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<title>Allegory in the Faerie Queene</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:55:55" n="6989">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>



<person id="nf0058" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="f"><p>nf0058, main speaker, non-student, female</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="m"><p>sl, all, medium group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="3"><p>number of speakers: 3</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">English</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG2</item>

<item n="module">Elizabethan Literature</item>




<u who="nf0058"> is <pause dur="0.2"/> on <pause dur="0.2"/> allegory <pause dur="0.6"/> not just <pause dur="0.4"/> allegory in The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> allegory <pause dur="0.3"/> and symbolism in general and one of the things i'm <pause dur="0.4"/> trying <pause dur="0.5"/> to get you to see <pause dur="0.7"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> that allegory in The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.3"/> isn't just a sort of <pause dur="0.6"/> special thing <pause dur="0.3"/> that only creatures from the planet <pause dur="0.4"/> Zog and <pause dur="0.3"/> specialists in <pause dur="0.3"/> Reformation theology <pause dur="0.3"/> know about we don't just descend from on high and say <pause dur="0.3"/> oh by the way <pause dur="0.2"/> this bit means this thing <pause dur="0.2"/> and that bit means that thing and this thing over there means the other thing <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> you know this specific bit in the Bible or this specific historical event <pause dur="0.4"/> is what's being alluded to here <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean <pause dur="0.2"/> these are definitely things that you need to know <pause dur="0.3"/> if you don't <pause dur="0.2"/> know about them <pause dur="0.3"/> then we need to point your noses in these directions <pause dur="1.0"/> so that you can find out <pause dur="0.9"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> when we tell you <pause dur="0.4"/> all these useful pieces of <pause dur="0.9"/> background information <pause dur="1.8"/> what we like to feel we're doing <pause dur="1.0"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> clearing away <pause dur="0.3"/> a barrier of <pause dur="0.3"/> ignorance <pause dur="1.0"/> that lay between you and the text or perhaps not actual <pause dur="0.3"/> ignorance of <pause dur="0.3"/> events <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/>

unawareness that those particular events that you did know about <pause dur="0.3"/> like for example <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.4"/> changing <pause dur="0.2"/> religion of England between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism and back again and then back the other way <pause dur="0.6"/> in the sixteenth century would be relevant to this passage <pause dur="0.4"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> something like # the Spanish Armada <pause dur="0.4"/> of fifteen-eighty-eight <pause dur="0.2"/> Spain's unsuccessful attempt to <pause dur="0.3"/> invade these shores <pause dur="0.2"/> and reclaim all <pause dur="0.2"/> the lost souls for Catholicism <pause dur="1.8"/> the idea <pause dur="0.3"/> is to say oh by the way <pause dur="0.2"/> do you see how this fits here <pause dur="0.2"/> do you see how Spenser is thinking about that bit there <pause dur="1.4"/> so as i say what we're trying to do <pause dur="0.3"/> is remove <pause dur="0.2"/> a barrier <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> ignorance <pause dur="0.4"/> or <pause dur="0.3"/> unawareness that the things you did know <pause dur="0.2"/> were actually helpful at this point <pause dur="1.4"/> what we do not wish to do <pause dur="0.6"/> by <pause dur="0.3"/> all this saying oh yes well of course Duessa both means the whore of Babylon look at her in Revelation and she means Mary Queen of Scots the <pause dur="0.3"/> rival Catholic claimant to the throne whom <pause dur="0.5"/> Elizabeth had very <pause dur="0.3"/> # reluctantly had had to have <pause dur="0.4"/>

beheaded <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>al</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> and you know it also means the Roman Catholic Church in general <pause dur="0.3"/> as opposed <pause dur="0.2"/> to the Protestant religion <pause dur="0.6"/> and you then think oh great <pause dur="0.2"/> got that <pause dur="0.2"/> that's Duessa hurray <pause dur="0.2"/> finish <pause dur="1.6"/> we don't want you to then feel <pause dur="0.2"/> that we have actually erected another <pause dur="0.2"/> wall <pause dur="0.3"/> another <pause dur="0.2"/> barrier <pause dur="0.2"/> between you and the text <pause dur="0.3"/> so that first there was a barrier <pause dur="1.0"/> between you and the text considering <pause dur="0.3"/> consisting of ignorance <pause dur="0.5"/> and then <pause dur="0.2"/> we stick up another <pause dur="0.3"/> barrier <pause dur="0.6"/> consisting of knowledge and then you think oh God yes i couldn't have worked that out for myself i'm not clever enough or i don't know enough or <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm frankly not that interested in Renaissance politics and history <pause dur="0.4"/> and then say oh right <pause dur="0.2"/> this is what i want to know <pause dur="0.2"/> this is what the lecturers have told me <pause dur="1.5"/> so this is the stuff i need to know <pause dur="0.2"/> this is the answer to the text <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is what i have to give the lecturers back in my essays <pause dur="0.3"/> and in my exams <pause dur="1.5"/> that way <pause dur="0.9"/> some very very dismal work <pause dur="0.4"/> lies <pause dur="0.6"/> and perhaps far more to the point some very very

dismal reading experiences <pause dur="0.7"/> what we're trying to do <pause dur="0.2"/> is clear the way for you <pause dur="0.3"/> plough the road <pause dur="0.3"/> so that you can then roll up your sleeves and get back into that text and get things <pause dur="0.3"/> out of that text <pause dur="0.3"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> yourself <pause dur="0.8"/> it's to help you <pause dur="0.2"/> with your reading <pause dur="1.1"/> so i'm going to start off <pause dur="0.3"/> by just going through a few <pause dur="0.2"/> basic <pause dur="0.2"/> reading <pause dur="0.3"/> techniques <pause dur="0.3"/> and critical terms <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> will crop up and that may come in useful <pause dur="0.4"/> and just to remind you <pause dur="0.3"/> that The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.4"/> is doing something that lots and lots of poems and plays and novels and films <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> advertisements and political slogans and football shirts do <pause dur="0.3"/> it's just doing it <pause dur="0.2"/> rather more often and rather more vehemently <pause dur="1.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> just to get you feeling <pause dur="0.3"/> that Spenser was an author <pause dur="0.6"/> like any other author <pause dur="0.4"/> and The Faerie Queene is a work like any other work <pause dur="0.3"/> i want to go through <pause dur="0.2"/> some literal terms that could be useful when you're <pause dur="0.3"/> reading this or anything else <pause dur="1.6"/> and this will gradually lead us into <pause dur="0.5"/> allegory and symbolism and special things that happen there <pause dur="0.8"/> well to start

with <pause dur="0.7"/> most <pause dur="0.2"/> literature <pause dur="0.6"/> deals <pause dur="0.3"/> with literal <pause dur="0.2"/> description <pause dur="0.6"/> simply saying <pause dur="0.2"/> what <pause dur="0.2"/> something <pause dur="0.2"/> is like <pause dur="1.3"/> # and saying that it's like it in <pause dur="0.7"/> very literal <pause dur="0.3"/> terms you know <pause dur="0.2"/> she had long blond hair <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> the house was made <pause dur="0.2"/> of grey granite <pause dur="0.6"/> literal description <pause dur="1.9"/> then <pause dur="0.2"/> we start getting figurative language <pause dur="6.1"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="20"/> now figurative language <pause dur="0.3"/> is also known as imagery <pause dur="3.3"/> or figures of speech <pause dur="3.7"/> figures of <pause dur="0.2"/> speech <pause dur="3.9"/> right <pause dur="1.0"/> figures of speech <pause dur="0.5"/> now this is where you say things <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> are striking <pause dur="0.5"/> but are not literally <pause dur="0.3"/> true <pause dur="1.5"/> and a lot of people make a mistake of talking about imagery <pause dur="0.2"/> whenever they find anything that's particularly <pause dur="0.2"/> vivid or interesting <pause dur="0.2"/> and it really doesn't work that way <pause dur="1.9"/><event desc="wipes board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> so i'll just rub this off now <pause dur="1.5"/> and we'll start <pause dur="0.7"/> with some examples of very simple examples of figures of speech <pause dur="2.7"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> if something is said to resemble something that it doesn't really resemble very closely <pause dur="0.6"/> that is simile <pause dur="0.4"/> like <pause dur="0.4"/> as if <pause dur="0.5"/> as it were <pause dur="0.4"/> so have i seen two swans or something like that <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's simile <pause dur="4.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> and

