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<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>Representations of Elizabeth I</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:53:45" n="7989">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>



<person id="nf0059" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="f"><p>nf0059, main speaker, non-student, female</p></person>

<person id="om0060" role="observer" n="o" sex="m"><p>om0060, observer, observer, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="m"><p>sl, all, medium group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="4"><p>number of speakers: 4</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">English</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG2</item>

<item n="module">Renaissance literature</item>




<u who="nf0059"> just to warn you that # <pause dur="1.0"/> # it's a slightly high-tech <pause dur="0.5"/> performance in that i intend to show slides <pause dur="0.5"/> and it's taken me most of the morning to get the slide projector room open # the chances of that actually appearing at the right moment <pause dur="0.5"/> is fairly slim so bear with me if there's some technical hitches <pause dur="0.3"/> also the Centre for Applied Language Studies is <pause dur="0.3"/> taping this lecture <pause dur="0.3"/> # simply to to to use for <pause dur="0.2"/> language <pause dur="0.2"/> study </u> <u who="om0060" trans="overlap"> language study yes </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0059" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.6"/> so # hence slightly more microphones than normal <pause dur="1.6"/> we're looking at representations of Elizabeth the First in this lecture <pause dur="0.5"/> # i've already touched on this on a number of occasions in relation to The Faerie Queene and other lecturers may have touched on it as <pause dur="0.4"/> as well <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> clearly for The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.6"/> Elizabeth the First is a crucial <pause dur="0.4"/> figure the whole poem <pause dur="0.5"/> # the title of the whole poem <pause dur="0.2"/> The Faerie Queene to some extent reflects on Elizabeth the poem is dedicated to Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> and she dominates the imagination <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> most courtly poets most poets <pause dur="0.3"/> writing <pause dur="0.3"/>

for <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # a middle class or courtly audience # in the period <pause dur="1.1"/> and what i'm going to try and do in this lecture <pause dur="0.3"/> is to some extent explore <pause dur="0.5"/> why that's the case <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> # some of the preoccupations her subjects <pause dur="0.4"/> # felt when they thought about Elizabeth # as a Queen some of the problems <pause dur="0.3"/> that she presented <pause dur="0.4"/> to # <pause dur="0.3"/> her country <pause dur="0.4"/> # # particularly the imagination of her country rather than the actual government <pause dur="0.3"/> of her country which seems to have been carried out <pause dur="0.4"/> # perfectly happily <pause dur="0.2"/> during the time that she was in charge <pause dur="0.9"/> # and i'll go on to look at <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> instances of her appearance in The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.4"/> and one or two instances of appearance <pause dur="0.2"/> in other poems so if you've got your # <pause dur="0.5"/> Renaissance anthology with you i'll refer to one or two poems there <pause dur="1.5"/> Elizabeth the First still dominates the imagination <pause dur="0.4"/> # not only i think of people in this country but probably abroad <pause dur="0.4"/> # i didn't get to see the David Starkey <pause dur="0.2"/> television series which i understand has just finished <pause dur="0.4"/> and i hope i don't contradict anything that

he <pause dur="0.3"/> # says but the fact that <pause dur="0.2"/> # a series of television programmes could have been devoted to <pause dur="0.3"/> Elizabeth in the late twentieth century <pause dur="0.4"/> # as well as a recent film some of you might have seen the recent film <pause dur="0.4"/> # # on Elizabeth the First <pause dur="0.4"/> # for the cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> # is again an indication of the kind of hold <pause dur="0.3"/> she's had <pause dur="0.3"/> on our imagination <pause dur="2.6"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> we tend to think nowadays # <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> government to being to a great extent <pause dur="0.5"/> dictated to glamorized by spin doctors <pause dur="0.3"/> but as i hope to show Elizabeth was no <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> # slouch in this area herself <pause dur="0.3"/> in the sixteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> # the government was <pause dur="0.2"/> fairly sophisticated at spinning <pause dur="0.2"/> Elizabeth and Elizabeth was fairly good at it <pause dur="0.3"/> herself <pause dur="0.3"/> so that the consciousness of image <pause dur="0.2"/> of how one appeared <pause dur="0.3"/> to the public at large <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> is evident <pause dur="0.2"/> throughout Elizabeth's reign and # to some extent our own fascination # this fascination with Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> in the in the following centuries including the twentieth century <pause dur="0.3"/> is a tribute to how successful <pause dur="0.2"/> she and her spin doctors <pause dur="0.3"/> were <pause dur="0.4"/> # when i say spin

doctors of course they weren't professional P-R <pause dur="0.2"/> people but <pause dur="0.3"/> they knew how to manipulate <pause dur="0.3"/> the public pretty effectively <pause dur="1.2"/> and we'll be looking <pause dur="0.3"/> at some of the ways in which they did this <pause dur="5.8"/> on the other hand i mean there's so that there's Elizabeth and her her ministers who are <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> thinking very carefully about Elizabeth's public image how she appeared not only to her own people <pause dur="0.3"/> and to those abroad <pause dur="0.4"/> but there's also <pause dur="0.3"/> a kind of two-way process <pause dur="0.2"/> here <pause dur="0.4"/> in that Elizabeth was the source of all patronage she was the source of power <pause dur="0.4"/> in the nation <pause dur="0.3"/> anybody who wanted power <pause dur="0.4"/> who wanted patronage <pause dur="0.3"/> through the court <pause dur="0.2"/> had to please Elizabeth so there's a two-way process <pause dur="0.3"/> # writers <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> those in search of <pause dur="0.4"/> # advancement at court are going to use a language <pause dur="0.3"/> going to talk about Elizabeth in a way <pause dur="0.2"/> that pleases her <pause dur="0.4"/> so that they are also contributing to the myth <pause dur="0.3"/> to the glamorization <pause dur="0.4"/> # of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.3"/> they know where their bread <pause dur="0.3"/> is buttered and # the language of courtliness is adept at pleasing Elizabeth

and we'll come back to this <pause dur="0.3"/> # a little bit later on in the lecture <pause dur="0.8"/> first of all just some some facts and and and basic <pause dur="0.5"/> aspects of Elizabeth as Queen <pause dur="0.8"/> she inherited the throne in fifteen-fifty-eight <pause dur="0.5"/> after # an extraordinarily <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.6"/> up and down series of reigns her father Henry the Eighth had died <pause dur="0.4"/> back in fifteen-forty-<pause dur="0.3"/>seven <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> leaving the throne to his son who was then under age and who died <pause dur="0.4"/> # not long afterwards <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Henry the Eighth had as you know <pause dur="0.4"/> begun the English Reformation he had broken away from <pause dur="0.3"/> the Roman Catholic Church and the papacy <pause dur="0.3"/> although <pause dur="0.3"/> the church under Henry the Eighth tended to be a fairly conservative <pause dur="0.4"/> # Roman Catholic-like <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> institution with Roman Catholic <pause dur="0.2"/> Catholic-like <pause dur="0.3"/> doctrine and <pause dur="0.2"/> forms of worship <pause dur="0.7"/> # Henry the Eighth's son was # dominated # by advisers who were much more <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Protestant in their views and the whole church moved <pause dur="0.3"/> towards a # what was thought of as a kind of extreme Protestantism <pause dur="0.3"/> during the few years of his reign <pause dur="0.6"/> no sooner had the

church been moved strongly towards Protestant doctrine and worship <pause dur="0.3"/> than # <pause dur="0.2"/> Edward died <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> Mary the First <pause dur="0.5"/> # Henry the Eighth's eldest daughter Mary the First came to the throne <pause dur="0.2"/> she was <pause dur="0.2"/> a a staunch Catholic deeply resented <pause dur="0.4"/> # her father's break from Rome <pause dur="0.5"/> which had been involved # which had had # <pause dur="0.5"/> been part of the <trunc>divo</trunc> his divorce from Mary's mother <pause dur="0.2"/> Catherine of Aragon <pause dur="0.4"/> and she moved the whole <pause dur="0.3"/> church England the church everything back towards <pause dur="0.2"/> a fairly extreme form of Catholicism <pause dur="0.5"/> # no sooner had she done this and burned a few <pause dur="0.3"/> # hundred <pause dur="0.3"/> # Protestants <pause dur="0.2"/> # than she too died <pause dur="0.8"/> so that through much of the middle years of the sixteenth century England had shifted every few years <pause dur="0.3"/> from an extreme form of Protestantism to a an extreme form of Catholicism <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> Elizabeth came to the throne in fifteen-fifty-eight <pause dur="0.4"/> # the younger daughter of Henry the Eighth <pause dur="0.4"/> # in normal <pause dur="0.3"/> # circumstances not someone who would be expected to inherit the throne at all <pause dur="0.3"/> and really an unknown quantity <pause dur="0.3"/> as far as

