Obelisk here <pause dur="0.3"/> the Athletics <pause dur="0.5"/>

Academy <pause dur="0.4"/> and the stadium's behind it <pause dur="2.0"/> what we then find <pause dur="2.1"/> is <pause dur="0.6"/> in nineteen-thirty-seven <pause dur="0.6"/> additional structures are being built <pause dur="0.6"/> nineteen-thirty-seven <pause dur="0.4"/> is the year in which <pause dur="0.5"/> empire is declared for Italy <pause dur="0.5"/> and this is where <pause dur="0.7"/> we find <pause dur="0.6"/> Piazza dell'Impero <pause dur="0.3"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> the Piazza <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.5"/> Empire <pause dur="0.7"/> which is <pause dur="0.7"/> in here before you get to the Olympic Stadium <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> is completed <pause dur="0.2"/> for nineteen-thirty-seven <pause dur="2.0"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> what we gradually see <pause dur="1.1"/> in terms of what this structure's doing <pause dur="0.3"/> it's outside Rome it's to the north of Rome <pause dur="0.5"/> but it's going to be <pause dur="0.2"/> the entry point into Rome <pause dur="0.6"/>

so it's almost as though <pause dur="0.4"/> this is going to be the first point <pause dur="0.4"/> on what you could say <pause dur="0.6"/> is the entrance into Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> entrance into modern Rome <pause dur="2.1"/> right <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.5"/> a boring date <pause dur="0.2"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> will keep you going <pause dur="0.2"/> for your exams <pause dur="0.3"/> basically in a year's time <pause dur="0.4"/> that's all <pause dur="0.2"/> the dates you would ever need to know <pause dur="0.7"/> there are some more <pause dur="0.6"/> on the handout but that's <pause dur="0.3"/> the overall political structure <pause dur="0.4"/> is there <pause dur="0.8"/> so <pause dur="1.0"/> key thing let's think back <pause dur="0.2"/> it's not a new project <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> there's going to be something different about it <pause dur="0.2"/> once it becomes more <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> organized by fascism <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> will have a greater reference to antiquity <pause dur="1.0"/> right so <pause dur="0.2"/> to look at the structures themselves <pause dur="0.9"/> we're mostly <pause dur="0.2"/> going to be concerned <pause dur="0.4"/> with the athletics area <pause dur="0.5"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> i put on your handout <pause dur="0.6"/> # illustrations of all the buildings we're actually going to be referring to so <pause dur="0.2"/> afterwards you can look through them <pause dur="0.3"/> rather than having to depend on memory from <pause dur="0.3"/> the slides i show you <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> right <pause dur="0.3"/> the first action <pause dur="0.7"/> which is taken <pause dur="0.2"/> in this process <pause dur="0.2"/> is to drain <pause dur="0.2"/> this

area <pause dur="0.4"/> just to the north of the Tiber <pause dur="0.9"/> in doing so a law is passed that all Rome's rubbish <pause dur="0.3"/> should be <pause dur="0.3"/> deposited here <pause dur="0.2"/> for two to three years <pause dur="0.3"/> and so it gradually builds up <pause dur="0.4"/> the embankment of the Tiber here <pause dur="0.3"/> this is just <pause dur="0.3"/> a marshy area <pause dur="0.3"/> which is going to be reclaimed <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> we see <pause dur="0.5"/> in that reclamation <pause dur="0.2"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> is using a useless piece of land <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> reclaiming it through modern technology <pause dur="0.2"/> to create something new to create a new quarter of Rome <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> you might thinking here of <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> parallels with things like the draining of the Pontine marshes <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the most famous <pause dur="0.3"/> activities of <pause dur="0.2"/> the fascist government <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the plan itself <pause dur="0.2"/> is fairly simple <pause dur="0.2"/> in terms <pause dur="0.2"/> of a series of stadiums <pause dur="0.2"/> series of <pause dur="0.4"/> areas <pause dur="0.2"/> for which people are going to be <pause dur="0.2"/> mostly to do with sport <pause dur="0.7"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> the key thing after nineteen-thirty-seven <pause dur="0.2"/> there's going to be a greater influence of politics <pause dur="0.3"/> politics becomes more important <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="1.1"/> the idea <pause dur="0.2"/> the architect's vision <pause dur="0.2"/> of what <pause dur="0.9"/> the area should look like <pause dur="0.4"/> the area is <pause dur="0.5"/> down here <pause dur="0.2"/> of the sports stadiums <pause dur="0.2"/> and

overlooking it <pause dur="0.2"/> should be the monument to fascism <pause dur="0.6"/> this <pause dur="0.4"/> rather strange victory monument <pause dur="0.2"/> which <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> they made a model of it a mock-up of it <pause dur="0.3"/> again <pause dur="0.3"/> what we're going to see throughout <pause dur="0.7"/> the Forum <pause dur="1.0"/> of Mussolini <pause dur="0.5"/> is the idea of the male body <pause dur="0.3"/> the male body <pause dur="0.3"/> and the cult of the body is going to come through time and time again <pause dur="0.5"/> so the plan to overlook it <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> a colossal <trunc>struc</trunc> statue <pause dur="0.6"/> now colossal statues in the ancient world <pause dur="0.8"/> # you probably know that the Colossus <pause dur="0.3"/> of Nero next to the Colosseum <pause dur="0.7"/> was <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the enormous statues from antiquity <pause dur="0.3"/> here <pause dur="0.5"/> you're going to see <pause dur="0.7"/> a <trunc>ca</trunc> a colossus <pause dur="0.2"/> put next to <pause dur="0.2"/> and overlooking <pause dur="0.2"/> the modern sports stadium <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> it's significant that the Colosseum in Ancient Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> gets its name from the colossal statue next to it so <pause dur="0.4"/> again <pause dur="0.2"/> putting a colossal statue in there <pause dur="0.4"/> is not <pause dur="0.3"/> an original idea <pause dur="0.2"/> it has a reference straight back to antiquity <pause dur="3.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now in terms of structure <pause dur="1.7"/> this is <pause dur="0.3"/> nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.3"/> view <pause dur="0.4"/> of the stadium <pause dur="0.5"/> so remember the modern stadium <pause dur="0.2"/> modern Olympic Stadium <pause dur="0.4"/> got