the standard one i always quote here <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Robert Burns' famous line <pause dur="0.2"/> my love is like a red red rose <pause dur="0.3"/> very few people would really be attracted to a girl <pause dur="0.3"/> if <pause dur="0.2"/> she was covered with thorns green leaves and petals <pause dur="0.9"/> but we all know that what he's alluding to <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> her sweetness her softness and maybe you know the loveliness of her blush <pause dur="1.5"/> but she isn't really very like a rose <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a simile <pause dur="1.7"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> then <pause dur="0.9"/> we get <pause dur="0.9"/> metaphor <pause dur="3.6"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="9"/> and most other figures of speech are branches of metaphor one way or the other <pause dur="4.2"/> and metaphor <pause dur="0.4"/> is when you say something <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.7"/> or does <pause dur="0.2"/> something <pause dur="0.3"/> that it isn't real <pause dur="0.5"/> in real life <pause dur="0.5"/> for example <pause dur="0.5"/> # if you say <pause dur="0.2"/> my heart is on fire <pause dur="1.1"/> that's a metaphor <pause dur="0.2"/> i hope <pause dur="1.0"/> love laughs at locksmiths <pause dur="0.3"/> # that's a metaphor because of course <pause dur="0.2"/> there isn't really such a thing as love who is a person that can laugh <pause dur="0.3"/> so that's a <pause dur="0.2"/> personification of love so that comes in under the heading of metaphor <pause dur="0.9"/> my cat is a demon i don't know why i put <trunc>dow</trunc> that

down as a <pause dur="0.4"/> metaphor you <pause dur="0.5"/> only got to look at me to see that that's true but never mind <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> my son is a pickle <pause dur="0.9"/> well let's hope that's just a metaphor <pause dur="0.5"/> and somebody hasn't been after him <pause dur="1.1"/> right <pause dur="0.6"/> and there are many branches including personification which i've already mentioned <pause dur="0.2"/> love <pause dur="0.2"/> laughs at locksmiths <pause dur="0.2"/> the idea that if you really love somebody <pause dur="0.2"/> you can always get at her <pause dur="0.2"/> however hard her husband is trying to keep you out of the house <pause dur="1.0"/> and you know that's the sort of thing <pause dur="0.6"/> that metaphor does <pause dur="1.7"/> # now something <pause dur="0.6"/> we have here to think about <pause dur="0.3"/> is two other words <pause dur="0.4"/> and you will often find this being thrown at you <pause dur="0.5"/> by critics <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="11"/> so we might as well get it right <pause dur="1.7"/> vehicle <pause dur="2.1"/> and tenor <pause dur="7.0"/> and i could imagine a lot of times when if you're talking about allegory in Spenser or anybody else it's useful to know these words <pause dur="0.8"/> vehicle <pause dur="0.8"/> is <pause dur="0.5"/> the thing <pause dur="0.3"/> you are given <pause dur="0.2"/> it's <pause dur="0.2"/> the image <pause dur="0.8"/> and the tenor <pause dur="0.3"/> is what <pause dur="0.3"/> it is talking <pause dur="0.3"/> about <pause dur="0.8"/> so if i say <pause dur="0.3"/> my cat <pause dur="0.2"/> is a demon <pause dur="1.4"/>

the idea of the cat <pause dur="0.3"/> being a demon <pause dur="0.3"/> is the vehicle <pause dur="0.5"/> and the meaning <pause dur="0.3"/> the tenor <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> the idea that my cat has a very bad temper <pause dur="4.6"/> right <pause dur="0.8"/> so much for these words <pause dur="1.2"/> and thus <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> Spenser <pause dur="0.2"/> you could say for example <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> you know Duessa riding along in her <pause dur="0.4"/> bright red dress on her seven-headed beast <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> the vehicle <pause dur="0.5"/> and that Roman Catholicism <pause dur="0.5"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> evil <pause dur="0.3"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> doubleness or whatever else you want to say she represents at the time is the tenor <pause dur="0.2"/> that's what's really going on <pause dur="2.8"/>

right now here are some other words coming up <pause dur="2.5"/> type and antitype <pause dur="4.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="15"/> now <pause dur="1.1"/> you have to remember <pause dur="0.2"/> that we're studying <pause dur="1.4"/> works written by people <pause dur="0.4"/> who believed <pause dur="0.3"/> that God himself <pause dur="1.0"/> used <pause dur="0.3"/> allegory <pause dur="2.3"/> the idea is <pause dur="0.4"/> that in the Old <pause dur="0.2"/> Testament <pause dur="0.4"/> that's the first part of the Bible <pause dur="0.2"/> the part that the Jews believe <pause dur="0.7"/> right <pause dur="1.0"/> in the Old Testament <pause dur="0.8"/> everything important that happens <pause dur="0.5"/> is not only literally true in itself <pause dur="0.8"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> so arranged <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> it is <pause dur="0.5"/> a type <pause dur="0.5"/> by which they meant <pause dur="0.6"/> a foretelling <pause dur="0.5"/> an indication <pause dur="0.8"/> a symbol <pause dur="0.7"/> of something that was going to happen <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> the New Testament <pause dur="0.3"/> that's what starts with the Gospels <pause dur="0.2"/> Matthew Mark Luke and John <pause dur="0.3"/> and it tells the story of Jesus <pause dur="0.3"/> and of his apostles after him <pause dur="0.5"/> in the Acts of the Apostles and <pause dur="0.3"/> the various Epistles of Paul and other saints <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> it is this <pause dur="0.2"/> together with the Old Testament <pause dur="0.2"/> that Christians <pause dur="0.2"/> believe <pause dur="1.7"/> and <pause dur="0.9"/> one example i can give you of type <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> antitype <pause dur="0.6"/> it's just one thing but it shows you the way <pause dur="0.3"/> # this sort of biblical

critical mind worked <pause dur="0.3"/> and you can also find it very useful when you're reading Milton <pause dur="1.5"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> that when <pause dur="0.6"/> in the Old Testament it describes how <pause dur="0.2"/> Moses and his followers <pause dur="0.2"/> spent <pause dur="0.3"/> forty <pause dur="0.2"/> years <pause dur="0.7"/> in the desert <pause dur="0.2"/> after they came out of Egypt <pause dur="0.2"/> looking for <pause dur="0.2"/> the promised <pause dur="0.2"/> land <pause dur="1.3"/> right which was of course <pause dur="0.3"/> Israel and Judea <pause dur="2.5"/> the antitype <pause dur="1.1"/> to this <pause dur="0.6"/> the thing that this was a symbol of <pause dur="1.0"/> was the forty days <pause dur="0.3"/> that Jesus <pause dur="0.2"/> spent in the wilderness <pause dur="0.4"/> being tempted <pause dur="0.3"/> by the Devil <pause dur="0.5"/> before <pause dur="0.2"/> he took on <pause dur="0.2"/> his mission to save humanity <pause dur="1.1"/> so there is a type <pause dur="0.4"/> and an antitype <pause dur="0.3"/> and these are words that you'll often find thrown at you <pause dur="0.2"/> in critical books <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="4.1"/> another word <pause dur="0.3"/> # that you might find <pause dur="3.8"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="15"/> which i find enormous fun <pause dur="7.3"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> if i can get it on <pause dur="0.4"/> yep here it comes <pause dur="0.6"/> euhemerism <pause dur="0.9"/> E-U-<pause dur="0.2"/>H-<pause dur="0.5"/>E-M-E-R-I-S-M <pause dur="0.5"/> euhemerism <pause dur="0.3"/> and you will sometimes find a critic toss he'll say oh yes this is a euhemeristic reading <pause dur="1.3"/> and this is called after the Greek critic Euhemerus <pause dur="1.0"/> # a man for whom i have enormous respect <pause dur="0.7"/> who looked <pause dur="0.5"/> at <pause dur="0.5"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> pagan <pause dur="0.2"/> myths <pause dur="0.4"/> and legends of the gods and heroes around him <pause dur="0.9"/>