many of her subjects <pause dur="0.3"/> were concerned <pause dur="0.6"/> and the question of religion <pause dur="0.4"/> and the question of stability the stability of the kingdom as you can imagine was very much on people's minds is this woman going to be able <pause dur="0.5"/> to keep the the the the <pause dur="0.2"/> the throne stable what's she going to do about religion are we going to be shifted again <pause dur="0.3"/> into a whole series of switchback <pause dur="0.4"/> terms of policy <pause dur="1.2"/> not only <pause dur="0.3"/> was there <pause dur="0.3"/> an understandable anxiety about stability <pause dur="0.2"/> # and the future <pause dur="0.5"/> but the fact that it was another woman on the throne <pause dur="0.4"/> was a cause of deep concern <pause dur="0.4"/> to her subjects <pause dur="0.5"/> as i've already explained to you in previous lectures <pause dur="0.5"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> Elizabethan assumption <pause dur="0.2"/> of a God-given natural order and of course for them everything in the world was God-given <pause dur="0.3"/> it reflected divine providence <pause dur="0.3"/> and God in their view had designed the world with men in charge that's what <pause dur="0.3"/> men were made for <pause dur="0.2"/> and women were made to be subservient we've already looked at at quotations <pause dur="0.4"/> # where this assumption <pause dur="0.4"/> on <pause dur="0.2"/> # the part of most people men and women

of course <pause dur="0.3"/> in the period <pause dur="0.3"/> # is expressed <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the the the the God-given pattern of the world is a patriarchy <pause dur="0.4"/> and my goodness here's another woman in charge <pause dur="0.4"/> # we <trunc>f</trunc> they saw <trunc>h</trunc> what had happened when her sister had been in charge <pause dur="0.3"/> what on earth was this woman <pause dur="0.3"/> going to do <pause dur="0.4"/> and you get some of the sense of <pause dur="0.2"/> appalled <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # almost inconceivable response to having a woman in charge <pause dur="0.3"/> from the first extract on the sheets that you have <pause dur="1.0"/> if you just look at the handouts <pause dur="1.7"/> do you want one of these too <event desc="passes handout to observer" iterated="n"/></u><u who="om0060" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0059" trans="latching"> <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> it's a good bit of Scottish prose so # <pause dur="0.4"/> it's <pause dur="0.2"/> fun to look at <pause dur="0.5"/> this is <pause dur="0.2"/> from # <pause dur="0.2"/> a book <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> sorry my my handout <pause dur="0.4"/> isn't <pause dur="0.5"/> as clear as it should be <pause dur="0.4"/> # in fact extract A <pause dur="0.5"/> is from the book that's listed as <pause dur="0.2"/> B i'm sorry this is my <pause dur="0.5"/> hastily <pause dur="0.5"/> putting the B in the wrong place when i redid this handout this morning <pause dur="0.5"/> # so extract A is from <pause dur="0.3"/> The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women a very famous <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> book produced in fifteen-fifty-eight <pause dur="0.4"/> by <pause dur="0.3"/> the Scottish <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> reformer John Knox <pause dur="0.6"/> the first thing

to be said about this extract is it <pause dur="0.2"/> is one of the most unfortunately timed bit of writing <pause dur="0.4"/> in the history of print <pause dur="0.5"/> John Knox produced this about three months before Elizabeth <pause dur="0.3"/> came to the throne <pause dur="0.4"/> three months before her sister Mary the First died <pause dur="0.6"/> John Knox was an ardent <pause dur="0.4"/> Protestant an ardent reformer <pause dur="0.4"/> and the women he's attacking <pause dur="0.2"/> are the Catholic women <pause dur="0.3"/> on the throne <pause dur="0.4"/> the throne of France <pause dur="0.3"/> and the throne of Scotland Mary Queen of Scots <pause dur="0.3"/> and the throne of England Mary Tudor <pause dur="0.4"/> so that John Knox has his sights on Catholic queens <pause dur="0.3"/> who of course confirm all his prejudices <pause dur="0.2"/> about women on the throne <pause dur="0.5"/> had he known just three months later <pause dur="0.6"/> that Mary was going to die and the Protestant Elizabeth was going to come to the throne he would not have published this <pause dur="0.3"/> he spent <pause dur="0.2"/> the next twenty year of his life years of his life trying to apologize and undo this <pause dur="0.2"/> as far as Elizabeth was concerned but <trunc>adas</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> the damage was done and she would not allow him into her kingdom <pause dur="0.4"/> # let alone forgive him for

ever writing it <pause dur="0.9"/> i want to just pick up a couple of points a couple of moments from this # i won't read the whole thing <pause dur="0.3"/> but if you could look at the first paragraph where my marking in the margin begins and i'll just read that paragraph <pause dur="0.4"/> and the second paragraph <pause dur="1.7"/> <reading>who can denie</reading> says John Knox <pause dur="0.2"/> <reading>but it repugneth to nature <pause dur="0.5"/> that the blind shal be appointed to leade and conduct such as do see <pause dur="1.4"/> that the weake <pause dur="0.2"/> the sicke <pause dur="0.2"/> and impotent persones shall norishe and kepe the hole and strong <pause dur="0.7"/> and finallie that the foolishe <pause dur="0.2"/> madde <pause dur="0.3"/> and phrenetike <pause dur="0.4"/> shal gouerne the discrete <pause dur="0.4"/> and giue counsel to such as be sober of mind</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> can such things be thought of <trunc>i</trunc> it's it's nonsense to do such things <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>and such <pause dur="0.3"/> be al women <pause dur="0.3"/> compared unto man <pause dur="0.3"/> in bearing of authoritie</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> in other words the women <pause dur="0.3"/> are the weak <pause dur="0.6"/> the sick <pause dur="0.2"/> the impotent the foolish the mad and the frenetic <pause dur="0.4"/> and they are taking upon themselves to guide and to lead <pause dur="0.4"/> the whole <pause dur="0.3"/> the sound <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the strong <pause dur="0.3"/> # and the discreet so this is it's repugneth to nature it is against all conception that such things can happen <pause dur="0.4"/> but such it is to have women <pause dur="0.3"/> on the throne <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # on the throne <pause dur="0.3"/> # ruling over men <pause dur="0.7"/>

then he goes on <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>oh fearefull and terrible are thy iudgementes o Lord <pause dur="0.3"/> whiche thus hast abased man for his iniquitie <pause dur="0.8"/> i am assuredlie persuaded that if any of those men which illuminated onelie by the light of nature <pause dur="0.4"/> did see and pronounce causes sufficient <pause dur="0.3"/> why women oght not to beare rule <pause dur="0.3"/> nor authoritie <pause dur="0.5"/> shuld this day liue and see a woman <pause dur="0.2"/> sitting in iudgement <pause dur="0.4"/> or riding frome parliament in the middest of men <pause dur="0.4"/> hauing the royall crowne upon her head <pause dur="0.4"/> the sworde and sceptre borne before her <pause dur="0.4"/> in signe that the administration of iustice was in her power <pause dur="0.8"/> i am <trunc>sur</trunc> assuredlie persuaded i say <pause dur="0.4"/> that suche a <trunc>shi</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> sight <pause dur="0.3"/> shulde so astonishe <pause dur="0.2"/> men <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>th</trunc></reading> # advisers of the past <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>that they shuld iudge the hole worlde to be transformed <pause dur="0.3"/> into Amazones <pause dur="0.5"/> and suche a metamorphosis and change was made all of the men of that countrie <pause dur="0.4"/> as poetes do feyn <pause dur="0.2"/> was made of the companyons of Vlisses</reading> who were turned of course into beasts <reading><pause dur="0.7"/> or at least that albeit the owtwarde form

of men remained <pause dur="0.3"/> yet shuld they iudge that their hartes were changed <pause dur="0.3"/> frome the wisdome vnderstanding and courage of men <pause dur="0.4"/> to the foolishe fondnes <pause dur="0.2"/> and cowardise <pause dur="0.3"/> of women</reading> so here you see prejudice in its pure <pause dur="0.3"/> untainted form <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> one of the things i want you to <trunc>d</trunc> to just <pause dur="0.2"/> # draw your attention to <pause dur="1.1"/> # here <pause dur="0.3"/> is that <pause dur="0.5"/> for Knox <pause dur="0.6"/> to have a queen on the throne and remember he's talking about Catholic queens <pause dur="0.2"/> this was printed before Elizabeth came to the throne <pause dur="0.3"/> but nevertheless he sees this as as God's pattern in in a sense <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>i</trunc> he # to be to be # consistent he has to apply this to Elizabeth as well <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> he sees <pause dur="0.4"/> the imposition of a queen on the throne as a form of judgement by God <pause dur="0.5"/> and it indicates that if women are on the throne men are emasculated men are effeminate <pause dur="0.3"/> it is the punishment <pause dur="0.4"/> for effeminate men <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so that this sort of combination this sort of <pause dur="0.8"/> # thought process <pause dur="0.2"/> of an emasculating women or or sorry a masculine woman <pause dur="0.3"/> a woman in the role of men <pause dur="0.4"/> equals <pause dur="0.2"/> effeminate