extended <pause dur="0.2"/> for the last World Cup <pause dur="0.2"/> in nineteen-ninety <pause dur="0.4"/> here we see something different <pause dur="0.8"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> if you <pause dur="0.5"/> were coming <pause dur="0.4"/> to the <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> to the stadium itself we want to move through <pause dur="0.4"/> what you would see <pause dur="0.6"/> the first thing you see <pause dur="0.4"/> is this enormous obelisk <pause dur="0.2"/> which is the first thing we want to look at <pause dur="0.7"/> then we want to look at this piazza <pause dur="0.5"/> the Piazza of Empire <pause dur="0.5"/> before looking <pause dur="0.3"/> at <pause dur="0.6"/> this structure here <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.7"/> central area <pause dur="0.2"/> for athletics in <pause dur="0.2"/> fascist Italy <pause dur="0.4"/> and looking at the stadium behind it <pause dur="0.4"/> before finally <pause dur="0.4"/> moving on <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> what was <pause dur="0.2"/> the football stadium itself so <pause dur="0.2"/> and we're going to pick up <pause dur="0.3"/> references to antiquity <pause dur="0.2"/> right the way through </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf0049" trans="pause"> are all those buildings part of the forum </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nm0048" trans="pause"> yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> the thing with the forum is <pause dur="0.6"/> if <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> Ancient Rome <pause dur="0.8"/> in republican Rome the forum is <pause dur="0.6"/> a piazza <pause dur="0.2"/> which is surrounded by buildings put <pause dur="0.6"/> placed <pause dur="0.6"/> around it so <pause dur="0.2"/> when we say a forum <pause dur="0.2"/> we mean <pause dur="0.3"/> the whole area <pause dur="0.4"/> the whole area is called Forum <pause dur="0.3"/> Mussolini or Foro Mussolini <pause dur="0.9"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> the individual buildings make up <pause dur="0.2"/> the forum <pause dur="5.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> right the first thing <pause dur="0.2"/> is <pause dur="0.7"/> the <pause dur="1.0"/> obelisk <pause dur="2.3"/> now <pause dur="1.7"/> this obelisk <pause dur="0.7"/> as you can see <pause dur="0.7"/>

has Mussolini's name on it <pause dur="0.3"/> and says D-U <pause dur="0.2"/> there's an X there <pause dur="0.3"/> Dux <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> leader <pause dur="0.3"/> reference back to Julius Caesar being perpetual dictator <pause dur="0.5"/> just as <pause dur="0.4"/> Mussolini is perpetual dictator <pause dur="1.0"/> however <pause dur="1.2"/> significantly <pause dur="1.4"/> this is made out of <pause dur="0.2"/> virtually <pause dur="0.3"/> one block <pause dur="0.2"/> of Carrara marble <pause dur="0.5"/> Carrara marble <pause dur="0.2"/> you may know <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> the white marble which Michelangelo uses <pause dur="0.3"/> that was <trunc>f</trunc> used for the first time <pause dur="0.5"/> in Augustan Rome <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the <pause dur="1.7"/> and you can see <pause dur="0.5"/> inscribed in it <pause dur="0.2"/> is one of the fasciae which we were talking about last time <pause dur="0.2"/> so always look for things like fasciae they crop up everywhere after a while <pause dur="1.3"/> the <pause dur="1.0"/> cutting <pause dur="0.2"/> of the block itself this was the biggest block of Carrara marble ever quarried <pause dur="0.5"/> again that idea of <pause dur="0.2"/> we're going to be better than everything which has gone in the past is there <pause dur="0.5"/> we're going to use the biggest piece of Carrara marble <pause dur="0.8"/> so it was <trunc>d</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> cut out <pause dur="0.2"/> at the quarry <pause dur="1.2"/> and then <pause dur="0.2"/> it was dragged <pause dur="0.2"/> by oxen <pause dur="0.2"/> through the towns of Italy it was something which was reported <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.6"/> Italian magazines and in the Italian press it was an

event in itself <pause dur="0.4"/> to actually bring this thing <pause dur="0.3"/> by road through the towns <pause dur="0.2"/> north of Rome <pause dur="2.8"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> the spectacle <pause dur="0.3"/> it's almost like <pause dur="0.2"/> the spectacle <pause dur="0.2"/> of the monolith of Mussolini <pause dur="0.2"/> this is going to be the new idea <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.8"/> the obelisk <pause dur="0.2"/> where as we're going to talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> think about how that relates to obelisks from antiquity <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> in a moment <pause dur="1.5"/> it was set up <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> in a way which was used by the Popes to set up obelisks <pause dur="0.2"/> in front of Saint Peter's <pause dur="0.4"/> and using <pause dur="0.2"/> hydraulics <pause dur="0.2"/> again <pause dur="0.3"/> the idea of modern technology <pause dur="0.6"/> and its utilization to be celebrated <pause dur="0.4"/> is also part of the fascist ideology <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> it uses modern technology <pause dur="0.3"/> but will have a reference back <pause dur="0.3"/> to antiquity <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now in terms of <pause dur="0.9"/> what it looks like <pause dur="0.6"/> this is <pause dur="0.3"/> and architects' drawings actually show you a <trunc>l</trunc> a lot about how <pause dur="0.5"/> people <trunc>th</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> the architect is thinking about things in terms of light and dark <pause dur="0.4"/> you always have a lot of very dark # <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of the white and dark is very <pause dur="0.3"/> strong <pause dur="0.2"/> in Italian fascist drawings <pause dur="0.6"/> now this is <pause dur="0.8"/> what the architect sees it looking at it <pause dur="1.2"/> now the other thing <pause dur="0.6"/> to