and i don't think he was the first one to do this but <pause dur="0.4"/> he was the one to get <trunc>i</trunc> get it named after him <pause dur="0.3"/> what he did was <pause dur="0.4"/> he thought of this interpretive <pause dur="0.4"/> system <pause dur="1.8"/> which he felt was desperately needed in order to explain <pause dur="0.6"/> a curious anomaly <pause dur="0.6"/> about myths of the gods and heroes <pause dur="0.5"/> and the curious anomaly was this <pause dur="0.8"/> that we are supposed to venerate the heroes and worship the gods <pause dur="1.0"/> which might suggest a certain amount of respect <pause dur="0.4"/> and yet their behaviour <pause dur="0.3"/> is very often deeply <pause dur="0.2"/> deeply immoral <pause dur="0.8"/> when judged by human standards <pause dur="0.9"/> and in fact <pause dur="0.3"/> # there have been a lot of people throughout history including Pythagoras and Plato <pause dur="0.8"/> who <pause dur="0.2"/> made perhaps what anthropologists would consider the terrible mistake <pause dur="0.3"/> of believing <pause dur="0.2"/> that a god <pause dur="0.2"/> necessarily has to be respectable by human terms <pause dur="0.5"/> the fact is <pause dur="0.2"/> many of the ancient myths that you should be coming across in your classical reading <pause dur="0.3"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>show that no such thing<shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> is the case <pause dur="0.3"/> and that perhaps ultimately an attempt <pause dur="0.5"/> by <pause dur="0.4"/> # a Greek worshipper <pause dur="0.5"/> of the Olympian gods <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> condemn <pause dur="0.4"/> Aphrodite goddess of love because she's an adulteress <pause dur="0.3"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> Ares <pause dur="0.2"/> god of war <pause dur="0.2"/> because he's a bully <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> totally

irrelevant and deeply impertinent not to say blasphemous <pause dur="1.1"/> if Aphrodite alias Venus sleeps around then she's doing what she does best <pause dur="0.3"/> this is what is in her nature to do <pause dur="0.7"/> and if a god and <pause dur="0.2"/> personification of war <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> isn't a violent aggressive bully then he's obviously sleeping on the job <pause dur="1.3"/> but this idea <pause dur="0.2"/> that gods <pause dur="0.2"/> personify the essence <pause dur="0.6"/> of universal phenomena <pause dur="0.4"/> is one way of looking at religion <pause dur="0.5"/> and the idea <pause dur="0.3"/> that God <pause dur="0.2"/> should not only <pause dur="0.2"/> demand <pause dur="0.2"/> high moral standards from his or her worshippers <pause dur="0.3"/> but also <pause dur="0.5"/> be a moral being <pause dur="1.1"/> himself or herself <pause dur="0.6"/> that is a very different idea <pause dur="0.2"/> and what we see <pause dur="0.3"/> with Judaism <pause dur="0.2"/> Christianity <pause dur="0.2"/> Islam <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> with a lot of high-minded pagan Greeks and Romans themselves <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> the clash of these two different ideas <pause dur="0.8"/> and so <pause dur="0.2"/> Euhemerus <pause dur="0.8"/> like others before and after him <pause dur="0.3"/> came up with the idea <pause dur="0.4"/> that the real truth was <pause dur="0.5"/> not so much about morality as about <pause dur="0.2"/> power <pause dur="1.7"/> that the originals of the pagan gods <pause dur="0.3"/> had not been gods <pause dur="0.3"/> but they had been human beings and on the whole <pause dur="0.2"/>

very badly behaved human beings who had behaved in very violent ways <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> that people had then <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> told legends about them or been forced by their power to worship them as if they were gods <pause dur="0.2"/> and that was how the story started <pause dur="0.3"/> Aphrodite for example <pause dur="0.2"/> had begun her career <pause dur="0.2"/> as a highly successful prostitute <pause dur="0.6"/> somehow <pause dur="0.2"/> it all makes a hideous amount of sense <pause dur="0.8"/> and so very often <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll find <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> stories and interpretations <pause dur="0.3"/> where <pause dur="0.2"/> people will go around to say well there must originally have been a human being <pause dur="0.4"/> who <pause dur="0.2"/> behaved in a particular way and then the stories got enlarged and distorted <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's how <pause dur="0.2"/> ideas about how Jupiter turned himself into a bull and raped Europa started <pause dur="0.2"/> something like that <pause dur="2.2"/> thus for example <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Actaeon a <pause dur="0.2"/> very popular figure <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> Renaissance poetry <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> a young man who went out hunting one day <pause dur="0.4"/> accidentally <pause dur="0.2"/> saw <pause dur="0.3"/> the goddess Diana <pause dur="0.3"/> bathing <pause dur="1.0"/> and was thereupon turned into a stag and torn to pieces by his own hounds <pause dur="0.4"/> can turn <pause dur="0.2"/> into a little moral story <pause dur="0.2"/> about a young man who was so <pause dur="0.9"/>

fond of hunting <pause dur="0.2"/> that he spent more on it than he could afford and his hounds <pause dur="0.2"/> to use <pause dur="0.2"/> a common metaphor <pause dur="0.2"/> ate him out of house and home <pause dur="2.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> something else that you'll come across and this is very useful indeed do keep your eye open for this in Spenser <pause dur="2.2"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="11"/> is pathetic fallacy <pause dur="8.3"/> a fallacy of course <pause dur="0.3"/> means something <pause dur="0.4"/> that isn't true <pause dur="1.2"/> and pathetic means to do <pause dur="0.2"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> feelings <pause dur="0.7"/> and pathetic fallacy <pause dur="0.2"/> is the convention <pause dur="0.2"/> whereby <pause dur="0.2"/> the weather <pause dur="0.3"/> the landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> the whole environment around you <pause dur="0.3"/> matches <pause dur="0.2"/> your mood <pause dur="2.0"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> in an <pause dur="0.2"/> allegory <pause dur="1.9"/> where <pause dur="0.3"/> # everything can be seen as symbolic <pause dur="0.6"/> pathetic fallacy can be very important indeed so watch for weather <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> note that in Spenser <pause dur="0.3"/> the weather is always there <pause dur="0.4"/> # in connection <pause dur="0.3"/> with <pause dur="0.3"/> # moral developments with some sort of # <pause dur="0.9"/> # turn or twist in the plot <pause dur="0.3"/> if he needs his characters to get lost in a wood it will rain <pause dur="0.4"/> otherwise it won't <pause dur="0.5"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> there's there's no sense of <pause dur="0.3"/> giving us the sort of naturalistic randomness <pause dur="0.3"/> of English weather <pause dur="0.3"/> that

you might get <pause dur="0.2"/> or expect to get <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> realistic plays poems or novels <pause dur="0.3"/> but there again <pause dur="0.2"/> how random is the weather <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> most English plays poems or novels anyway <pause dur="0.2"/> how <pause dur="0.2"/> random is the landscape i mean <pause dur="0.3"/> those of you <pause dur="0.2"/> who have read Thomas Hardy <pause dur="0.3"/> will know the way <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> he will construct landscapes that <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> illustrate and reflect the mood of his characters <pause dur="0.3"/> thus in Tess of the d'Urbervilles <pause dur="0.3"/> when our heroine <pause dur="0.3"/> is having <pause dur="0.2"/> a happy <pause dur="0.4"/> love affair <pause dur="0.3"/> she does it in a lush green landscape full of cows and flowers <pause dur="0.9"/> when <pause dur="0.2"/> she has been cast aside and is miserable <pause dur="0.2"/> she goes to a place with the wonderfully <pause dur="0.2"/> symbolic name <pause dur="0.2"/> of Flintcomb-Ash <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> everything is just <pause dur="0.3"/> debris <pause dur="0.3"/> hard <pause dur="0.2"/> sterile <pause dur="0.6"/> and # <pause dur="0.2"/> she has a very miserable hard job <pause dur="1.0"/> even that most ruthlessly <pause dur="0.2"/> realistic of writers <pause dur="0.2"/> Jane Austen <pause dur="0.2"/> will flirt with pathetic fallacy <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> notice the way <pause dur="0.2"/> that in Emma <pause dur="0.3"/> the weather <pause dur="0.3"/> always seems to subtly <pause dur="0.2"/> not only <pause dur="0.2"/> affect <pause dur="0.3"/> but reflect <pause dur="0.2"/> the mood of the characters <pause dur="2.9"/> and as i said all these things <pause dur="0.2"/> have to be thought of and