<trunc>me</trunc> # effeminate men <pause dur="0.2"/> emasculated men <pause dur="0.4"/> is a thought process that we'll find over and over again in this period <pause dur="0.3"/> it the two go together <pause dur="0.3"/> and is one reason why <pause dur="0.2"/> there is such a fear <pause dur="0.4"/> of powerful women in the period <pause dur="0.2"/> it inevitably implies <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> powerlessness the impotence and the feminization <pause dur="0.4"/> of of women and you can see this working <pause dur="0.3"/> very clearly <pause dur="0.4"/> in John Knox's <pause dur="0.4"/> # passage <pause dur="1.8"/> # John Knox's <pause dur="0.2"/> First Blast of the Trumpet <pause dur="0.5"/> had to be answered he was an influential Protestant thinker <pause dur="0.4"/> and this # treatise got well circulated <pause dur="0.7"/> and he's answered and here i'm sorry i put the B in the wrong place and i haven't given you a reference for the second <pause dur="0.3"/> passage <pause dur="0.4"/> # at the bottom of your sheets <pause dur="0.5"/> this is a defence of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> published by someone called <pause dur="0.4"/> Bishop Aylmer i'll just write that on the board <pause dur="11.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="9"/> if you can <pause dur="0.5"/> read my writing A-Y-L-M-E-R <pause dur="0.3"/> Bishop Aylmer <pause dur="0.5"/> and this was <pause dur="0.3"/> commissioned or # approved certainly by <pause dur="0.4"/> # Elizabeth's government <pause dur="0.4"/> # but what's interesting <pause dur="1.2"/> is that # <pause dur="0.5"/> Aylmer who was #

writing with the approval of the English government <pause dur="0.5"/> even he is not exactly <pause dur="0.2"/> # forthright in his defence <pause dur="0.3"/> of women <pause dur="0.3"/> as rulers <pause dur="0.7"/> he says at one point in his text and here you have <pause dur="0.5"/> # Elizabethan print it's <trunc>bra</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> black letter print so it's a little bit difficult to make out i'll i'll read it carefully <pause dur="0.2"/> for you i'll just look at the first <pause dur="0.3"/> bit of it <pause dur="1.0"/> <reading>placeth he</reading> placeth God he he is God here <pause dur="0.6"/> Alymer writes <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>placeth he a woman <pause dur="0.3"/> weake in nature <pause dur="0.5"/> feable in bodie <pause dur="0.2"/> softe in courage <pause dur="0.3"/> vnskilfull in practise <pause dur="0.4"/> not terrible to the enemy <pause dur="0.5"/> no shilde to the frynde</reading> this is a defence of Elizabeth okay <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>no shilde to the frynde <pause dur="0.6"/> wel</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> and he has a bit of Latin <pause dur="0.8"/> he's quoting # he's he's paraphrasing what he he feels God's answer is God says <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>my strengthe then is moste perfight <pause dur="0.4"/> when you be moste weake <pause dur="0.5"/> if he</reading> if God <reading>ioyne to his strengthe <pause dur="0.5"/> she can not be weake <pause dur="0.5"/> if God put to his hande <pause dur="0.3"/> she can not be feable <pause dur="0.6"/> if God be with her <pause dur="0.4"/> who can stande against her</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/>

now this is the office defence of Elizabeth and it's saying right <pause dur="0.5"/> women are weak <pause dur="0.3"/> feeble <pause dur="0.2"/> unskilful <pause dur="0.2"/> not terrible to the enemy <pause dur="0.2"/> no shield <pause dur="0.3"/> to the friend <pause dur="0.2"/> true he says <pause dur="0.3"/> but that all goes to show how powerful God is if God puts a weak <pause dur="0.4"/> foolish <pause dur="0.2"/> woman on the throne <pause dur="0.4"/> then it's a sign of his power it's a sign that England <pause dur="0.2"/> is under the special protection <pause dur="0.4"/> of God <pause dur="0.3"/> it's all as it should be so that's the defence <pause dur="0.4"/> # you can see # that <pause dur="0.6"/> # Elizabeth was in # <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>c</trunc> a difficult position conceptually <pause dur="0.4"/> as far as her kingdom was concerned <pause dur="0.3"/> by simply being a woman in charge <pause dur="2.1"/> the problem of Elizabeth's gender was not merely a matter of hierarchy and power <pause dur="0.7"/> it also raised practical problems to do with marriage <pause dur="0.4"/> and heirs <pause dur="0.8"/> and of course both of them brought <trunc>po</trunc> # problems <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> Mary the First was a particularly awful example as far as English people were concerned <pause dur="0.3"/> in that she had married the King of Spain <pause dur="0.7"/> and indeed there's <pause dur="0.2"/> # much evidence in fact the one big rebellion of her reign <pause dur="0.5"/> # was as much a rebellion

against Spanish domination <pause dur="0.2"/> as it was against her religion <pause dur="0.7"/> <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> England greatly feared <pause dur="0.2"/> Spanish domination domination from a kingdom outside <pause dur="0.4"/> England <pause dur="0.4"/> so one of the problems would be that if <trunc>eng</trunc> if Elizabeth married a suitable <pause dur="0.5"/> # foreign suitor <pause dur="0.6"/> the danger was that she that England would come under the domination of a foreign nation <pause dur="0.4"/> and of course <pause dur="0.2"/> very possibly a Catholic <pause dur="0.2"/> nation <pause dur="0.4"/> Philip continued to be a suitor to Elizabeth after <pause dur="0.4"/> # Mary had died <pause dur="1.2"/> if she didn't marry <pause dur="0.3"/> a foreign <pause dur="0.4"/> # prince <pause dur="0.6"/> thus risking foreign domination of England <pause dur="0.5"/> then # <pause dur="0.3"/> she <pause dur="0.3"/> would have to marry a subject and that brought all sorts of problems with it as well <pause dur="0.3"/> since of course <pause dur="0.2"/> within a marriage <pause dur="0.2"/> the man <pause dur="0.2"/> was in charge <pause dur="0.2"/> the woman <pause dur="0.3"/> swore obedience <pause dur="0.2"/> to the husband <pause dur="0.3"/> if she married <pause dur="0.4"/> a <trunc>c</trunc> # # an Englishman then he would inevitably be below her in the hierarchy <pause dur="0.3"/> and this brought all sorts of problems as well as of course internal jealousies and divisions <pause dur="1.4"/> if she # <pause dur="0.2"/> did marry <pause dur="0.8"/> there were problems <pause dur="0.5"/> if she didn't marry <pause dur="0.2"/>

there were problems because she couldn't produce an heir <pause dur="0.8"/> and # <pause dur="0.2"/> England looking back <pause dur="0.2"/> to a period of <pause dur="0.5"/> instability in the mid-sixteenth century and even more to prolonged instability for over a hundred years in the previous century <pause dur="0.6"/> very much wanted an heir wanted the succession to be clear <pause dur="0.4"/> Elizabeth might be a woman but the hope was she would produce a male heir <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> in order to ensure the succession <pause dur="0.4"/> in the future <pause dur="1.4"/> however if Elizabeth # <pause dur="0.6"/> # were to have children there was always the danger of death <pause dur="0.2"/> in childbirth # women often died in childbirth <pause dur="0.3"/> # in this period so wherever you looked <pause dur="0.3"/> if she married if she didn't marry <pause dur="0.3"/> there were huge <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> problem <pause dur="1.2"/> problems <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> for <trunc>e</trunc> Elizabeth and her # <pause dur="0.7"/> # and and her subjects to worry about <pause dur="2.8"/> so Elizabeth is very aware her government is very aware that they have a certain amount of groundwork to cover in order to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # produce some faith in her # ability to lead the <trunc>co</trunc> the kingdom effectively <pause dur="0.6"/> we've seen how the <pause dur="0.2"/> government approved of Bishop