think of parallels with antiquity here <pause dur="0.7"/> is with <pause dur="0.7"/> the parallel with the Augustan sundial <pause dur="0.5"/> the Augustan sundial in Rome <pause dur="0.8"/> was <pause dur="0.3"/> made of an obelisk <pause dur="0.4"/> captured from Egypt <pause dur="0.2"/> brought back to Rome <pause dur="1.8"/> the <pause dur="0.8"/> obelisk itself was the pointer <pause dur="0.3"/> for the sundial <pause dur="0.8"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> that structure <pause dur="0.3"/> is almost paralleled <pause dur="0.4"/> with this one <pause dur="0.6"/> 'cause it had the obelisk in the centre <pause dur="0.7"/> of this <pause dur="0.5"/> piazza <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="5"/> which is <pause dur="8.7"/> which is called Piazzale di Impero or little piazza of Empire <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> on each of these blocks <pause dur="0.6"/> is recorded <pause dur="0.2"/> a date from the fascist age <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> whereas the Augustan sundial recorded things like <trunc>hi</trunc> Augustustus' horoscope <pause dur="0.6"/> in this case <pause dur="0.2"/> we're going to find <pause dur="0.6"/> put on here <pause dur="0.2"/> inscribed stones <pause dur="0.2"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> significant dates from the modern state <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> the structure <pause dur="0.2"/> parallels <pause dur="0.2"/> the ancient sundial <pause dur="0.6"/> of Italy <pause dur="0.7"/> of Augustus <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> we have here <pause dur="0.5"/> the inscription of exact date rather than the pointer trying to point to them <pause dur="4.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> right so <pause dur="0.2"/> when you go there today <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> it's <pause dur="0.8"/> almost the same <pause dur="0.2"/> as it was then some of it's fallen apart <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> the blocks <pause dur="0.3"/> recording <pause dur="0.2"/> the various years of

the fascist state <pause dur="0.6"/> are <pause dur="0.4"/> graffitied over <pause dur="0.2"/> deliberately <pause dur="0.6"/> as a sort of anti-fascist <pause dur="0.5"/> concept <pause dur="0.7"/> now in terms of <pause dur="0.8"/> what we have here is <pause dur="0.2"/> we have a piazza <pause dur="0.3"/> the obelisk <pause dur="0.2"/> is this way on <pause dur="1.0"/> and as you walk to <pause dur="0.2"/> the football stadium <pause dur="0.3"/> you walk over <pause dur="0.3"/> these modern mosaics <pause dur="0.4"/> modern mosaics which make reference <pause dur="0.6"/> back to the past <pause dur="0.6"/> but also <pause dur="0.3"/> contain <pause dur="0.4"/> very obvious <pause dur="0.2"/> fasciaes <pause dur="0.4"/> and then as you go across them <pause dur="0.5"/> you see various images <pause dur="0.3"/> as you move <pause dur="0.3"/> towards the stadium <pause dur="3.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> for instance <pause dur="0.2"/> on one side <pause dur="1.5"/> let's go back <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> should point it out that on this side <pause dur="0.4"/> we have <pause dur="0.3"/> images in the mosaics <pause dur="0.2"/> of modern Italy <pause dur="0.5"/> of nineteen-thirties Italy <pause dur="0.9"/> and on <pause dur="0.3"/> the other side over here <pause dur="0.3"/> you have Ancient Rome <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> we were talking about last time how you have this juxtaposition of past and present so <pause dur="0.3"/> on the left <pause dur="0.3"/> you have the past <pause dur="0.3"/> on the right <pause dur="0.2"/> you have the present so <pause dur="0.2"/> they're put next to each other <pause dur="0.4"/> as this technology of power <pause dur="3.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/>

so we have obvious things like the Tiber <pause dur="0.3"/> the Tiber <pause dur="0.3"/> is generic <pause dur="0.2"/> because it's ancient and modern <pause dur="1.1"/> we also have <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> on the other side <pause dur="1.1"/> the bull <pause dur="0.5"/> the symbol of Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> the idea of the whole of Italy so the Tiber in a way <pause dur="0.2"/> represents Rome <pause dur="0.4"/> whereas the bull <pause dur="0.3"/> will represent <pause dur="0.2"/> the whole of Italy <pause dur="4.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> as you go up on the <pause dur="0.3"/> ancient side <pause dur="0.3"/> you find <pause dur="0.4"/> buildings such as the Theatre of Marcellus <pause dur="0.2"/> laid out in plan <pause dur="1.1"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> some temples laid out in plan <pause dur="0.2"/> with their name put next to them <pause dur="0.9"/> then <pause dur="0.5"/> very clear <pause dur="0.3"/> mosaic idea then on the other side <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> surprise surprise you have a plan <pause dur="0.2"/> of the Forum of Mussolini <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> again you have that juxtaposition between <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the ancient <pause dur="0.4"/> theatre the place of the games <pause dur="0.5"/> in terms of scenic <trunc>ga</trunc> games <pause dur="0.7"/> and then <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> you have the modern one <pause dur="0.3"/> which <pause dur="0.4"/> you have <pause dur="0.6"/> various structures like <pause dur="0.4"/> the stadium <pause dur="0.8"/> the Olympic Stadium there <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> another sports stadium there so <pause dur="0.2"/> you have this constant juxtaposition <pause dur="0.4"/> even when <pause dur="0.2"/> there isn't antiquity actually there <pause dur="0.3"/> it's not present in any

form <pause dur="0.4"/> in the Forum Mussolini <pause dur="4.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> as you <pause dur="0.3"/> go through <pause dur="0.7"/> you also see <pause dur="1.0"/> the blocks with the inscriptions <pause dur="0.7"/> now this one <pause dur="0.3"/> is the first block that you would <pause dur="0.2"/> see in terms of the sequence <pause dur="0.6"/> the sequence begins <pause dur="0.5"/> on the twenty-fourth of May <pause dur="0.7"/> nineteen-<pause dur="0.3"/>fifteen <pause dur="0.2"/> Italy enters the First World War <pause dur="0.3"/> that is the first action <pause dur="0.5"/> which is recorded here <pause dur="0.4"/> the first action <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> militaristic <pause dur="0.2"/> from recent history <pause dur="2.0"/> then <pause dur="0.4"/> as you <pause dur="0.2"/> go past them <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> you see other ones this one is <pause dur="0.3"/> the ninth of May <pause dur="1.3"/> nineteen-thirty-six <pause dur="0.2"/> the proclamation of empire <pause dur="0.2"/> there's one <pause dur="0.2"/> for nineteen-twenty-two <pause dur="0.3"/> the fascist march on Rome <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> this is a way <pause dur="0.3"/> of marking <pause dur="0.5"/> the important dates from the recent past <pause dur="0.4"/> but putting them in the context <pause dur="0.4"/> of something which looks quite antique the architect's <pause dur="0.3"/> deliberately quoting <pause dur="0.4"/> from antiquity <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and the last one <pause dur="0.4"/> which is <pause dur="1.1"/> something which is reappropriated <pause dur="0.3"/> is the twenty-fifth of July <pause dur="0.4"/> nineteen-forty-three <pause dur="0.2"/> the end of the <pause dur="0.7"/> # fascist regime <pause dur="0.4"/> and then after that <pause dur="0.3"/> there are a series <pause dur="0.2"/> of blank <pause dur="0.5"/> blocks <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> it's written under here <pause dur="0.2"/> a <pause dur="0.2"/> little graffiti <pause dur="0.5"/>