these are things that occur all over the place it isn't just something that Spenser does <pause dur="3.0"/> finally <pause dur="1.4"/> what are we going to do about symbolism <pause dur="1.2"/> symbolism is a is a word i think that many people find fraught with perils <pause dur="2.7"/> and again it's a word that will often crop up <pause dur="0.5"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> discussions of Renaissance poetry not just in Spenser <pause dur="1.2"/> let me see can i get can i get them all on <pause dur="3.1"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> probably not <pause dur="0.5"/> let's try again <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>s</trunc> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="6"/> now the point about symbolism is <pause dur="0.4"/> it's when something <pause dur="1.4"/> represents <pause dur="1.1"/> a part <pause dur="0.8"/> of a larger whole <pause dur="2.3"/> and probably <pause dur="0.3"/> # the best recognized symbol <pause dur="0.3"/> in our culture <pause dur="0.4"/> would be <pause dur="0.3"/> the cross <pause dur="0.3"/> which is both <pause dur="0.3"/> the cross upon which Christ was crucified and which also <pause dur="0.5"/> # represents <pause dur="0.3"/> Christianity <pause dur="0.2"/> right <pause dur="0.3"/> so something is <pause dur="0.2"/> symbolic <pause dur="0.6"/> when <pause dur="0.5"/> it has <pause dur="0.3"/> its own value <pause dur="0.3"/> but it also has other values that go beyond <pause dur="1.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> something that i want to <pause dur="0.4"/> impress on you very strongly <pause dur="0.3"/> is that <pause dur="0.3"/> all the things i've talked about so far <pause dur="0.5"/> from the most literal description <pause dur="0.2"/> to the most fanciful metaphor simile <pause dur="0.3"/> or personification <pause dur="0.3"/> can be symbolic <pause dur="0.3"/>

anything can be <trunc>sym</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> a symbol <pause dur="0.4"/> if it sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> goes beyond its own self <pause dur="0.3"/> if it <pause dur="0.2"/> links up with another meaning <pause dur="1.8"/> right in fact originally <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the symbol comes from the Greek word <pause dur="0.4"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> meant <pause dur="0.2"/> a tally <pause dur="0.8"/> where <pause dur="0.2"/> # if you <pause dur="0.2"/> if you owed somebody money <pause dur="0.9"/> and # was sending it to them and you wanted to make sure it went to the right person <pause dur="0.5"/> you sent the money along <pause dur="0.3"/> with half a stick <pause dur="1.0"/> and the person who was going to receive it had the other half of the stick <pause dur="1.6"/> and when the person arriving with the money <pause dur="0.2"/> handed it over to the other guy he would first test his stick to make sure that the <pause dur="0.3"/> that the <pause dur="0.2"/> broken bits of his stick <pause dur="0.3"/> fitted <pause dur="0.2"/> the broken bits of the other guy's stick <pause dur="0.3"/> and that was when the symbol <pause dur="0.2"/> came together <pause dur="1.1"/> so it is something which fits in <pause dur="0.4"/> makes a meaning <pause dur="0.2"/> with something else <pause dur="1.0"/> and it can be anything you like really <pause dur="0.5"/> i mean in drama it can even be a bit of scenery or a prop you know it doesn't have to be words <pause dur="1.7"/> right <pause dur="1.5"/>

now then <pause dur="2.0"/> now i can give you just a few examples from The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.9"/> of some of the things that i've been looking at <pause dur="0.5"/> and i would like to do that <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> so that <pause dur="0.2"/> i can just remind you <pause dur="0.2"/> it isn't just a question of looking up your lecture notes <pause dur="0.3"/> but that it's a <pause dur="0.2"/> a question of fine detail too <pause dur="0.4"/> because all the lecture notes do <pause dur="0.2"/> is give you the course outline <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> you know what <pause dur="0.2"/> tells what story <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> we want <pause dur="0.2"/> you also <pause dur="0.2"/> to be able to <pause dur="0.2"/> read in <pause dur="0.2"/> the detail <pause dur="0.3"/> for yourselves <pause dur="0.3"/> because if The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.2"/> were no more <pause dur="0.3"/> than what the useful lecture summaries make it <pause dur="0.3"/> it would neither have been worth writing <pause dur="0.5"/> nor reading <pause dur="0.7"/> it would not be on this syllabus <pause dur="1.3"/> so remember <pause dur="0.3"/> go for the details <pause dur="1.3"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> if i look at <pause dur="0.2"/> the first book of The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.6"/> i'm looking at canto two it really doesn't matter what i'm reading <pause dur="0.7"/> it really doesn't matter <pause dur="1.0"/> just listen to me <pause dur="1.4"/> i don't want paper rustling <pause dur="1.5"/> # here's a just an example of # literal description <pause dur="0.6"/> as we've seen already <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> you know of

Duessa <pause dur="0.2"/> <reading>a goodly lady clad in scarlot red <pause dur="0.3"/> purfled with gold and pearle of rich assay <pause dur="0.4"/> and</reading> <pause dur="0.2"/> oh <pause dur="0.3"/> tiny simile but not really just <reading>like a Persian mitre <pause dur="0.2"/> on her hed she wore <pause dur="0.2"/> with crownes and owches garnished <pause dur="0.2"/> the which her lauish louers to her gaue</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> so the fact that <pause dur="0.2"/> we're told <pause dur="0.2"/> on the literal level this lady had lavish lovers so we know she's no better than she should be <pause dur="0.2"/> right <pause dur="2.1"/> now <pause dur="0.6"/> when <pause dur="0.2"/> Redcrosse <pause dur="0.4"/> decides to fight <pause dur="0.2"/> her escort <pause dur="1.0"/> there's a simile <pause dur="0.9"/> Redcrosse <pause dur="0.5"/> and the escort <pause dur="0.2"/> are <pause dur="0.2"/> described <pause dur="0.2"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/> animals <pause dur="0.8"/> <reading>as when two rams <pause dur="0.2"/> stird with ambitious pride <pause dur="0.3"/> fight for the rule of the rich fleeced flocke <pause dur="0.3"/> their horned fronts so fierce on either side do meete <pause dur="0.3"/> that with the terrour of the shocke astonied both <pause dur="0.2"/> stand sencelesse as a blocke <pause dur="0.3"/> forgetfull <pause dur="0.2"/> of the hanging <pause dur="0.2"/> victory</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> in other words they're both rushing at it eyes shut <pause dur="0.2"/> heads down <pause dur="0.2"/> and you're meant to think not just oh yes aren't they like rams <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but also <pause dur="0.2"/> aren't they being stupid <pause dur="0.3"/> you

know <pause dur="0.2"/> literally bashing their heads together <pause dur="0.4"/> over this utterly worthless woman <pause dur="2.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> now in <pause dur="0.5"/> in the third book <pause dur="0.4"/> canto eleven <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a nice little <pause dur="0.2"/> simile here <pause dur="0.6"/> of <pause dur="0.4"/> the tapestry <pause dur="1.7"/> which <pause dur="0.3"/> we find <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> decorating <pause dur="0.7"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.7"/> chamber of Busyrane <pause dur="2.1"/> <reading>for round about the wals yclothed were with goodly <pause dur="0.2"/> arras</reading> <pause dur="0.2"/> and remember goodly here just means beautiful it doesn't imply <pause dur="0.3"/> any sort of moral worth <pause dur="0.2"/> <reading>goodly arras of great maiesty <pause dur="0.3"/> wouen with gold and silke so close and nere <pause dur="0.3"/> that the rich metall <pause dur="0.2"/> lurked <pause dur="0.3"/> priuily <pause dur="0.4"/> as feigning to be hid from enuious eye</reading> <pause dur="0.3"/> interesting personification of the metal there <pause dur="0.2"/> the gold is trying to <pause dur="0.3"/> lurk <pause dur="0.2"/> to hide away <pause dur="0.2"/> even the tapestry is sneaky <pause dur="0.8"/> <reading>yet here and there and euerywhere vnwares it shewd it selfe and shone <pause dur="0.3"/> vnwillingly <pause dur="0.2"/> like a discolourd snake <pause dur="0.4"/> whose hidden snares through the greene gras his long bright burnisht backe declares</reading> <pause dur="0.3"/> and notice there <pause dur="0.3"/> how suddenly <pause dur="0.2"/> the metal <pause dur="0.2"/> has turned into the snake it's like a snake it's coming alive <pause dur="0.2"/> it's treacherous it's going to get