Aylmer's reply <pause dur="0.4"/> to # to Knox so that they're trying to <pause dur="0.4"/> fight <pause dur="0.4"/> the theological objections to her as a ruler on their own grounds <pause dur="1.8"/> Elizabeth <pause dur="0.2"/> at from the very beginning <pause dur="0.6"/> very carefully <pause dur="0.4"/> defines her own position <pause dur="0.5"/> in terms of sympathy to Protestantism <pause dur="0.3"/> without going to extremes she tries to occupy middle ground to some extent <pause dur="0.7"/> but to reassure <pause dur="0.4"/> her largely Protestant subjects at at the beginning of her reign <pause dur="0.3"/> that she is sympathetic that she's not going to go down the road of her sister <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # she is sympathetic to Protestantism <pause dur="0.3"/> and we can see the government <pause dur="0.4"/> don't know what <pause dur="0.5"/> creaking whether it will <pause dur="0.3"/> finally collapse but <pause dur="0.5"/> # let us hope not <pause dur="0.7"/> # we see the government <pause dur="0.2"/> being very careful about # <trunc>pr</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> projecting a public <pause dur="0.6"/> Protestant image of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.3"/> right from the very beginning <pause dur="0.5"/> # when she # rode through the city of London on her coronation procession <pause dur="0.4"/> there were a series of very carefully stage-managed public pageants <pause dur="0.4"/> to greet her <pause dur="0.5"/> and one of the # these public pageants consisted <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/>

Time <pause dur="0.5"/> Old Father Time with his scythe <pause dur="0.4"/> # and his beard <pause dur="0.2"/> bringing Truth <pause dur="0.3"/> out of a cave <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> Elizabeth <pause dur="0.2"/> had the pageant explained to her and she replied very publicly <pause dur="0.4"/> and her <trunc>n</trunc> words were carefully noted down for distribution in a broadsheet immediately afterwards <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>tyme quoth Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> and tyme hath brought me hether</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> and when Truth appeared <pause dur="0.3"/> holding of course the English Bible the Bible in English <pause dur="0.2"/> she took the Bible <pause dur="0.3"/> very carefully made sure everybody saw what she did <pause dur="0.4"/> and gave it a big kiss <pause dur="0.4"/> so that here you can see the public projection of Elizabeth as this kind of monarch <pause dur="0.4"/> most of her subjects certainly most of her London subjects <pause dur="0.3"/> wanted <pause dur="0.2"/> sympathetic <pause dur="0.3"/> to Protestantism <pause dur="0.3"/> and so to speak <pause dur="0.5"/> backed by the divine providence of God God had brought her now <pause dur="0.4"/> to produce peace <pause dur="0.3"/> and true religion in England <pause dur="2.4"/> Elizabeth <pause dur="0.2"/> throughout her reign <pause dur="0.2"/> proved a very adept <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> controller of her own image # and her own # performances <pause dur="0.3"/> and i just give you a couple of brief examples from her speeches <pause dur="0.3"/> which # <pause dur="1.8"/>

are likely to have been <trunc>re</trunc> # to have been written mostly by her she was obviously <pause dur="0.2"/> she was highly educated <pause dur="0.3"/> and certainly able <pause dur="0.3"/> to produce very effective speeches <pause dur="0.2"/> and there's no reason to feel <pause dur="0.2"/> that her speeches <pause dur="0.2"/> were written for her in fact we do have some <pause dur="0.3"/> evidence of annotation by her <pause dur="0.4"/> on # on them so there's every <pause dur="0.2"/> reason to think that she was largely responsible for her own speeches <pause dur="0.6"/> and i just draw your attention this is number C on your sheets <pause dur="0.5"/> to one that she gave <pause dur="0.6"/> in Parliament <pause dur="0.6"/> this is an early speech <pause dur="1.2"/> with Elizabeth replying to the constant <pause dur="0.4"/> pressure from her Parliament <pause dur="0.4"/> to get her to marry they became increasingly concerned about the fact there was no heir <pause dur="0.7"/> # thus <pause dur="0.3"/> calling into question the stability of the future <pause dur="0.5"/> you remember at this point in the fifteen-sixties that had Elizabeth died <pause dur="0.6"/> and after all her brother and sister died <pause dur="0.3"/> # fairly early on <pause dur="0.5"/> # had Elizabeth died the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots would have been the heir to the throne so that <pause dur="0.6"/> # ensuring <pause dur="0.2"/> the the

continuation of a Protestant <pause dur="0.4"/> dynasty was absolutely crucial <pause dur="0.4"/> to people in England especially her Parliament <pause dur="0.5"/> and you here see her here very deftly <pause dur="0.3"/> answering this in number C <pause dur="1.3"/> <reading>though i am determined in this so great and weighty a matter to defer mine answer till some other time <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>b</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> because i will not in so deep a matter wade with so shallow a wit</reading> <pause dur="0.4"/> this is in reply to their petition for her to marry <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>yet have i thought good to use these few words <pause dur="0.3"/> as well to show you that i am neither careless nor unmindful <pause dur="0.3"/> of your safety in this case <pause dur="0.5"/> as i trust you likewise do not forget <pause dur="0.3"/> that by me <pause dur="0.2"/> you were delivered <pause dur="0.3"/> whilst you were hanging on the bough ready to fall into the mud <pause dur="0.5"/> yet to be drowned in the dung <pause dur="0.5"/> neither yet do you forget the promise <pause dur="0.3"/> which you have here made concerning your duties and your obedience <pause dur="0.3"/> wherewith i assure you i mean to charge you <pause dur="0.6"/> as further to let you understand <pause dur="0.2"/> that i neither mislike of any of your requests herein <pause dur="0.3"/> nor the

great care that you seem to have of the surety <pause dur="0.3"/> and safety of yourselves in this matter <pause dur="0.9"/> lastly because i will discharge some restless heads <pause dur="0.3"/> in whose brains the needless hammers beat with vain judgement <pause dur="0.4"/> that i should mislike this their petition <pause dur="0.6"/> i say that of the matter and sum thereof i like and allow very well</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> the petition # just to remind you again was for her to marry <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>as to the circumstances if any be <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean upon further advice further to answer <pause dur="0.6"/> and so i assure you all <pause dur="0.4"/> that though after my death you may have many stepdames <pause dur="0.4"/> yet shall you never have a more natural mother <pause dur="0.3"/> than i mean to be unto you all</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> the syntax is difficult for us to follow now it's a sixteenth century syntax and it's a speech <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but i just want to draw your attention to the very deftness of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.5"/> she reminds them that <pause dur="0.2"/> really their safety depends on her <pause dur="0.3"/> that she has delivered them from a terrible situation <pause dur="0.3"/> you were hanging on the bough she says <pause dur="0.2"/>

ready to fall into the mud <pause dur="0.4"/> if i look away that's where you'll fall you depend on me she's reminding them <pause dur="0.3"/> of her power <pause dur="0.5"/> she also reminds them of her authority <pause dur="0.5"/> she says i will discharge some restless heads in whose brains the needless hammers beat with vain judgement <pause dur="0.4"/> she doesn't mince her words she disapproves <pause dur="0.3"/> of certain kind of tittle-tattle <pause dur="0.3"/> that's going about <pause dur="0.6"/> but she's so she behaves with the authority of a man here reminding them of their position <pause dur="0.2"/> reminding them of her authority <pause dur="0.5"/> but also she uses a language <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> female gender <pause dur="0.5"/> that you may have many stepdames she says but you will never have a more natural mother <pause dur="0.3"/> so this balancing of threat <pause dur="0.4"/> and assurance <pause dur="0.2"/> of a language <trunc>o</trunc> # gendered male and a language gendered female <pause dur="0.3"/> is very deftly done indeed <pause dur="1.1"/> her most <pause dur="0.4"/> famous example of this <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>mis</trunc> # this deployment <pause dur="0.2"/> of a a gendered male language but drawing on her female <pause dur="0.4"/> body in this # instance <pause dur="0.3"/> is in D the very famous speech <pause dur="0.2"/> that she is reputed to have given <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> at Tilbury <pause dur="0.3"/> as her troops <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> gathered together to defend <pause dur="0.3"/> # England against the Spanish Armada <pause dur="0.4"/> which was on the seas at this point <pause dur="0.4"/>