which says instead it's continued so again its political commentary can be made on the monuments themselves <pause dur="0.2"/> and be reappropriated <pause dur="3.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> at the end <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.4"/> the piazza <pause dur="0.7"/> you <pause dur="0.2"/> find <pause dur="0.9"/> this fountain structure <pause dur="0.3"/> this is called <pause dur="0.6"/> the spherical fountain or the Fontana <sic corr="della">dei</sic> Sfera <pause dur="0.6"/> which <pause dur="0.3"/> is made out <pause dur="0.2"/> of another block <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> Carrara marble <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> to represent the Earth <pause dur="0.2"/> very much so like you see <pause dur="0.4"/> winged victories from antiquity <pause dur="0.2"/> standing on a globe <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> a reference to the idea <pause dur="0.2"/> of the whole empire <pause dur="1.6"/> around it <pause dur="0.2"/> we have <pause dur="0.8"/> fish mosaics <pause dur="0.4"/> mosaics <pause dur="0.3"/> which are very similar to those you find <pause dur="0.2"/> in Roman bathhouses <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> you could actually go to the monuments of Rome to see bathhouses <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> be here <pause dur="0.3"/> and you'd see <pause dur="0.4"/> modern ones <pause dur="0.5"/> made of slightly <pause dur="0.2"/> stylized fashion <pause dur="0.2"/> stylized differently <pause dur="4.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> it's <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><pause dur="0.7"/> the other thing <pause dur="0.6"/> you find <pause dur="0.3"/> in the mosaics as you get closer to the athletics stadiums <pause dur="0.7"/> are <pause dur="0.3"/> emphasis <pause dur="0.3"/> on <pause dur="0.3"/> what goes on here <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> you find <pause dur="0.2"/> here we have two boxers <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> they're placed <pause dur="0.8"/> in a <trunc>di</trunc> sort of rather antique <pause dur="0.2"/> form <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms of creating <pause dur="0.3"/> the bit of tree behind them

as though it's some form of pastoral scene <pause dur="2.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and you find other ones which <pause dur="0.3"/> some of them <pause dur="0.7"/> here <pause dur="0.2"/> we have somebody with a lionskin <pause dur="0.3"/> club <pause dur="0.3"/> looks very like Hercules so <pause dur="0.6"/> whoops <pause dur="0.3"/> so you can have <pause dur="0.5"/> modern ones <pause dur="0.6"/> and then you can have <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> overtly <pause dur="0.4"/> antique references as well <pause dur="4.5"/> and you have a strutting <pause dur="0.6"/> very modernistic eagle <pause dur="0.2"/> running over the top <pause dur="0.2"/> again we saw <trunc>eag</trunc> the importance of eagles <pause dur="0.2"/> last time <pause dur="3.4"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> the <pause dur="0.9"/> spherical fountain <pause dur="1.5"/> has a reference back <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="0.6"/> a small shrine <pause dur="0.7"/> of the goddess <pause dur="4.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> we don't have any <pause dur="0.2"/> yes we do <pause dur="10.8"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> a small fountain near the <pause dur="0.3"/> ancient forum <pause dur="1.2"/> is of <pause dur="1.9"/> where is it <pause dur="0.5"/> must be the other one <pause dur="1.3"/> Juturna J-U-T-U-R-<pause dur="0.3"/>N-A <pause dur="0.3"/> the Lacus Juturnae the fountain of <pause dur="0.4"/> Juturna <pause dur="0.4"/> is in the Forum at Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> similarly in the Forum Mussolini <pause dur="0.2"/> we found <pause dur="0.2"/> a fountain structure as well <pause dur="0.5"/> again <pause dur="0.2"/> another reference back <pause dur="0.4"/> to the idea of a forum in antiquity <pause dur="0.3"/> being made in this very modern <pause dur="0.4"/> sports stadium area <pause dur="4.8"/> right the next <pause dur="0.9"/> building we need to look at <pause dur="0.7"/> is <pause dur="0.7"/> the Academy <pause dur="0.2"/> of Physical Education <pause dur="2.4"/> Academy of Physical Education <pause dur="0.8"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> stay

on <pause dur="1.2"/><gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><pause dur="6.5"/> the <pause dur="0.8"/> Academy of Physical Education <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> is one of those <pause dur="0.9"/> structures <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> right <pause dur="0.4"/> antiquity <pause dur="0.2"/> also has mosaics <pause dur="0.3"/> and one of the boasts of <pause dur="0.2"/> these mosaics in the Forum <pause dur="0.3"/> of Mussolini <pause dur="0.4"/> is they are bigger <pause dur="0.2"/> than any mosaic from antiquity <pause dur="0.4"/> so it's almost that idea of remaking antiquity <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> bigger again <pause dur="2.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and you have words such as <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> duce for us again key things <pause dur="0.2"/> key political messages to make the mosaics more didactic <pause dur="0.4"/> in a way <pause dur="0.3"/> that antiquity never had them <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> a way of <pause dur="0.4"/> putting Mussolini <pause dur="0.4"/> physically <pause dur="0.6"/> into the mosaics themselves <pause dur="0.2"/> don't have to do a picture of him <pause dur="0.3"/> you just use the word dux repeatedly <pause dur="0.3"/> and the word Mussolini <pause dur="2.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> right so <pause dur="0.9"/> we've looked <pause dur="1.0"/> so far <pause dur="0.4"/> at this area <pause dur="0.4"/> the entrance area <pause dur="0.3"/> if you were coming <pause dur="0.5"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> see athletics <pause dur="0.5"/> or if you were going to be there <pause dur="0.4"/> at the planned nineteen-forty-four <pause dur="0.4"/> Olympics <pause dur="1.5"/> the <pause dur="1.5"/> athletics area <pause dur="0.6"/> this is the Academy for Athletics <pause dur="0.6"/> and behind it <pause dur="0.5"/> is what's known <pause dur="0.6"/> as <pause dur="0.7"/> the Stadium <pause dur="0.6"/> of Marble <pause dur="1.4"/> and on <pause dur="0.3"/> the other side <pause dur="0.6"/> this very low flat <pause dur="0.4"/> Olympic Stadium <pause dur="0.5"/> in its original form <pause dur="0.4"/> so we want