you <pause dur="0.2"/> oh and notice too <pause dur="0.2"/> how brilliantly there <pause dur="0.2"/> Spenser has used the alexandrine <pause dur="0.5"/> you know the long <pause dur="0.3"/> final line of the stanza <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>through the greene gras his long bright burnisht backe declares</reading> <pause dur="1.7"/> so a nice usage there <pause dur="0.2"/> of imagery <pause dur="0.3"/> and of sound to get the effect <pause dur="1.1"/> and that's about <pause dur="0.3"/> creating atmosphere <pause dur="0.2"/> not just a one to one correspondence of something <pause dur="0.2"/> and this is what we want you to do <pause dur="0.2"/> look at atmosphere look for subtleties <pause dur="2.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and very often there might be an implied moral judgement too <pause dur="0.5"/> now the original ending of the third book of The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.5"/> # it's where Scudamour and Amoret come together <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>lightly he clipt her twixt his armes twaine <pause dur="0.3"/> and streightly did embrace her body bright <pause dur="0.3"/> her body <pause dur="0.2"/> late the prison of sad paine <pause dur="0.2"/> now the sweet lodge of loue and deare delight <pause dur="0.4"/> but she faire lady <pause dur="0.3"/> ouercommen quight of huge affection <pause dur="0.3"/> did in pleasure melt <pause dur="0.3"/> and in sweete rauishment <pause dur="0.3"/> pourd out her spright</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> and there might be a suggestion here <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> it might be all right because they

are actually married <pause dur="0.2"/> but is perhaps their love <pause dur="0.3"/> a <trunc>s</trunc> slightly <pause dur="0.2"/> excessive <pause dur="0.3"/> or is it just warning <pause dur="0.3"/> that love itself is a very powerful thing <pause dur="0.2"/> it can actually dissolve two human beings and turn them into one <pause dur="0.3"/> they go on to be compared to the hermaphrodite <pause dur="0.3"/> which could as i've showed you <trunc>l</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> last time i talked to you <pause dur="0.3"/> be a sign of the danger giving yourself up to excessive passion <pause dur="1.8"/> so it's reminding you how very powerful sexual attraction is <pause dur="1.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> here again <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a suggestion of <pause dur="0.5"/> judgement <pause dur="0.8"/> atmosphere <pause dur="0.3"/> in the description of how <pause dur="0.3"/> Florimell <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> runs away <pause dur="2.2"/> Florimell is frightened she's always running away <pause dur="0.3"/> # she's running towards <pause dur="0.2"/> the man she loves Marinell <pause dur="0.3"/> and away <pause dur="0.3"/> from every other man she sees <pause dur="0.2"/> # in the fear that he's going to attack her and mostly the poor thing is right <pause dur="1.1"/> so <pause dur="0.6"/> here she goes on one of her runs <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>like as an hynd forth singled from the heard <pause dur="0.3"/> that hath escaped from a rauenous beast <pause dur="0.3"/> yet flyes away of her owne feet affeard <pause dur="0.3"/> and euery leafe that shaketh with the least murmure of

winde <pause dur="0.3"/> her terror hath encreast <pause dur="0.3"/> so fled faire Florimell from her vaine <pause dur="0.3"/> feare <pause dur="0.5"/> long after she from perill was releast</reading> <pause dur="0.3"/> so she's being <trunc>compar</trunc> <sic corr="compared">cared</sic> <pause dur="0.3"/> to a panicking animal <pause dur="0.3"/> and then we're told <pause dur="0.2"/> hey it was vain <pause dur="0.2"/> there was nothing to run away from <pause dur="0.2"/> you should stop <pause dur="0.2"/> but no <pause dur="0.3"/> again <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> like the knights when they're fighting <pause dur="0.2"/> the girl when she's running away <pause dur="0.3"/> is like an animal she's out of control <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>each shade she saw <pause dur="0.2"/> and each noyse she did heare <pause dur="0.2"/> did seeme to be the same <pause dur="0.3"/> which she escapt whyleare <pause dur="0.7"/> all the same euening she in flying spent <pause dur="0.3"/> and all that night her course continewed <pause dur="0.3"/> <sic corr="ne">nor</sic> did she let dull sleepe once to relent nor wearinesse to slacke her hast <pause dur="0.5"/> but fled euer alike <pause dur="0.4"/> as if her former dred were hard behind <pause dur="0.4"/> were hard behind <pause dur="0.2"/> her readie to arrest <pause dur="0.5"/> and her white palfrey <pause dur="0.3"/> hauing conquered the maistring raines out of her weary wrest <pause dur="0.3"/> perforce her carried <pause dur="0.3"/> where euer he thought best</reading> <pause dur="0.4"/> so her palfrey her riding horse <pause dur="0.4"/> has # <pause dur="0.7"/> has # <pause dur="1.1"/> got away out of her control <pause dur="0.4"/> conquered the maistring reins

out of her weary wrest <pause dur="0.3"/> her wrist <pause dur="0.2"/> she cannot control her horse <pause dur="1.1"/> and again <pause dur="0.3"/> this is typical <pause dur="0.3"/> that Spenser will often show <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the accoutrements of a character <pause dur="0.3"/> the horse <pause dur="0.3"/> the armour <pause dur="0.2"/> the garments are telling you something about them <pause dur="0.3"/> and here <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> you know this <pause dur="0.2"/> horse <pause dur="0.3"/> which is <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> bolting <pause dur="0.8"/> is very much a picture <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> Florimell <pause dur="0.2"/> and in fact you could actually argue here <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> that perhaps you know # <pause dur="0.2"/> the vehicle <pause dur="0.3"/> # you know the girl <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> riding an out of control horse <pause dur="0.4"/> and the tenor <pause dur="0.2"/> which is to tell us about the girl's <pause dur="0.2"/> mindless <pause dur="0.3"/> terror <pause dur="0.5"/> we might in fact see that they were very slightly <pause dur="0.4"/> # in tension here <pause dur="0.2"/> in opposition in friction <pause dur="0.3"/> because if you're looking at that scene <pause dur="0.2"/> completely realistically <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the girl who's frightened of being raped <pause dur="0.3"/> not the horse <pause dur="0.3"/> and you might feel that after hours and hours and hours of galloping <pause dur="0.2"/> if the horse <pause dur="0.2"/> was actually able to gain control of the situation <pause dur="0.2"/> it would probably want to slow down <pause dur="0.5"/> not keep on galloping but there you are <pause dur="0.2"/> the horse here <pause dur="0.3"/> is being

used <pause dur="0.2"/> to express <pause dur="0.2"/> Florimell's out of control passions <pause dur="1.6"/> but just to remind you here <pause dur="0.4"/> that # <pause dur="0.4"/> this sort of <pause dur="0.6"/> simile this sort of comparing one thing with another background with mood <pause dur="0.4"/> goes on all the time <pause dur="0.4"/> i've got a nice little poem <pause dur="0.3"/> written in the twentieth century <pause dur="0.2"/> by Robert Frost <pause dur="0.3"/> called <pause dur="0.3"/> Birches <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> where <pause dur="0.2"/> he <pause dur="0.2"/> uses <pause dur="0.2"/> a very <pause dur="0.3"/> powerful <pause dur="0.2"/> simile <pause dur="0.2"/> to describe <pause dur="0.3"/> how <pause dur="0.2"/> wandering <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in a wood can be like <pause dur="0.3"/> living your life generally <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> where <pause dur="0.2"/> you are meant to stop and think and say oh yes <pause dur="0.2"/> this bit fits with this bit oh yeah and that bit fits with that bit <pause dur="1.1"/> # he doesn't kind of # <pause dur="0.4"/> dot all the <pause dur="0.3"/> Is or cross all the Ts for you <pause dur="1.9"/> <reading>it's when i'm weary of consideration <pause dur="0.7"/> and life is too much like a pathless wood <pause dur="0.5"/> where your face <pause dur="0.2"/> burns and tickles with the cobwebs broken across it <pause dur="1.0"/> and one eye is weeping from a twig's having lashed across it open <pause dur="1.1"/> i'd like to get away from Earth awhile and then <pause dur="0.3"/> come back to it and begin over</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> and he doesn't actually tell you in detail <pause dur="0.2"/> what it is that makes his life so <pause dur="0.8"/> hostile