and she says # there in the military tamp camp at Milbury <pause dur="0.6"/> Tilbury sorry <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>i am come amongst you as you see at this time <pause dur="0.4"/> not for my recreation and disport <pause dur="0.4"/> but being resolved in the midst and heat of the battle <pause dur="0.3"/> to live or die amongst you <pause dur="0.4"/> to lay down for my God and for my kingdom and for my people <pause dur="0.3"/> my honour and my blood <pause dur="0.2"/> even in the dust <pause dur="0.6"/> i know i have the body but of a weak and feeble woman <pause dur="0.4"/> but i have the heart and stomach of a king <pause dur="0.3"/> and of a <trunc>kinglan</trunc> king of England too <pause dur="0.3"/> and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain <pause dur="0.3"/> or any of prince of Europe should dare invade <pause dur="0.2"/> the borders of my realm <pause dur="0.4"/> to which rather than any dishonour shall grow by me <pause dur="0.3"/> i myself will take up arms <pause dur="0.3"/> i myself will be your general <pause dur="0.3"/> judge <pause dur="0.3"/> and rewarder <pause dur="0.3"/> are every one <pause dur="0.2"/> of your virtues <pause dur="0.3"/> in this field</reading> so again <pause dur="0.3"/> # sort of # Shakespeare must have felt i wish i could have written that <pause dur="0.4"/> # as well it's a very fine <pause dur="0.2"/> speech playing on her femaleness <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> claiming that she will take on the character of a man <pause dur="0.2"/> and

indeed in many ways she already has <pause dur="0.2"/> the character of a man to withstand <pause dur="0.3"/> invasion <pause dur="0.2"/> from without <pause dur="6.6"/> what with the speech at Tilbury indeed both the speeches we've just looked at show how Elizabeth could play on different versions of herself <pause dur="0.8"/> representations of Elizabeth could shift between a number of possibilities <pause dur="0.7"/> at Tilbury <pause dur="0.3"/> the rhetoric of # male military courage <pause dur="1.4"/> Elizabeth playing on herself as the figurehead of an elect Protestant nation confronting the Catholic powers of darkness <pause dur="0.4"/> is exploited <pause dur="0.6"/> but she could also play on her weak and feeble body of a woman needing protection <pause dur="0.3"/> calling on the gallantry <pause dur="0.3"/> of those surrounding her <pause dur="1.3"/> as a woman too <pause dur="0.3"/> she could personify the virtues of England she could make of herself a <sic corr="kind">sind</sic> of <pause dur="0.3"/> personified <pause dur="0.2"/> figurehead <pause dur="0.4"/> for England <pause dur="0.9"/> Gloriana <pause dur="0.5"/> or an embodiment of truth <pause dur="0.4"/> or an embodiment of the true church as in the Cheapside pageant <pause dur="1.0"/> she could represent herself as a virgin wedded to her country <pause dur="0.4"/> or a natural mother to her country <pause dur="0.8"/> but the <trunc>s</trunc> at the same time

she never let her subjects forget <pause dur="0.3"/> that by inheritance <pause dur="0.2"/> she was God's providentially appointed <pause dur="0.2"/> monarch <pause dur="0.3"/> to whom everyone owed obedience <pause dur="0.7"/> and now if the slides work i just want to have a <pause dur="0.5"/> look at some of these <pause dur="1.3"/> just three images <pause dur="1.3"/> hopefully that will be <pause dur="0.4"/> dark enough <pause dur="0.2"/> and it will work <pause dur="7.6"/><event desc="trying to show slides" iterated="y" dur="9"/> ah <pause dur="0.9"/> sorry i think i've got to go and just switch it on please excuse me <pause dur="0.2"/> for a moment <pause dur="0.8"/><event desc="moves to slide room" iterated="y" dur="14"/> i suspect the machine's switched off </u><pause dur="21.6"/><kinesic desc="turns on projector showing slide" n="nf0059" iterated="n"/><event desc="returns to position" n="nf0059" iterated="y" dur="20"/> <u who="nf0059" trans="pause"> it's always a mistake to use slides i always do something like this <pause dur="0.5"/> hopefully it will work <pause dur="16.2"/><event desc="trying to show slides" iterated="y" dur="23"/> no <pause dur="0.3"/> now what am i doing wrong <pause dur="3.2"/> i can hear it working <pause dur="3.0"/> ah <pause dur="2.6"/> well i think i'll just let the slides # sit there <pause dur="0.5"/> # and just describe them to you # <pause dur="1.2"/> the the three images and some of you will be familiar with the images in fact what i have given you <pause dur="0.5"/> on the last bit of your handout <pause dur="0.7"/> is # an a series of books <pause dur="0.5"/> which talk about the image making of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> and the representations of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.7"/> and if i could just draw your attention to the last atem item on that list <pause dur="0.6"/> Roy Strong Gloriana <pause dur="0.4"/> the Portraits

of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> you will find <pause dur="0.5"/> nice illustrations of at least two of the pictures in fact all three of the pictures <pause dur="0.4"/> that # i would have shown to you <pause dur="1.1"/> the first one is the frontispiece of the official translation of the Bible <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the Bishop's Bible authorized by Elizabeth's government <pause dur="0.4"/> which has a a woodcut frontispiece <pause dur="0.4"/> and the frontispiece represents Elizabeth at the top of the page <pause dur="0.6"/> sitting in her throne actually with her hair <pause dur="0.4"/> down <pause dur="0.3"/> as an unmarried virgin <pause dur="0.5"/> handing out copies of the Bible <pause dur="0.4"/> to her clergy <pause dur="0.2"/> on either side <pause dur="0.4"/> so here we have a visual image of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> not only in charge <pause dur="0.4"/> but almost in a in a slightly <pause dur="0.8"/> # deified position as though she's the representative of God on Earth <pause dur="0.4"/> handing out the word of God <pause dur="0.3"/> to the male clergymen on either side so a very clear image <pause dur="0.3"/> of this providential <pause dur="0.5"/> Protestant <pause dur="0.3"/> divinely ordained aspect of Elizabeth <pause dur="1.6"/> the second portrait is a portrait called the Ermine portrait and i put these on the board for you <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> which is now at Hatfield House <pause dur="0.8"/> which is an

image of Elizabeth dressed very soberly in black <pause dur="0.9"/> and she sits at a table <pause dur="0.6"/> and there are two objects beside her <pause dur="0.5"/> emblematic objects telling us about the nature <pause dur="0.2"/> of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.3"/> she's a very <pause dur="0.4"/> she's dressed privately not in coronation robes <pause dur="0.3"/> privately <pause dur="0.3"/> but a very regal <pause dur="0.2"/> figure <pause dur="0.6"/> and the two objects at her side are a sword <pause dur="0.7"/> in its scabbard <pause dur="0.9"/> and a little ermine <pause dur="0.4"/> little you know one of these little ferret <pause dur="0.7"/> creatures a white ferret <pause dur="0.6"/> but it's an ermine it has <pause dur="0.2"/> flecks of black <pause dur="0.5"/> in it <pause dur="0.5"/> # i believe ermines actually have a just a black tail but this actually has <pause dur="0.2"/> flecks of black <pause dur="0.3"/> and little crown round its <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> its throat <pause dur="0.7"/> # the two images <pause dur="0.7"/> very much point to the two bodies if you like of Elizabeth and i'll come back to this idea in a moment <pause dur="0.7"/> Elizabeth's <pause dur="0.2"/> public monarchical self <pause dur="0.4"/> the the the sword in its scabbard it's there to be drawn if she needs it #<pause dur="0.3"/> the sword of justice <pause dur="0.6"/> and the ermine points to her purity as a woman <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the ermine was thought never to allow its coat to be dirty <pause dur="0.6"/> it would never allow