to look at <pause dur="0.4"/> this one <pause dur="0.4"/> this one <pause dur="0.6"/> and the last one <pause dur="4.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now <pause dur="0.7"/> Academy of Physical Education <pause dur="0.9"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> built in a very modernistic style <pause dur="0.5"/> it looks <pause dur="0.3"/> different from flat buildings <pause dur="0.2"/> if you look at its <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> overall plan <pause dur="0.4"/> it's built <pause dur="1.0"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> a very peculiar <pause dur="0.3"/> modernistic fashion <pause dur="0.2"/> again we're talking about the futurism <pause dur="0.3"/> the rejection of everything to do with the past <pause dur="0.5"/> this building <pause dur="0.4"/> would add up to the same thing <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> its structure <pause dur="0.3"/> not surprisingly <pause dur="0.3"/> you can spot the fasciaes here <pause dur="0.3"/> but it's full <pause dur="0.2"/> of statues <pause dur="0.4"/> statues <pause dur="0.4"/> crop up <pause dur="0.3"/> time and time again through these buildings <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> at the back <pause dur="0.6"/> in <pause dur="0.4"/> the stadium <pause dur="2.2"/> Stadio dei Marmi <pause dur="0.4"/> Stadium of Marbles <pause dur="0.5"/> we find <pause dur="0.7"/> eighty statues <pause dur="0.2"/> have been placed <pause dur="0.2"/> around the seating area <pause dur="0.7"/> so if you're watching <pause dur="0.6"/> the athletics <pause dur="0.7"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> the events which are done here in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/> political events as well <pause dur="1.7"/> the thing which is looking over your shoulder <pause dur="0.2"/> are these four metre high statues <pause dur="0.9"/> they're all of males <pause dur="0.4"/> they're all <pause dur="0.2"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> vaguely heroic forms <pause dur="0.8"/> now the statues themselves <pause dur="1.7"/> are donated <pause dur="0.2"/> by individual cities of Italy <pause dur="0.6"/> the statues are given <pause dur="0.5"/> they're <pause dur="0.3"/> individual cities <pause dur="0.2"/> commission <pause dur="0.2"/> the statues there's quite a few <pause dur="0.3"/> on your handout <pause dur="1.4"/>

the <pause dur="1.0"/> donation <pause dur="0.4"/> all the specifications are <pause dur="0.2"/> that they should be four metres high <pause dur="0.4"/> they're all slightly different they're not all done by the same artist <pause dur="1.2"/> and <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> give you an idea of one's <pause dur="0.2"/> this one is outside <pause dur="0.5"/> the stadium <pause dur="0.7"/> which <pause dur="1.2"/> shows huge <pause dur="0.2"/> muscular <pause dur="0.4"/> figures again <pause dur="0.3"/> this emphasis on the body <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> one of the things which Mussolini does regularly <pause dur="0.2"/> if he goes to visit people <pause dur="0.4"/> in the campaign for wheat <pause dur="0.3"/> which he <pause dur="0.3"/> the fascist stage orchestrates <pause dur="0.3"/> Mussolini <pause dur="0.3"/> takes off his shirt and starts helping to cut the wheat <pause dur="0.3"/> or he goes to the beach he takes off his shirt and goes in the sea <pause dur="0.4"/> so there's a cult <pause dur="0.3"/> of the body in Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> coming out here <pause dur="0.6"/> cult which can be <pause dur="0.4"/> produced through <pause dur="0.4"/> sport organizations or <pause dur="0.4"/> things like the O-N-B in particular <pause dur="0.8"/> and they're organizing it for adults but they're also organizing it for children to train children <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.5"/> the ways of <pause dur="0.2"/> physical exercise <pause dur="0.4"/> so i think <pause dur="0.3"/> very <pause dur="0.3"/> strong emphasis on being <pause dur="0.2"/>

physically fit <pause dur="0.3"/> whether you are young <pause dur="0.2"/> or old <pause dur="2.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now the statues themselves <pause dur="0.7"/> once you're inside <pause dur="0.4"/> they all <pause dur="0.2"/> repeat <pause dur="0.2"/> the similar theme of body perfection <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> the muscular body <pause dur="3.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and they <pause dur="0.2"/> become vaguely heroic they're not like ancient statues <pause dur="0.3"/> key thing is <pause dur="0.3"/> they look like <pause dur="0.7"/> because they're naked <pause dur="0.3"/> they look like ancient statues <pause dur="0.4"/> but if you actually look at their features <pause dur="0.2"/> their far more modernistic style <pause dur="0.6"/> the style is quite different from let's say <pause dur="0.3"/> the Prima Porta Augustus <pause dur="0.6"/> Prima Porta Augustus <pause dur="0.3"/> looks like <pause dur="0.4"/> Augustan statues <pause dur="0.6"/> look <pause dur="0.2"/> very thin <pause dur="0.2"/> very effeminate in a way compared with this <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> the emphasis here <pause dur="0.2"/> is on the real man <pause dur="0.3"/> whereas <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>st</trunc> statues of things like Apollo <pause dur="0.2"/> don't add up to that <pause dur="0.7"/> concept <trunc>i</trunc> within Italy of the real man <pause dur="3.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the other feature of this stadium <pause dur="0.3"/> is its <pause dur="0.3"/> lowness it's very low in the ground <pause dur="0.5"/> now the stadiums all the stadiums were quite flat they were dug out of the ground <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> the Olympic Stadium you just have to block it out but again <pause dur="0.2"/> that would be a very low stadium <pause dur="1.2"/> so one of