sometimes but <pause dur="0.2"/> i think we can all think of ourselves <pause dur="0.5"/> have there been occasions when <pause dur="0.2"/> you feel your face has burned and tickled <pause dur="0.2"/> with a cobweb <pause dur="0.2"/> broken across it <pause dur="0.2"/> a cobweb <pause dur="0.3"/> in itself <pause dur="0.3"/> isn't <pause dur="0.3"/> a very strong <pause dur="0.3"/> barrier <pause dur="1.3"/> it's nothing <pause dur="0.7"/> but it can burn and tickle you <pause dur="0.2"/> it's the kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> little detail <pause dur="0.3"/> of your life <pause dur="0.3"/> that embarrasses you <pause dur="0.2"/> makes you blush oh God i wish i hadn't done that <pause dur="0.2"/> it isn't important but <pause dur="0.7"/> ooh it irritates ooh it irks <pause dur="0.8"/> and of course <reading>one eye is weeping from a twig's having lashed across it open</reading> well what <pause dur="0.3"/> vulnerability happened here what injustice <pause dur="0.2"/> what mistake did you make by leaving yourself open <pause dur="1.0"/> and he gives you the feeling <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of walking through a wood <pause dur="0.3"/> but you can <pause dur="0.4"/> relate it <pause dur="0.3"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> your own or imaginary life experiences <pause dur="2.3"/>

and again <pause dur="0.3"/> a few i'm going to give you a few examples now <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> # stories <pause dur="1.1"/> where you can find allegory working in <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>do</trunc> <pause dur="0.6"/> popular culture <pause dur="0.2"/> we are expected <pause dur="0.2"/> to be able <pause dur="0.2"/> to understand this <pause dur="0.9"/> and of course <pause dur="0.3"/> allegory itself <pause dur="0.2"/> is best understood as a <pause dur="0.2"/> continued <pause dur="0.2"/> metaphor <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> where <pause dur="0.2"/> one story is told <pause dur="0.3"/> and it has its own meaning but it also has <pause dur="0.2"/> another meaning <pause dur="0.3"/> or other meanings on top <pause dur="1.6"/> and # <pause dur="3.0"/><event desc="prepares video" iterated="y" dur="22"/> going to going to explore a few <pause dur="1.0"/> documents shall we say <pause dur="1.2"/> which have <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> which have allegorical significance <pause dur="2.8"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> right <pause dur="1.3"/> to start with then <pause dur="0.8"/> the climax <pause dur="2.0"/> the <trunc>c</trunc> i know let's turn this off <pause dur="0.5"/> the climax of <pause dur="1.5"/><event desc="turns off lights" iterated="n"/> book one <pause dur="0.4"/> of the The Faerie Queene <pause dur="1.9"/> is a fight </u><pause dur="7.9"/><event desc="starts video" n="nf0058" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="3:01"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"> and here <pause dur="0.9"/> we have <pause dur="1.0"/> the young knight <pause dur="16.1"/> the young knight is going out to battle evil <pause dur="9.9"/> he's going to face his most feared enemy <pause dur="5.3"/> and he's going to take his light sabre though he's been told to leave it

behind <pause dur="3.9"/> typical behaviour <pause dur="0.3"/> the knights are always getting too gung-ho in Spenser too <pause dur="12.1"/> oh did Spenser neglect to <trunc>ne</trunc> mention that the name of # Redcrosse's dwarf was R-two-D-two <pause dur="6.4"/> well well okay we've got into the dark cavern <pause dur="2.6"/> not unlike the Wood of Errour i think <pause dur="4.2"/> and he's about to encounter his worst nightmare <pause dur="9.7"/> he thinks it's the dragon but it's not the dragon <pause dur="3.2"/> interesting that the foe is so often seen as reptilian remember the serpent in Paradise <pause dur="11.6"/> here we are <pause dur="0.2"/> Darth Vader embodiment of evil <pause dur="1.4"/> or so we think <pause dur="8.2"/> <shift feature="loud" new="f"/>he was told to leave it at home <shift feature="loud" new="normal"/><pause dur="12.0"/> he thinks he's won <pause dur="18.8"/> oh-oh he's killed himself <pause dur="2.3"/> should have listened </u><pause dur="11.0"/><event desc="stops video" iterated="n"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"> right <pause dur="0.5"/> now i think we see here a lot of things happening <pause dur="0.5"/> which are very very like # <pause dur="0.7"/> Redcrosse's first encounter <pause dur="0.7"/> with Errour <pause dur="0.4"/> in the wood you know where # <pause dur="0.5"/> Una <pause dur="0.4"/> the goddess <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>y</trunc> you know the representation of truth <pause dur="0.8"/> says <pause dur="0.2"/> don't start <pause dur="0.2"/> don't tangle <pause dur="0.2"/> don't go in for it <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but you know

the young knight is so gung-ho <pause dur="0.3"/> he wants to show off <pause dur="0.4"/> he wants to show how absolutely <trunc>y</trunc> you know bloody marvellous he is <pause dur="0.6"/> and so he goes in and finds this monster <pause dur="1.4"/> and attacks this monster <pause dur="1.8"/> and of course <pause dur="0.9"/> it is his own mistake <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the reasons he gets so <pause dur="0.4"/> tangled up with Errour <pause dur="0.5"/> in canto one in the first place <pause dur="0.2"/> is that he doesn't have the wisdom to know <pause dur="0.3"/> that when the very embodiment of truth <pause dur="0.2"/> says <pause dur="0.2"/> leave it <pause dur="0.2"/> you should just leave it <pause dur="0.2"/> he's <pause dur="0.2"/> he's looking for extra adventures <pause dur="0.3"/> he isn't realizing that when God has sent you out on a mission <pause dur="0.3"/> you go for it and you don't stop and try anything fancy <pause dur="1.0"/> and of course <pause dur="0.4"/> # it is his own errors that he gets tangled up with <pause dur="0.7"/> now # one of the things that Yoda <pause dur="0.3"/> said <pause dur="0.3"/> which i think is very helpful to you <pause dur="0.2"/> always cling on to the sayings of Master Yoda <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> when <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> you know when Luke Skywalker wants to take his <pause dur="0.4"/> light sabre <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>y</trunc> Yoda says only take <pause dur="0.5"/> what you have with you <pause dur="0.5"/> and really it should be <pause dur="0.2"/> only take what you have in you because this is one of the golden

rules of allegory <pause dur="0.5"/> a lot of people <pause dur="0.2"/> moan <pause dur="0.4"/> that a lot of the <pause dur="0.3"/> characters <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> figures and personifications that you come across <pause dur="0.3"/> in an allegory <pause dur="0.3"/> are just flat <pause dur="0.3"/> two-dimensional <pause dur="0.2"/> figures <pause dur="0.2"/> don't say one-dimensional a one-dimensional figure would just be a spot <pause dur="0.3"/> it's <pause dur="0.3"/> the thing you should be accusing them of is being two-dimensional <pause dur="0.3"/> you know that they're they just <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> symbolize well <pause dur="0.2"/> like shall we say <pause dur="0.2"/> Sansfoy Sansloy <pause dur="0.2"/> and Sansjoy <pause dur="0.2"/> that they symbolize <pause dur="0.3"/> faithlessness <pause dur="0.2"/> lawlessness <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> joylessness <pause dur="1.3"/> and then they complain <pause dur="0.2"/> and they say well all these characters are so flat and boring you know <pause dur="0.3"/> that Redcrosse has a fight with one of these guys and wins and another guy and loses et cetera et cetera <pause dur="0.7"/> but the point is what you have to remember <pause dur="0.3"/> is that in an allegorical story <pause dur="0.5"/> everybody <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>h</trunc> <pause dur="0.6"/> the hero meets <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.5"/> what he has <pause dur="0.2"/> inside him <pause dur="0.9"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a way <pause dur="0.3"/> of creating <pause dur="0.2"/> a complex <pause dur="0.4"/> psychological figure <pause dur="1.4"/><event desc="prepares video" iterated="y" dur="5"/> # so perhaps it's better to think of allegory <pause dur="0.2"/> not just as just a no <pause dur="0.2"/> a vague <pause dur="0.2"/>