its coat to be soiled therefore it was a <pause dur="0.2"/> # commonly an image of <pause dur="0.2"/> virginity of chastity <pause dur="0.5"/> # so we have the two <pause dur="0.3"/> aspects of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> her female purity <pause dur="0.4"/> and her power <pause dur="0.5"/> beside her arm <pause dur="1.0"/> the third portrait and again you might like to look this up in # it's a very fine portrait some of you may know it <pause dur="0.3"/> it's in the National Portrait Gallery in London <pause dur="0.5"/> is the Ditchley portrait produced in fifteen-ninety-two <pause dur="1.1"/> and this is a fantastic image of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> as a huge goddess <trunc>fa</trunc> figure <pause dur="0.5"/> standing on England she actually stands in Oxfordshire she's standing on Oxfordshire <pause dur="0.4"/> and she soars hugely above her kingdom <pause dur="0.4"/> with her head <pause dur="0.4"/> in the clouds <pause dur="0.2"/> she's a goddess figure <pause dur="0.7"/> her <trunc>k</trunc> skirt <pause dur="0.2"/> she's dressed in white <pause dur="0.3"/> her skirt encompasses <pause dur="0.2"/> more or less the boundaries <pause dur="0.3"/> of England <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a sort of <pause dur="0.5"/> # <trunc>wan</trunc> if you want to be thoroughly misogynous she's <pause dur="0.3"/> got England firmly under her heel <pause dur="0.4"/> on the other hand the image is one of protection a skirt encompasses her kingdom <pause dur="0.7"/> and she looks towards the west and as she looks

towards the west the sun <pause dur="0.2"/> comes out in the skies <pause dur="0.6"/> and as she turns her back towards Catholic Europe <pause dur="0.8"/> there's thundering and lightning <pause dur="0.3"/> over <pause dur="0.3"/> Europe behind her so it's a wonderful <pause dur="0.4"/> political image <pause dur="0.2"/> of the power <pause dur="0.3"/> of Elizabeth of her personal <pause dur="0.3"/> role as protectoress of England <pause dur="0.4"/> and she is as much goddess <pause dur="0.2"/> as she is <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> human queen so those are the three images <pause dur="0.3"/> # one can see <pause dur="0.4"/> the this this <trunc>s</trunc> selling if you like the spinning of Elizabeth going on very much in the visual images <pause dur="2.3"/> i talked about the two bodies notion of Elizabeth # and i want to use that just <pause dur="0.2"/> to go on to think about <pause dur="0.3"/> the way The Faerie Queene Spenser uses <pause dur="0.3"/> Elizabeth <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the two bodies theory is an old legal theory # going right back to the Middle Ages about kings <pause dur="0.3"/> that is that one had a kind of public body <pause dur="0.4"/> a legal body as the representative <pause dur="0.2"/> of the kingdom as the king the legal king <pause dur="0.4"/> # or monarch <pause dur="0.3"/> of the <trunc>k</trunc> of the kingdom <pause dur="0.6"/> and that this legal body could be occupied by a private body individual kings would come and go <pause dur="0.4"/> but the

institution of kingship <pause dur="0.3"/> went on so you have the public <pause dur="0.5"/> monarchical aspect of the king <pause dur="0.3"/> which didn't always entirely fit with the private individual who was occupying <pause dur="0.4"/> that role at any one given time <pause dur="1.1"/> this notion of the <pause dur="0.3"/> in this case the Queen's two bodies the the body of the monarch and the body of the <pause dur="0.4"/> # of the Queen <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> is deployed in a number of ways in Elizabethan # <pause dur="0.2"/> literature it allows them to some extent to escape her <pause dur="0.3"/> female gender <pause dur="0.5"/> her role as monarch could be <pause dur="0.4"/> a role that transcended her gender it could be a role as king <pause dur="0.4"/> whereas her female <pause dur="0.3"/> private self <pause dur="0.5"/> was # protected if you lake if you like mythologized in her reign <pause dur="0.3"/> by this image of virginity <pause dur="0.2"/> this image of being a quasi-deity <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> a a beautiful <pause dur="0.2"/> young <pause dur="0.2"/> # young girl and of course she remained this beautiful young girl <pause dur="0.2"/> in rhetoric <pause dur="0.3"/> through most of her life <pause dur="2.3"/> Spenser draws on these two aspects of Elizabeth there's monarch and there's private person <pause dur="0.3"/> in that introduction that # <pause dur="0.2"/> dedicatory letter to Raleigh that we've looked

at on a couple of occasions <pause dur="0.5"/> just to remind you <pause dur="0.2"/> Spenser says <pause dur="0.3"/> in the letter to Raleigh <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>in that Faerie Queene i mean glory in my generall intention <pause dur="0.4"/> but in my particular <pause dur="0.2"/> i conceiue the most excellent and glorious person of our souereign the Queene <pause dur="0.3"/> and her kingdome in Faerie land <pause dur="0.7"/> and yet in some places else some places else <pause dur="0.3"/> i doe otherwise shadow her <pause dur="0.5"/> for considering she beareth two persons</reading> that's this two <trunc>i</trunc> # these two bodies of the <pause dur="0.2"/> the Queen <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>she <trunc>consid</trunc> for considering she beareth two persons <pause dur="0.4"/> the one of a most royall queene or empresse <pause dur="0.3"/> the other of a most vertuous and beautifull lady <pause dur="0.6"/> this latter part <pause dur="0.3"/> i doe express in Belphoebe</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> so Spenser works two <pause dur="0.2"/> at least two images of the Queen <pause dur="0.4"/> into his Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.3"/> the public <pause dur="0.3"/> monarchical Elizabeth Gloriana <pause dur="0.3"/> and the private <pause dur="0.3"/> beautiful <pause dur="0.2"/> chaste lady <pause dur="0.5"/> Belphoebe <pause dur="2.5"/> the Faerie Queene Gloriana figures as we've seen Elizabeth as monarch of England <pause dur="1.8"/> England is conceived of in The Faerie Queene as a kind of

promised land of Protestantism <pause dur="0.4"/> a land of exceptional blessings <pause dur="0.3"/> a magical fairyland indeed ruled over by its fairy Queen <pause dur="0.6"/> and Spenser in the very idea of The Faerie Queene manages to get this <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of extraterrestrial if you like this almost goddess-like element # that we <pause dur="0.2"/> can also see in other images of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.7"/> he describes her at the very beginning of book one <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll remember as a <reading>goddesse <pause dur="0.2"/> heauenly bright <pause dur="0.3"/> mirrour of grace and maiestie diuine <pause dur="0.3"/> great lady of the greatest isle <pause dur="0.3"/> whose light <pause dur="0.2"/> like Phoebus lampe throughout the world doth shine <pause dur="0.5"/> shed thy faire beames into my feeble eyne and raise my thoughts too humble <pause dur="0.3"/> and too vile</reading> <pause dur="0.4"/> so Elizabeth <pause dur="0.5"/> both as a kind of muse here a goddess figure <pause dur="0.3"/> but also as the embodiment <pause dur="0.2"/> the the the the very embodiment of her country <pause dur="0.3"/> a figure <pause dur="0.2"/> quasi-divine <pause dur="6.0"/> so <pause dur="0.8"/> there's these elements Spenser # these these recognizable elements <pause dur="0.2"/> Spenser figures in the figure of of of Gloriana in the poem <pause dur="0.4"/> but when you think about the actual

role of Gloriana i mean here we have <pause dur="0.7"/> obvious flattery of the Queen after all she was the patron she was the source of power <pause dur="0.3"/> Spenser was very dependent on her approval <pause dur="0.3"/> in everything he did especially in publication of The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.8"/> but when you think about the actual role of Gloriana in the poem <pause dur="0.3"/> you begin to see how Spenser even in the very act of praising Elizabeth <pause dur="0.5"/> can insinuate certain kinds of criticisms <pause dur="0.5"/> Gloriana never appears she doesn't do anything <pause dur="0.6"/> what she does <pause dur="0.3"/> is send out her male <pause dur="0.3"/> knights <pause dur="0.2"/> to fight her battles for her <pause dur="0.4"/> she authorizes them <pause dur="0.5"/> she gives them <trunc>po</trunc> she empowers them <pause dur="0.3"/> to go and conquer the world to <trunc>res</trunc> restore Protestantism to fight the dragons <pause dur="0.2"/> and the evil enchanters <pause dur="0.3"/> and so on and so forth it is the men who do the jobs <pause dur="0.4"/> # in <pause dur="0.2"/> The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.4"/> the one exception is book three but Britomart the knight of book three <pause dur="0.2"/> is not sent out by Elizabeth she's not an agent <pause dur="0.4"/> of Elizabeth she's an ancestress <pause dur="0.4"/> # sorry she's not an agent of Gloriana <pause dur="0.4"/> she's her her