the things <pause dur="0.2"/> you're going to find <pause dur="0.2"/> is <pause dur="0.5"/> there are sculptural points <pause dur="0.2"/> which stick up <pause dur="1.1"/> 'cause you tend <trunc>t</trunc> the statues stick up above <pause dur="0.9"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> drop <pause dur="0.2"/> into the stadium itself <pause dur="5.5"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="1.3"/> stadium structure in terms of <pause dur="0.6"/> the organization <pause dur="0.2"/> of the stadium how you go into it <pause dur="0.9"/> also has parallels from the Colosseum <pause dur="1.0"/> because <pause dur="0.9"/> the <trunc>spec</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> the spectators <pause dur="0.2"/> come in <pause dur="0.2"/> this way <pause dur="0.3"/> having seen things like the spherical fountain mosaics et cetera <pause dur="0.3"/> they come in <pause dur="0.2"/> from this angle <pause dur="0.7"/> the <pause dur="0.4"/> people involved in the actual sport <pause dur="0.4"/> come in <pause dur="0.6"/> down <pause dur="0.3"/> this ramp <pause dur="0.5"/> into the what you could call the arena area there <pause dur="1.7"/> and this structure is paralleled in that of the Colosseum <pause dur="0.2"/> it's paralleled in that of the Circus Maximus <pause dur="0.2"/> from antiquity as well <pause dur="0.2"/> so again <pause dur="0.4"/> we can play this game of snap where there's something modern <pause dur="0.3"/> something antique <pause dur="0.4"/> very deliberate <pause dur="0.2"/> organization <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the <pause dur="0.6"/> and not surprisingly <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> the athletics area <pause dur="0.3"/> you have <pause dur="0.3"/> mosaics of people jumping <pause dur="0.5"/> running <pause dur="0.2"/> et cetera <pause dur="0.4"/> it's all <pause dur="0.3"/> still there today <pause dur="0.4"/> and it would have been <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> pristine <pause dur="0.2"/> at the time <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and you

have things like equestrians <pause dur="0.6"/> and whatever <pause dur="1.0"/> this person could be doing presumably <pause dur="0.2"/> some form of wrestling <pause dur="0.5"/> but again <pause dur="0.3"/> that cult of the very big <pause dur="0.2"/> bulky body <pause dur="0.2"/> very muscular <pause dur="0.5"/> body is there <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> even <pause dur="0.8"/> within <pause dur="0.8"/> things like the sprinters again there's this emphasis <pause dur="0.2"/> on <pause dur="0.3"/> the very <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of muscle toned <pause dur="0.5"/> male <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> one of the things is there are no <pause dur="0.2"/> female images <pause dur="0.3"/> on this <pause dur="0.3"/> at all <pause dur="0.3"/> whatsoever <pause dur="0.5"/> it's as though <pause dur="0.4"/> female sport just didn't <pause dur="0.3"/> exist <pause dur="0.8"/> and you see up here <pause dur="0.3"/> in the inscription <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> the inscription of O-N-B <pause dur="0.2"/> the organizers of the whole thing <pause dur="3.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> that's <pause dur="1.3"/> one aspect of it <pause dur="1.2"/> terms of the sport aspect <pause dur="0.5"/> if you look at the middle photo here <pause dur="0.6"/> which has just slipped out of focus <pause dur="5.4"/> the <pause dur="0.7"/> here <pause dur="0.2"/> you see a military parade <pause dur="0.5"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> that Stadium <pause dur="0.3"/> of Marbles <pause dur="0.2"/> with the statues <pause dur="0.4"/> around here <pause dur="1.0"/> another feature <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="1.9"/> the Forum of Mussolini <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> the idea <pause dur="0.2"/> of politicalization <pause dur="0.6"/> politicalization <pause dur="0.7"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.4"/> having <pause dur="0.2"/> great events occur here <pause dur="0.9"/> it's one of the things which <pause dur="0.4"/> children <pause dur="0.3"/> from all over Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> were sent to Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> to stay <pause dur="0.7"/> in <pause dur="0.4"/> the Forum <pause dur="0.2"/> of Mussolini <pause dur="1.7"/>

for a number of weeks <pause dur="0.8"/> and one of the things <pause dur="0.2"/> they can see are the mass rallies of things like soldiers <pause dur="0.5"/> but another thing is the actual doing <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the things they do is they grow wheat <pause dur="0.2"/> next to the Forum <pause dur="0.2"/> for children to come and cut <pause dur="0.3"/> again there's this thing in <pause dur="0.5"/> fascist Italy of <pause dur="0.3"/> the campaign for wheat <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.6"/> it's a very ideological campaign to grow more wheat <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> to bring children into the idea of growing more wheat <pause dur="0.2"/> they were brought here to practise sport but they also <pause dur="0.3"/> went out <pause dur="0.3"/> to cut the wheat in the summer as well <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a double purpose here <pause dur="0.7"/> in terms of ideology <pause dur="1.3"/> the <pause dur="1.0"/> building in the background <pause dur="2.1"/> is <pause dur="0.7"/> a building which has now become <pause dur="0.3"/> the Italian Foreign Ministry <pause dur="0.7"/> this is <pause dur="0.2"/> the Palace of the Fascists <pause dur="0.2"/> the Palace of the Lictors <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="1.0"/> this structure <pause dur="0.6"/> is set up <pause dur="0.5"/> as the new <pause dur="0.4"/> headquarters of fascism in Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> of the Fascist Party <pause dur="0.2"/> not of the government but of the Fascist Party <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a difference <pause dur="0.2"/> to be made there <pause dur="1.2"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> outside of it <pause dur="0.8"/> in this square here <pause dur="0.5"/> was <pause dur="0.2"/> a huge piazza area <pause dur="0.4"/> piazza area <pause dur="0.3"/> which

could contain four-hundred-thousand people <pause dur="0.7"/> sort of very like Tiananmen Square in China <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> similar <pause dur="0.6"/> type of structure <pause dur="0.7"/> and in <pause dur="1.1"/> architect's drawing <pause dur="2.3"/> not surprisingly <pause dur="0.8"/> you have <pause dur="0.2"/> things like an obelisk <pause dur="0.3"/> horses here <pause dur="0.3"/> ideas about Castor and Pollux <pause dur="0.2"/> put two horses together <pause dur="0.6"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> if you've imbued everybody with the ideology of fascism <pause dur="0.5"/> people automatically think of Castor and Pollux <pause dur="1.2"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> Castor and Pollux of course helped the Romans in a battle <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> it's those twins again <pause dur="0.2"/> Roman history <pause dur="0.3"/> made large by association <pause dur="4.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> the key <pause dur="0.4"/> element here <pause dur="0.3"/> is if you are <pause dur="0.5"/> watching <pause dur="0.2"/> a spectacle here or taking part in the spectacle <pause dur="0.5"/> you can always see <pause dur="0.2"/> the fascist headquarters <pause dur="0.3"/> this idea of visibility <pause dur="0.4"/> is very important what other monuments you can see <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.9"/> there is <pause dur="0.2"/> the political headquarters <pause dur="0.2"/> is put next to <pause dur="0.2"/> the sporting headquarters of Italy <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/> the Fascist Party <pause dur="5.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/>