succession <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> flat <pause dur="0.2"/> characters </u><event desc="starts video" n="nf0058" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="1:05"/><pause dur="31.6"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"> <shift feature="loud" new="f"/>watch the reactions of the Princess <shift feature="loud" new="normal"/></u><pause dur="36.8"/><u who="nf0058" trans="pause"><event desc="stops video" iterated="n"/> that's another thing of course <pause dur="0.5"/> that Redcrosse has to learn <pause dur="1.7"/> originally <pause dur="0.2"/> we're told <pause dur="0.3"/> that # <pause dur="0.2"/> he was <pause dur="1.7"/> like Luke <pause dur="0.5"/> a farm boy <pause dur="0.4"/> after all saint he <trunc>wa</trunc> he does become Saint George and <pause dur="0.4"/> # you know <pause dur="0.2"/> George actually means in its root <pause dur="0.6"/> meaning <pause dur="0.2"/> a farmer <pause dur="1.9"/> that's why Virgil's Georgics are poems about <pause dur="0.2"/> farming <pause dur="1.9"/> and according to the background story Spenser gives to this all <pause dur="0.5"/> # you know for the whole story <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the Redcrosse knight <pause dur="0.2"/> turned up <pause dur="0.5"/> at <pause dur="0.4"/> the court <pause dur="1.0"/> of the Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.3"/> Gloriana <pause dur="1.0"/> looking all sort of rough and untrained <pause dur="0.4"/> and demanded as a boon <pause dur="0.2"/> the next quest that should turn up <pause dur="0.2"/> and the next quest <pause dur="0.3"/> was Una <pause dur="0.2"/> the beautiful princess in the black veil <pause dur="0.2"/> and the white dress <pause dur="0.2"/> who <pause dur="0.2"/> needed <pause dur="0.2"/> her parents rescuing from the scaly dragon <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> therefore <pause dur="0.2"/> Redcrosse is assigned <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> the job <pause dur="0.7"/> and this is quite an old story and in most versions of this story <pause dur="0.2"/> the princess is none too pleased <pause dur="0.3"/> when they actually send <pause dur="0.3"/> an <pause dur="0.3"/>

inexperienced <pause dur="0.3"/> # volunteer <pause dur="0.3"/> on this extremely dangerous and difficult quest <pause dur="0.2"/> but also in most <pause dur="0.2"/> versions of the story she <pause dur="0.2"/> she cheers up and marries him in the end <pause dur="0.5"/> but the important thing to remember is <pause dur="0.3"/> that Spenser's princess <pause dur="0.3"/> Una <pause dur="0.5"/> truth <pause dur="0.6"/> wisdom <pause dur="0.3"/> the true faith <pause dur="0.3"/> the Protestant <trunc>chu</trunc> Church <pause dur="0.3"/> chastity <pause dur="0.2"/> the right girl <pause dur="0.2"/> is all these things and should therefore <pause dur="0.3"/> be listened to <pause dur="0.3"/> when she gives a bit of advice <pause dur="2.3"/> now then <pause dur="0.4"/> let us see what else we have here <pause dur="1.2"/> we have now we're going to have another little <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> another <unclear>relative</unclear> complex engagement now <pause dur="0.5"/> between vehicle and tenor <pause dur="0.2"/> again i'm trying to drive home the idea <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> what the hero fights against <pause dur="0.3"/> will often tell you as much about the hero's <pause dur="0.3"/> character <pause dur="0.2"/> what he has to learn <pause dur="0.4"/> as <pause dur="0.2"/> the people who are actually on his side <pause dur="1.0"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> here again <pause dur="0.2"/> we've got a very <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> complex little situation <pause dur="0.4"/> where <pause dur="0.3"/> the hero <pause dur="0.4"/> is having <pause dur="0.3"/> to fight <pause dur="0.2"/> evil <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> himself <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="1.7"/> he manages to solve all the problems by working out that he is in fact a character in allegorical story <pause dur="0.5"/> something which would often be of enormous help to the guys in The Faerie Queene if they knew <pause dur="0.6"/> and that therefore <pause dur="0.3"/> the way <pause dur="0.3"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> defeat <pause dur="0.2"/> the embodiment of all evil <pause dur="0.3"/> is not to rush around trying to cut it into pieces with his light sabre <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> to give in <pause dur="0.2"/> and say no <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm a good guy i'm going to follow the path <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> moral sacrifice <pause dur="0.2"/> and i'm not going to do anything nasty at all <pause dur="0.8"/>

# <pause dur="0.2"/> a slight little crunch time then between vehicle and tenor because if that was a pure allegory <pause dur="0.3"/> then at that point the powers of # evil <pause dur="0.2"/> should just wither away of their own accord <pause dur="0.2"/> but because it isn't it's a bit mixed up <pause dur="0.2"/> he's then got to get his father to come in and <pause dur="0.2"/> start fighting his physical battle for him <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> and # you know <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> it might be <trunc>in</trunc> you know and <trunc>t</trunc> you might find it interesting to consider <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> where Spenser too <pause dur="0.2"/> might sometimes have little sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> vehicle-tenor clashes <event desc="prepares video" iterated="y" dur="1"/> let's see what happens </u><pause dur="8.2"/><event desc="starts video" n="nf0058" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="3"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"> oh sorry <trunc>we</trunc> <event desc="stops video" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/> # sorry wrong tape <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> get this right in a minute <pause dur="0.9"/> there will now be a short intermission <pause dur="3.0"/><event desc="changes video tape" iterated="y" dur="15"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> <vocal desc="click" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="0.8"/> ooh <pause dur="4.0"/> very sorry <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> right here we are <pause dur="0.6"/> Armageddon <pause dur="0.2"/> the ultimate battle between good and evil <pause dur="0.3"/> and slight confusion as to whether it should be fought <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> physical <pause dur="0.3"/> or <pause dur="0.3"/> moral terms </u><pause dur="8.4"/><event desc="starts video" n="nf0058" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="2:55"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"> you see the temptation here <pause dur="0.5"/> for Luke our young knight <pause dur="0.3"/> is to engage in physical battle <pause dur="2.2"/> just as so

often <pause dur="1.4"/> the knights in The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.2"/> are actually being <pause dur="0.2"/> tempted <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> dally with temptation <pause dur="0.3"/> and so often <pause dur="0.2"/> the correct solution will be to say well actually <pause dur="0.2"/> i don't want to fight today <pause dur="1.5"/> you know <pause dur="0.5"/> i'm just going to do what i'm supposed to do i'm not going to volunteer <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm not going to show off </u><pause dur="33.8"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"> and at this point </u><pause dur="1:05.3"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"><shift feature="voice" new="mimicking an other's voice"/> i don't want to grow up to be like daddy <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.2"/> <vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="7.3"/> he gets it right <pause dur="0.2"/> finally </u><pause dur="28.8"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"> so notice there <pause dur="0.2"/> the real trap <pause dur="0.4"/><event desc="stops video" iterated="n"/> was losing his temper <pause dur="0.5"/> and i think so often you'll find in # The Faerie Queene too <pause dur="0.4"/> that # <pause dur="0.2"/> Spenser takes a very dim view <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> those knights who feel <pause dur="0.2"/> that a problem can be solved just by swagging swaggering around <pause dur="0.6"/> being macho about it <pause dur="2.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and as i said since the whole thing you know in book one climaxes in a fight <pause dur="0.3"/> with a fire-breathing dragon <pause dur="0.8"/> # i thought again we might think about ways in which a fire-breathing dragon <pause dur="0.3"/> can <pause dur="0.2"/> represent <pause dur="0.3"/> can symbolize <pause dur="0.3"/> all sorts of evils <pause dur="0.3"/> but ultimately <pause dur="0.2"/> human evil <pause dur="0.2"/><event desc="prepares video" iterated="y" dur="2"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> if Adam and Eve hadn't fallen <pause dur="0.2"/> there wouldn't have been a

dragon <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so many dragons or other ghastlinesses are <event desc="starts video" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="2:09"/> products of human naughtiness </u><pause dur="16.0"/> <u who="nf0058" trans="pause"><shift feature="loud" new="f"/>good guy protected by the American constitution <shift feature="loud" new="normal"/></u><pause dur="1:50.5"/><u who="nf0058" trans="pause"><event desc="stops video" iterated="n"/> well there we are <pause dur="1.1"/> huge <pause dur="0.2"/> environmental havoc <pause dur="0.6"/> being <pause dur="0.2"/> wreaked there <pause dur="0.4"/> by a terrible monster <pause dur="0.3"/> but of course <pause dur="0.3"/> what people there are fighting <pause dur="0.4"/> is their own evil <pause dur="1.2"/> # because <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the film of Godzilla <pause dur="0.7"/> every film of Godzilla <pause dur="0.3"/> makes it very clear <pause dur="0.6"/> that the monster <pause dur="0.4"/> has been created <pause dur="0.5"/> by <pause dur="0.5"/> human <pause dur="0.2"/> aggression <pause dur="0.3"/> human greed <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> human evil <pause dur="0.3"/> because of course <pause dur="0.3"/> it was created <pause dur="0.3"/> by <pause dur="0.2"/> mutations <pause dur="0.5"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> the genes <pause dur="0.5"/> of its ancestors <pause dur="0.3"/> by <pause dur="0.3"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> were the result of nuclear fallout <pause dur="1.5"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> again <pause dur="0.2"/> man is facing his own evil and again the rule is always <pause dur="0.3"/> what you find in the cave <pause dur="0.4"/> is what you take <pause dur="0.2"/> with you <pause dur="0.4"/> there would have been no <pause dur="0.2"/> aggressive <pause dur="0.2"/> destructive Godzilla <pause dur="0.2"/> if there had been no <pause dur="0.2"/> aggressive <pause dur="0.2"/> destructive atom bombs <pause dur="2.7"/> other things to note <pause dur="0.4"/> # when you're <pause dur="0.2"/> you know searching through allegory <pause dur="0.2"/> is things that don't <pause dur="0.3"/> fit <pause dur="0.2"/> i've already suggested that there was