role is as an ancestress she's not even <pause dur="0.3"/> a queen <pause dur="0.3"/> she's a an ancestress of Elizabeth <pause dur="1.2"/> so that <pause dur="0.2"/> Gloriana's role as defined by The Faerie Queene is one of empowering her male <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # executors if you like those who actually carry out <pause dur="0.3"/> the the her policy <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> had the last book of The Faerie Queene ever been written of rewarding them when they come back <pause dur="0.2"/> so her job <pause dur="0.2"/> is to empower and to reward <pause dur="0.5"/> Spenser is here possibly suggesting <pause dur="0.2"/> a role for Elizabeth <pause dur="0.3"/> that she didn't always fulfil <pause dur="1.7"/> one example <pause dur="0.5"/> of # <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> # her frustration # # her <pause dur="0.4"/> repeated frustration of those who did want to go out and conquer the world in her name <pause dur="0.3"/> to carry the Protestant fight <pause dur="0.3"/> to new worlds or back to the old <pause dur="0.2"/> # continental world <pause dur="0.6"/> is her relationship <pause dur="0.2"/> with one of her favourites <pause dur="0.2"/> Sir Walter Raleigh <pause dur="0.2"/> who was a patron <pause dur="0.4"/> of <trunc>e</trunc> of Spenser and whose story is <pause dur="0.2"/> worked into the story <pause dur="0.3"/> of The Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> her relationship with Raleigh could be repeated <pause dur="0.3"/> in her relationship with so many <pause dur="0.5"/> of her aristocrats especially in the

fifteen-eighties <pause dur="0.3"/> and fifteen-nineties <pause dur="0.9"/> Raleigh continually <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> suggested enterprises enterprises which would have taken him to the New World <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in order to <pause dur="0.6"/> colonize or to <pause dur="0.2"/> # rob <pause dur="0.4"/> the the the new world <pause dur="0.5"/> # like many of her other noblemen <pause dur="0.2"/> he continually wanted to be involved in expeditions <pause dur="0.4"/> against Catholic powers whether pirating on the high seas <pause dur="0.3"/> or actually armed <trunc>exibiti</trunc> <trunc>ex</trunc> expeditions <pause dur="0.3"/> to invade <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> parts of the # <pause dur="0.2"/> Catholic continent <pause dur="0.7"/> and continually <pause dur="0.3"/> Elizabeth <pause dur="0.5"/> called him back <pause dur="0.2"/> or would not empower him kept him at home <pause dur="0.4"/> in the court <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is characteristic of her dealing with a great many <pause dur="0.3"/> of her aristocratic <pause dur="0.3"/> noblemen <pause dur="1.3"/> in the end # she also tended to keep them # hanging as far as marriage was concerned she would often not approve <pause dur="0.3"/> of their marrying <pause dur="0.3"/> so they too <pause dur="0.2"/> found it difficult to ensure their dynasties <pause dur="0.3"/> to # to to get heirs <pause dur="0.3"/> # to carry forward their houses <pause dur="0.6"/> in the end Raleigh fell from power <pause dur="0.3"/> because he had to marry secretly in order to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>produ</trunc> <trunc>c</trunc> preserve his dynasty <pause dur="0.5"/> #

<trunc>a</trunc> and and continue his house he married secretly Elizabeth found out and threw him into prison <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> one of the poems that you have <pause dur="0.4"/> in your Renaissance Book of # of Verse <pause dur="0.4"/> number twenty-one on page one-o-two a long poem Ocean's Love to Cynthia <pause dur="0.6"/> is a poem written by Raleigh <pause dur="0.8"/> # as a sort of slightly incoherent it's a difficult poem to read <pause dur="0.2"/> probably deliberately incoherent to suggest the incoherence of his grief <pause dur="0.5"/> written by Elizabeth probably when he was in prison <pause dur="0.3"/> to complain about how she kept him dangling <pause dur="0.4"/> he had tried to serve her all through these years <pause dur="0.3"/> # and she kept him dangling <pause dur="0.5"/> # and just to draw your attention to one <pause dur="0.5"/> small <pause dur="0.2"/> # piece of this poem to illustrate lines sixty-one to sixty-eight <pause dur="0.2"/> this is page one-o-two <pause dur="0.2"/> of your anthology <pause dur="2.0"/> Raleigh says <pause dur="0.2"/> i kept on trying <reading>to seeke new worlds for golde for prayse for glory <pause dur="0.4"/> to try desire to try love severed farr <pause dur="0.6"/> when i was gonn</reading> he says <reading>she sent her memory <pause dur="0.3"/> more stronge than weare tenthowsand shipps of warr <pause dur="0.4"/> to

call mee back <pause dur="0.4"/> to leve great honors thought <pause dur="0.4"/> to leve my frinds my fortune my attempte <pause dur="0.3"/> to leve the purpose i so longe had sought <pause dur="0.3"/> and hold both cares and cumforts <pause dur="0.3"/> in contempt</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> he rather tactfully says it was her memory <pause dur="0.2"/> that she sent but more commonly it was a messenger <pause dur="0.4"/> who at times actually called him back when he was on the ship halfway down the Channel <pause dur="0.4"/> on a number of occasions he was called back ignominiously <pause dur="0.3"/> and not allowed to go on these <pause dur="0.3"/> glorifying expeditions to conquer <pause dur="0.4"/> new worlds <pause dur="0.3"/> and defeat the Spanish <pause dur="0.5"/> so that # <pause dur="1.4"/> in a sense we have an implied contrast here <pause dur="0.4"/> between Gloriana's enabling role <pause dur="0.4"/> and Elizabeth's <pause dur="0.2"/> frequent or # especially by the fifteen-eighties and fifties and nineties this perception <pause dur="0.3"/> of her constant frustration <pause dur="0.5"/> # of the ambitions <pause dur="0.3"/> of her aristocratic <pause dur="0.3"/> courtiers <pause dur="1.9"/> so perhaps ostensibly while celebrating Elizabeth here Spenser's poem may take discreet opportunities <pause dur="0.3"/> to provide her with a mirror <pause dur="0.4"/> of how the ideal female monarch <pause dur="0.3"/> ought to behave <pause dur="0.3"/> not

always coincident <pause dur="0.3"/> with how she does behave <pause dur="1.1"/> there are <trunc>m</trunc> other moments i think where we see discreet moments of criticism <pause dur="0.2"/> of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and particularly of Elizabeth's courts and the court culture <pause dur="0.4"/> this <pause dur="0.7"/> culture of adoration <pause dur="0.3"/> of Elizabeth that grew up <pause dur="0.5"/> # during the course of her reign <pause dur="0.4"/> we must remember that when Elizabeth when Spenser published Faerie Queene in fifteen-ninety <pause dur="0.3"/> Elizabeth was fifty years old she was well past childbearing age <pause dur="0.3"/> and she's getting on a bit especially in Elizabethan <pause dur="0.4"/> period <pause dur="0.4"/> but nevertheless this language of personal adoration of beauty <pause dur="0.3"/> of adoration of a a dazzling mistress <pause dur="0.4"/> continues to <pause dur="0.3"/> # dominate the language of the court <pause dur="0.5"/> and Spenser at a number of points <pause dur="0.6"/> # registers his disgust his objection <pause dur="0.3"/> with this courtly culture <pause dur="0.6"/> and perhaps one of those moments <pause dur="0.3"/> is in book one at a point we've already looked at the description of Lucifera's court <pause dur="0.7"/> and i've already pointed out that Lucifera described as a maiden queen a queen of pride <pause dur="0.3"/> sitting on her