now <pause dur="2.2"/> to look <pause dur="0.3"/> briefly <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="5"/> at the Olympic Stadium <pause dur="0.4"/> because <pause dur="1.1"/> <unclear>it's a bit</unclear> sport <pause dur="0.9"/> fanatics <pause dur="3.1"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.4"/> what it looks like <pause dur="0.7"/> today it's been <pause dur="0.9"/> had another stadium put on to increase the seating capacity <pause dur="0.7"/> originally <pause dur="0.6"/> it was <pause dur="0.7"/> a <trunc>s</trunc> a stadium <pause dur="0.8"/> this stadium still lies underneath it if you go <pause dur="0.4"/> to this # to Italian football match today you come out of one of these things <pause dur="0.2"/> and then <pause dur="0.3"/> there's about that much more stadium on top of it <pause dur="1.2"/> now the thing <pause dur="0.3"/> with this stadium is <pause dur="0.7"/> it seats fifty-five-thousand people <pause dur="1.1"/> is the design it's a design it was going to be called the Stadium for Fifty-five-thousand people <pause dur="2.0"/> it is <pause dur="4.7"/> now that number in itself is the same number <pause dur="0.3"/> as it's estimated <pause dur="0.2"/> was <pause dur="0.2"/> as the number of people who'd get in the Colosseum <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> if you think about the forums of <pause dur="0.7"/> of Ancient Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> next to the Colosseum <pause dur="0.5"/> here <pause dur="0.4"/> we have <pause dur="0.9"/> the forums <pause dur="0.4"/> of modern Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> next to <pause dur="0.5"/> the stadium the Olympic Stadium <pause dur="1.0"/> the <pause dur="0.4"/> structure of it is again seating <pause dur="0.2"/> a low surround <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> on

top of it <pause dur="0.2"/> are these huge eagles <pause dur="0.5"/> now the eagles also contained floodlights <pause dur="0.5"/> again so there's again there's technology here <pause dur="0.6"/> one of the things which <pause dur="0.6"/> you see is that use of technology modern technology <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> you turn the floodlights into <pause dur="0.3"/> eagles <pause dur="0.2"/> to make them look classical <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a double usage here something very modern <pause dur="0.2"/> but it has a reference back to antiquity <pause dur="4.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="2.5"/> the other feature <pause dur="0.4"/> of it a series of flagpoles <pause dur="0.5"/> this is used for Hitler's <pause dur="0.2"/> visit to Rome <pause dur="0.4"/> in the <trunc>ninet</trunc> nineteen-thirty-eight <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> for the huge <pause dur="0.3"/> displays <pause dur="0.3"/> of government of sort of government popularity <pause dur="1.1"/> what are called sometimes the oceanic displays like it's a ocean of people <pause dur="0.2"/> in front of it <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> right so <pause dur="0.3"/> if we're going to think about <pause dur="1.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="13"/> the effect <pause dur="0.7"/> of all this <pause dur="0.7"/> in terms of Rome <pause dur="0.6"/> and the effect <pause dur="0.5"/> of what the intention is <pause dur="1.3"/> one of the things <pause dur="1.0"/> we talked about <pause dur="1.2"/> very beginning today <pause dur="0.7"/> was <pause dur="0.8"/> the idea <pause dur="0.5"/> of a triumphal route <pause dur="1.0"/> the idea of <pause dur="0.7"/> the Forum of Mussolini <pause dur="0.2"/> as being the entry point into the city <pause dur="0.8"/> Forum of Mussolini <pause dur="0.3"/> being <pause dur="0.2"/> where people came into

the city <pause dur="1.9"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> the concept is to create a triumphal route from the Foro Mussolini <pause dur="0.4"/> you go across the river <pause dur="0.5"/> you go into <pause dur="0.2"/> through the city walls of Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> the original third century A-D walls of Rome <pause dur="0.4"/> you go down <pause dur="0.5"/> the road to the <pause dur="0.4"/> piazza <pause dur="0.5"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> Augustus' mausoleum in which we were talking about last time <pause dur="1.2"/> you then <pause dur="0.2"/> move on <pause dur="0.2"/> to the Victor Emmanuel monument <pause dur="0.5"/> in the centre of Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> and you end at the Colosseum <pause dur="0.8"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> that route <pause dur="0.7"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> so strongly <pause dur="0.2"/> created in terms of traffic route <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> today after <pause dur="0.4"/> a great victory by Roma or Italy or Lazio <pause dur="0.3"/> in the <pause dur="0.6"/> # the football stadium <pause dur="0.5"/> people go <pause dur="0.2"/> straight down that route <pause dur="0.2"/> it's exactly the same route into Rome <pause dur="0.5"/> # to celebrate at the Colosseum <pause dur="0.4"/> and in front of the Victor Emmanuel monument <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> what's being created <pause dur="0.4"/> is not just the Forum of Mussolini <pause dur="0.5"/> the Forum of Mussolini is being created to connect into <pause dur="0.4"/> the rest of the architecture of Rome <pause dur="0.6"/> it's going to become <pause dur="0.2"/> an important point <pause dur="0.4"/> within the architecture of Rome <pause dur="3.5"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="17"/> now <pause dur="2.5"/> so <pause dur="0.9"/> one <pause dur="0.9"/> key thing <pause dur="0.7"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> to link <pause dur="1.2"/> the celebration <pause dur="0.8"/> of

things like <pause dur="0.5"/> the sport <pause dur="1.7"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> takes place <pause dur="0.6"/> in these low buildings <pause dur="0.3"/> with <pause dur="0.4"/> the vision of the statues <pause dur="0.3"/> around in the Stadium of Marble <pause dur="1.4"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="6"/> at the same time <pause dur="1.6"/> within the stucture <pause dur="1.8"/> you have the technology of floodlights <pause dur="0.4"/> this is <pause dur="0.2"/> opening of the Olympic Games stuff <pause dur="0.4"/> the style <pause dur="0.4"/> of the nineteen-thirties i think we all know <pause dur="0.5"/> about the <trunc>sor</trunc> opening of Olympic Games seem to be completely over the top <pause dur="0.3"/> events of choreography <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.8"/> this also happened in the nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.3"/> and would be lit up at night again that use of technology to use the stadium at night's there <pause dur="0.6"/> the other thing <pause dur="0.3"/> as you can see from this <pause dur="0.4"/> picture which is the football stadium <pause dur="0.5"/> you can always see <pause dur="0.3"/> the Palace of the Fascists nearby <pause dur="0.5"/> it creates that link <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.6"/> the Fascist Party <pause dur="0.9"/> but the other thing <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="5"/> which is <pause dur="0.8"/> nearly always visible <pause dur="0.5"/> from anywhere in the original stadium <pause dur="0.5"/> is the Obelisk of Mussolini <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> Mussolini <pause dur="0.5"/> is there if <pause dur="0.3"/> not present at the opening of these events <pause dur="0.5"/> is present <pause dur="0.6"/> by simply seeing <pause dur="0.2"/> the enormous obelisk which has been