a slightly you know <pause dur="0.4"/> poor fit <pause dur="0.3"/> there <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> between <pause dur="0.2"/> the physical <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the moral <pause dur="0.2"/> battles <pause dur="0.5"/> # at # the end of Return of the Jedi <pause dur="1.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and sometimes you might find something <pause dur="0.3"/> that doesn't quite seem to make sense on one level <pause dur="0.3"/> or perhaps you know # <pause dur="0.3"/> raises questions that don't seem to get answered on that level <pause dur="0.3"/> that might need to be # <pause dur="0.5"/> answered on another <pause dur="1.2"/> also <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> you might sometimes find <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> some surprising <pause dur="0.6"/> changes <pause dur="0.3"/> between the value <pause dur="0.4"/> of a symbol <pause dur="0.7"/> or an object as it passes <pause dur="0.3"/> from <pause dur="0.2"/> literal <pause dur="0.3"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> allegorical <pause dur="1.0"/> meaning <pause dur="1.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> a good example of that i think <pause dur="1.0"/> is the cross itself <pause dur="0.3"/> and another one is pilgrimage <pause dur="0.6"/> because <pause dur="0.5"/> wearing of crosses <pause dur="0.2"/> was seen especially <pause dur="0.3"/> by <pause dur="0.2"/> the Puritans the really <pause dur="0.2"/> Low Church Protestants <pause dur="0.5"/> as an idolatrous <pause dur="0.2"/> practice <pause dur="0.3"/> an abuse <pause dur="0.2"/> and it was associated <pause dur="0.3"/> with Roman Catholicism <pause dur="0.4"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> High Church of <pause dur="0.4"/> England <pause dur="0.2"/> practice <pause dur="0.3"/> you have to remember at the time <pause dur="0.2"/> you couldn't just say <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="claps hands" iterated="n"/> Protestantism or <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="claps hands" iterated="n"/> Church of England because people were <pause dur="0.3"/> desperately moving the goalposts round and trying to decide

who was on the pitch and who wasn't <pause dur="0.3"/> or even which end people were playing <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> this was the time people were trying to make the rules <pause dur="2.0"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> # and so crosses are a problem because within <pause dur="0.5"/> the story <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> George's shield<pause dur="0.2"/> that bloody cross <pause dur="0.5"/> is clearly <pause dur="0.3"/> # a symbol <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> pure <pause dur="0.3"/> Christianity but there might have been one or two of Spenser's readers <pause dur="0.3"/> who wouldn't have felt too delighted <pause dur="0.2"/> at seeing somebody wearing <pause dur="0.3"/> # a cross quite so flashily in real life <pause dur="1.9"/> and in fact # some people even you know <trunc>tr</trunc> tried to say it <trunc>w</trunc> you know <trunc>w</trunc> <trunc>w</trunc> was trying to say you know that it was wrong to actually make the sign of the cross and again <pause dur="0.3"/> that is not <trunc>so</trunc> that is something that many many Low Church people <pause dur="0.2"/> abhor as a practice <pause dur="0.3"/> to this day <pause dur="0.3"/> they see it as idolatrous <pause dur="1.6"/> and another thing <pause dur="0.3"/> is pilgrimage <pause dur="0.9"/> because <pause dur="0.2"/> going on pilgrimages <pause dur="0.3"/> actually going <pause dur="0.3"/> to places <pause dur="0.4"/> like <pause dur="0.2"/> Compostella where <pause dur="0.2"/> Saint James preached the gospel <pause dur="0.6"/> or <pause dur="0.5"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> Jerusalem itself <pause dur="1.4"/> was seen by Roman Catholics <pause dur="1.1"/> and some High Anglicans <pause dur="0.3"/> as a virtuous

thing to do in itself the feeling you went there <trunc>the</trunc> these places were holy <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> you didn't actually go there to worship <pause dur="0.2"/> the place or or to worship anything at the place but <pause dur="0.7"/> the feeling was that it would inspire you <pause dur="0.8"/> with holy thoughts <pause dur="1.1"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> # again the Protestant and especially the Puritan take on this <pause dur="0.3"/> was that this was bad <pause dur="0.3"/> foolish <pause dur="0.3"/> and wasteful <pause dur="1.3"/> and yet we find Redcrosse himself <pause dur="0.3"/> goes on a pilgrimage <pause dur="0.7"/> and he goes to the Mount of Olives no less <pause dur="0.4"/> Olivet <pause dur="0.4"/> in Jerusalem <pause dur="0.4"/> which was <pause dur="0.3"/> where <pause dur="0.2"/> Jesus <pause dur="1.4"/> # sweated <pause dur="0.3"/> blood <pause dur="0.4"/> in his <pause dur="0.4"/> agony <pause dur="0.4"/> at the thought of the forthcoming trials he would have to bear <pause dur="0.3"/> if <pause dur="0.3"/> he consented <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the state of events that would <pause dur="0.2"/> ultimately lead to his cruxifiction <pause dur="0.3"/> this was where <pause dur="0.6"/> he <pause dur="0.3"/> stayed up <pause dur="0.2"/> all night in the garden <pause dur="0.3"/> and prayed <pause dur="0.3"/> to God <pause dur="1.3"/> saying <pause dur="1.2"/> let not this cup come to me take this from me i cannot stand it <pause dur="0.6"/> but then in the end said <pause dur="0.7"/> but if it has to happen <pause dur="0.4"/> thy will <pause dur="0.3"/> not mine be done <pause dur="0.3"/> and it is to that place <pause dur="0.3"/> that place of <pause dur="0.4"/> utter <pause dur="0.2"/> sacrifice <pause dur="0.8"/> that <pause dur="0.6"/> Redcrosse is brought <pause dur="0.3"/> but i think

the point you have to bear in mind there is <pause dur="0.4"/> that he isn't taken <pause dur="0.2"/> to the real Olivet <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> he is actually standing on the Mount of Contemplation <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> that what Spenser is saying <pause dur="0.3"/> is that this pilgrimage is all right <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="0.4"/> it's only spiritual <pause dur="0.5"/> it's all in <pause dur="0.2"/> the mind <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> it's as if <pause dur="0.3"/> pilgrimage itself could be seen <pause dur="0.3"/> as a type <pause dur="0.9"/> of which <pause dur="0.8"/> contemplation <pause dur="0.7"/> Christian consent <pause dur="0.3"/> to the will of God <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> the antitype <pause dur="0.5"/> so again <pause dur="0.3"/> it's all about what happens inside you <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the complexities are there <pause dur="0.7"/> the details are there <pause dur="0.3"/> the fine shades of character drawing are there <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> you must remember <pause dur="0.3"/> to look for them <pause dur="0.3"/> not just in the individual <pause dur="0.3"/> figures <pause dur="0.3"/> that are named <pause dur="0.2"/> Saint George or <pause dur="0.2"/> Una <pause dur="0.3"/> or Britomart or the rest <pause dur="0.3"/> but look at the way they interact <pause dur="0.2"/> with everybody else <pause dur="0.3"/> and that is how <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> two-dimensional cardboard <pause dur="0.4"/> figures <pause dur="0.3"/> are slotted together <pause dur="0.3"/> to form <pause dur="0.2"/> structures <pause dur="0.2"/> of great beauty <pause dur="0.2"/> and complexity <pause dur="0.3"/> but do remember <pause dur="0.3"/> that this is something <pause dur="0.3"/> that you have to do <pause dur="0.3"/> for yourselves <pause dur="0.3"/> thank you