throne <pause dur="0.6"/> is surrounded by a court that looks remarkably <pause dur="0.2"/> like the Elizabethan ones <pause dur="0.5"/> in which the courtiers have ruffs <pause dur="0.5"/> and curled hair <pause dur="0.5"/> and # carry on a language of spitefulness <pause dur="0.5"/> # there's more than a passing resemblance to the contemporary royal court there <pause dur="0.7"/> i'm not suggesting that Spenser's explicitly asking the Queen to compare herself to Lucifera <pause dur="0.6"/> but those i think with any sharpness would see <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> Spenser is not entirely uncritical admirer <pause dur="0.3"/> of the cult <pause dur="0.3"/> that surrounds Elizabeth <pause dur="0.9"/> another instance is at the very beginning of book three <pause dur="0.5"/> where we come across the court of Malecasta <pause dur="0.2"/> barred chastity <pause dur="0.5"/> obviously a a a a false figure a figure quite different from Elizabeth <pause dur="0.5"/> in some respects <pause dur="0.6"/> but this Malecasta rules her court by insisting <pause dur="0.4"/> that everybody worships only her <pause dur="0.6"/> if the knights approaching the course <pause dur="0.4"/> the court have a mistress of their own <pause dur="0.5"/> they have to fight <pause dur="0.3"/> with her defenders <pause dur="0.4"/> to show that <pause dur="0.2"/> their mistress is better <pause dur="0.3"/> than Malecasta <pause dur="0.7"/> if they are defeated then they have

to worship Malecasta <pause dur="0.3"/> if they win <pause dur="0.2"/> then they're still forced if they want a night's lodging to worship Malecasta it's a sort of no win <pause dur="0.3"/> situation <pause dur="0.4"/> and again Spenser i think is perhaps suggesting something wrong <pause dur="0.4"/> with the court of his Faerie Queene here <pause dur="0.3"/> which so emasculates <pause dur="0.2"/> so deprives men <pause dur="0.3"/> of their noble honour and courage <pause dur="0.3"/> in order to pursue this <trunc>effemini</trunc> <trunc>infe</trunc> effeminizing <pause dur="0.3"/> worship <pause dur="0.4"/> of the Queen <pause dur="1.9"/> # we saw just a glimpse # i think last week when we were looking at women's writing <pause dur="0.4"/> of # Elizabeth conducting this kind of courtly language <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> with <pause dur="0.4"/> again it was Sir Walter Raleigh <pause dur="0.4"/> # where Sir Walter Raleigh had written <pause dur="0.3"/> her a poem complaining of her treatment to him <pause dur="0.3"/> and she wrote back saying silly pug <pause dur="0.3"/> did you think i disapproved of you <pause dur="0.3"/> what a silly little clown <pause dur="0.3"/> you are and that demeaning language for one of the foremost <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> sort of male courtiers of the period must have been deeply humiliating # and one can see perhaps a reflection of this <pause dur="1.7"/> this

private Elizabeth this Elizabeth who was thought of as the kind of Petrarchan mistress <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> of all her courtiers <pause dur="0.5"/> # produced this language this this <pause dur="0.4"/> rhetoric indeed poetry of courtly love <pause dur="0.4"/> amongst many courtiers <pause dur="0.3"/> at Elizabeth's <pause dur="0.3"/> # <trunc>a</trunc> <trunc>a</trunc> <trunc>a</trunc> in her court <pause dur="0.4"/> and you can see examples in your anthology numbers eighteen and nineteen <pause dur="0.7"/> the Earl of Essex writing such a poem <pause dur="0.4"/> number thirty <pause dur="0.2"/> in your anthology <pause dur="0.4"/> many courtiers wrote this kind of language <pause dur="0.3"/> of adoration to Elizabeth a courtly love language <pause dur="0.3"/> of adoration to Elizabeth she positively encouraged it <pause dur="0.4"/> at her court <pause dur="1.0"/> and we see Spenser's perhaps rather sour <pause dur="0.5"/> assessment of the effects of this language <pause dur="0.4"/> through the other figure of Elizabeth in The Faerie Queene the figure of Belphoebe <pause dur="0.5"/> who appears in book three book two and book three <pause dur="0.4"/> of The Faerie Queene <pause dur="1.0"/> Belphoebe is a virgin <pause dur="0.3"/> who knows nothing of love <pause dur="0.6"/> but who inspires love <pause dur="0.4"/> in the figure of Timias <pause dur="0.3"/> a squire <pause dur="0.5"/> Timias' name means honour <pause dur="0.9"/> but once he has been infected by love of the beautiful <pause dur="0.2"/>

chaste Belphoebe <pause dur="0.5"/> Timias gives up his honourable calling he gives up his life as a squire <pause dur="0.6"/> and becomes <pause dur="0.2"/> completely enmeshed in his worship of <pause dur="0.4"/> Belphoebe <pause dur="0.6"/> Belphoebe knows nothing of this she does not recognize it she does not reward his love <pause dur="0.5"/> and gradually through the course of the narrative which goes on to book four of Faerie Queene <pause dur="0.5"/> Timias degenerates from a figure of honour <pause dur="0.4"/> to a kind of wild man in the woods unable to do anything except write sonnets <pause dur="0.2"/> to his mistress <pause dur="0.4"/> # which she takes no notice of <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> i think what Spenser is doing <pause dur="0.5"/> is exploring the destructive effect <pause dur="0.2"/> here <pause dur="0.5"/> # it has been suggested that what he's doing is to some extent reflecting the story of Sir Walter Raleigh in this story of Timias <pause dur="0.5"/> and Belphoebe <pause dur="0.3"/> and it may well be that there are echoes of that historical story <pause dur="0.2"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> the the # the the mythical one the fictional one that Spenser gives <pause dur="0.5"/> but i think the more general point is that Spenser is <pause dur="0.4"/> through this figure of Belphoebe and her effect <pause dur="0.2"/> on the

knight honour <pause dur="0.6"/> Timias <pause dur="0.6"/> # exploring the destructive effect of this cult <pause dur="0.2"/> of Elizabeth this cult of worship of Elizabeth <pause dur="0.7"/> which has as its corollary a kind of emasculating <pause dur="0.3"/> effeminating <pause dur="0.2"/> # effeminizing effect <pause dur="0.4"/> on <pause dur="0.3"/> the male courtiers <pause dur="0.2"/> # that surround her <pause dur="5.9"/> so from one point of view this narrative of Belphoebe is praising Elizabeth she's an exceptional figure exceptionally beautiful <pause dur="0.2"/> and certainly chaste <pause dur="0.7"/> but from another perspective the story <pause dur="0.4"/> can again be seen to give shape to a deep-seated masculine anxiety <pause dur="0.4"/> about the effects of a female monarch <pause dur="0.4"/> on the men around her <pause dur="0.8"/> simply by the fact of her gender <pause dur="0.3"/> unwittingly <pause dur="0.4"/> Belphoebe entraps Timias' <pause dur="0.2"/> honour <pause dur="0.6"/> leading him away from his questing masculine vocation <pause dur="0.4"/> to permanent enslavement as her adoring admirer <pause dur="1.1"/> neither Spenser nor Raleigh were for a minute taken in of course <pause dur="0.3"/> by the erotic rhetoric used of the Queen <pause dur="0.4"/> after all <pause dur="0.2"/> she is fifty <pause dur="0.2"/> at least fifty in fifteen-ninety <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and enslavement # the the the rhetoric was used <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> as a coded

language of courtly plying for favour <pause dur="0.4"/> # courtly patronage <pause dur="0.7"/> it was a a part of a courtly game of <trunc>comp</trunc> compliment of and dependence on <pause dur="0.3"/> royal favours <pause dur="1.7"/> but as this deadly serious courtly game of compliment <pause dur="0.4"/> could be and frequently was <pause dur="0.3"/> figured as erotic adoration of an ever <trunc>u</trunc> unattainable beautiful mistress <pause dur="0.5"/> so could royal disfavour and rejection <pause dur="0.4"/> be figured as the hopelessness of love for a cruel mistress and this is how it often was figured <pause dur="0.4"/> in the poetry <pause dur="0.9"/> it's a figurative way of speaking about patronage <pause dur="0.8"/> either way <pause dur="0.3"/> the effect on Elizabeth's courtiers and indeed more widely on her male subjects <pause dur="0.6"/> was perceived to be one of a cultivated dependence <pause dur="0.2"/> and subjection <pause dur="0.3"/> of the male by the female <pause dur="0.4"/> that could easily be seen as ignoble <pause dur="0.3"/> dishonourable <pause dur="0.3"/> and emasculating <pause dur="2.5"/> and here again i think we see surfacing that deep-seated fear of female power <pause dur="0.3"/> that we saw right at the beginning in the John Knox <pause dur="0.2"/> quotation <pause dur="0.4"/> in a completely <pause dur="0.4"/> unfictionalized way <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> sorry about the slides i don't know what happened <pause dur="1.2"/> # to those but you'll find the pictures as i say in the # Roy Strong book