reported in the press <pause dur="0.3"/> so successfully <pause dur="1.3"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> typically <pause dur="0.2"/> people stand <pause dur="0.2"/> in these arenas so you can get lots of people in there's none of this <pause dur="0.2"/> seating <pause dur="0.6"/> problem which is the current <pause dur="0.3"/> football stadium <pause dur="0.3"/> reduces the number of people in there <pause dur="3.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> the other key thing <pause dur="1.3"/> to think about <pause dur="0.3"/> although <pause dur="1.0"/> a lot of the artistic style <pause dur="1.0"/> is has a reference back to antiquity <pause dur="0.6"/> the way it's drawn <pause dur="0.6"/> and the way it's represented <pause dur="0.5"/> is linking in to <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> Italy's modern artistic movement <pause dur="0.5"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> has a particular emphasis on the body <pause dur="0.6"/> emphasis on the body and those chunky sculptures people are making <pause dur="0.4"/> a lot of sculptures out of <pause dur="0.6"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> things like peasantry <pause dur="0.2"/> in the nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a <pause dur="0.4"/> you go to <pause dur="0.4"/> Rome's modern art gallery <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll see <pause dur="0.4"/> a lot of <pause dur="0.5"/> very very chunky <pause dur="0.2"/> these chunky sculptures can also be found in art galleries <pause dur="0.2"/> as well as <pause dur="0.5"/> in the stadium itself <pause dur="2.1"/> so in terms of themes from antiquity <pause dur="0.4"/> what are we seeing <pause dur="1.9"/> the key theme <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> the Forum of <pause dur="0.4"/> Mussolini <pause dur="2.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> sure you can go backwards <pause dur="1.6"/> is the idea <pause dur="0.7"/> that <pause dur="0.6"/> it links in <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> the Forums of

Augustus <pause dur="0.2"/> Trajan <pause dur="0.2"/> Nerva <pause dur="0.2"/> Julius Caesar <pause dur="1.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> it seemed to be <pause dur="0.2"/> bigger than them <pause dur="0.3"/> like the mosaics are larger than those of antiquity <pause dur="0.3"/> the piece of Carrara marble cut for that obelisk is bigger than any ever <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> bigger <pause dur="0.2"/> than any ever is important <pause dur="1.6"/> so there's comparison <pause dur="0.2"/> but there's <pause dur="0.2"/> surpassing antiquity <pause dur="0.2"/> to create the new state of Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>ver</trunc> sorry <pause dur="0.2"/> to create that new idea of civilization <pause dur="0.3"/> we always find with <pause dur="0.7"/> people who start using classical antiquity <pause dur="0.3"/> they're always creating something new <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> classical antiquity is almost <pause dur="0.2"/> the reference point <pause dur="0.3"/> which it's going to be better than <pause dur="0.2"/> that brave <pause dur="0.3"/> new world idea <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of modern utopia <pause dur="1.8"/> the other thing <pause dur="1.3"/> to think about is there's reference back to antiquity <pause dur="0.2"/> via the seating capacity <pause dur="0.3"/> with things like this stadium <pause dur="0.6"/> it's # automatic <pause dur="0.3"/> why is it called the Stadium of Fifty-five-thousand <pause dur="0.2"/> it's because the Colosseum <pause dur="0.2"/> held the same number <pause dur="0.3"/> there's that reference back to antiquity <pause dur="0.6"/> you can also see <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> this structure <pause dur="0.3"/> is the beginning <pause dur="0.3"/> of the triumphal

route into Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> whereas the Colosseum is the end <pause dur="0.2"/> so you begin with the modern world <pause dur="0.3"/> and you end with antiquity <pause dur="3.1"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> a new <pause dur="0.2"/> triumphal route <pause dur="0.2"/> into Rome is being created <pause dur="0.2"/> by this new structure <pause dur="2.0"/> the other link <pause dur="0.3"/> is to empire <pause dur="0.4"/> and to always think of the dates the inauguration dates <pause dur="0.2"/> you keep that nineteen-thirty-two <pause dur="0.3"/> is when <pause dur="0.7"/> the obelisk <pause dur="0.4"/> the Stadium of Marbles <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> the football stadium <pause dur="0.2"/> were all completed inaugurated by Mussolini <pause dur="0.9"/> nineteen-thirty-seven <pause dur="0.6"/> the inauguration of <pause dur="0.4"/> the Imperial Square <pause dur="0.3"/> with that round fountain in it <pause dur="0.3"/> is the next stage so <pause dur="0.2"/> those two dates <pause dur="0.2"/> incredibly important <pause dur="0.8"/> the other thing <pause dur="0.2"/> to link in terms of empire <pause dur="0.4"/> is the cult of the body <pause dur="0.3"/> the idea of youth <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> in particular <pause dur="0.3"/> the fact that

you can always see <pause dur="0.4"/> images of empire wherever you go in this building <pause dur="0.5"/> you see images <pause dur="0.4"/> of things like the eagles holding the floodlights <pause dur="0.3"/> you see <pause dur="0.8"/> Mussolini <pause dur="0.3"/> placed onto the architecture <pause dur="0.5"/> so in terms of architectural setting <pause dur="0.7"/> the architectural setting creates the ambience <pause dur="0.6"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> a certain type of thinking about <pause dur="0.4"/> the Italian state certain type of thinking which goes back <pause dur="0.3"/> to the ancient world <pause dur="0.2"/> but also looks forward <pause dur="0.5"/> to a modern future <pause dur="0.3"/> which will surpass <pause dur="0.2"/> that of the ancient world <pause dur="0.6"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> it's ten to so it's lunchtime <pause dur="0.3"/> if you have any questions do <pause dur="0.2"/> come and ask <pause dur="0.5"/> # and your seminar's on <pause dur="0.2"/> Friday