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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>Essay writing and scholarly practice</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:46:07" n="7971">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>

<language id="de">German</language>



<person id="nm0061" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm0061, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="l"><p>ss, audience, large group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="l"><p>sl, all, large group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="3"><p>number of speakers: 3</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">English and Comparative Literary Studies</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>





<u who="nm0061"> lecture might be a rather grand title for what we'll do # today this perhaps will be <pause dur="0.2"/> a few tips <pause dur="0.6"/> perhaps pitched somewhere between # <pause dur="0.6"/> a pep talk and a little bit of the reading of the riot act <pause dur="0.5"/> but it's just to give you <pause dur="0.2"/> a sense a kind of bit of fine tuning <pause dur="0.3"/> for how you might <pause dur="0.2"/> think about the work <pause dur="0.2"/> that you present <pause dur="0.2"/> for us to read <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> for the degree <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>pec</trunc> # particularly as opposed to what you might have been doing <pause dur="0.3"/> for A-level there are sort of significant shifts you see <pause dur="0.4"/> so it's no bad thing early on to start thinking about the way things might change <pause dur="0.4"/> and the <pause dur="0.4"/> i will be talking with reference to this i may not actually quote it <pause dur="0.4"/> <kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> afterwards you will be able to read this through and see the connections with <pause dur="0.4"/> what i've been talking about <pause dur="0.9"/> now <pause dur="1.0"/> if you people were going off <pause dur="0.7"/> to study <pause dur="0.4"/> some other <pause dur="0.2"/> subjects around this institution <pause dur="0.4"/> perhaps in engineering or physics or somewhere <pause dur="0.9"/> someone <pause dur="0.2"/> might have the job of wising you up about safety rules <pause dur="0.4"/>

if you were dealing with <pause dur="0.3"/> expensive and dangerous equipment <pause dur="1.0"/> but actually of course <pause dur="0.2"/> you are the people <pause dur="0.6"/> who are working with the most expensive <pause dur="1.5"/> and the most dangerous <pause dur="0.6"/> the most delicate piece of equipment of anyone in the university <pause dur="0.7"/> because you are the people who are working <pause dur="0.3"/> with language <pause dur="1.3"/> that was a very expensive product <pause dur="0.8"/> and it can do a great deal <pause dur="0.4"/> of harm <pause dur="1.2"/> and part of your job as students of English <pause dur="0.6"/> is to be aware of that <pause dur="0.9"/> to be aware of your own use of language <pause dur="0.7"/> and of course to be critically aware of other people's use <pause dur="0.2"/> of language <pause dur="0.6"/> and of course we read <pause dur="0.7"/> what has come down to us traditionally as some of the great <pause dur="0.3"/> texts of <pause dur="0.2"/> of literature English and European and and American <pause dur="1.5"/> partly of course for their # intrinsic interest that <pause dur="0.2"/> that's the main thing <pause dur="0.4"/> but also because they are the most complex <pause dur="0.7"/> the most concentrated uses <pause dur="0.2"/> of the language <pause dur="0.6"/> and so your interest in the matter doesn't stop <pause dur="0.3"/> as it were <pause dur="0.3"/> at the text that we bound as literary <pause dur="1.1"/> from <trunc>th</trunc> those texts you were

learning to think about language perhaps in a much broader sense <pause dur="0.4"/> now i will be concerned <pause dur="0.2"/> today to think about your own use of language <pause dur="0.4"/> when you write <pause dur="0.5"/> most of your degree of course will be concerned with your <pause dur="0.3"/> critical and appreciative entry <pause dur="0.2"/> into other people's use <pause dur="0.3"/> of language <pause dur="0.3"/> but there is a <pause dur="0.3"/> an important traffic <pause dur="0.3"/> between them so that's really what we want to think about a little bit today <pause dur="0.3"/> how you yourselves use language <pause dur="0.3"/> in an academic <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> context <pause dur="0.6"/> now we're reading <pause dur="1.1"/> literature <pause dur="0.2"/> and looking at language in the latter part <pause dur="0.4"/> of the twentieth century <pause dur="1.2"/> and one of the things you will become increasingly <pause dur="0.2"/> aware of of course <pause dur="0.3"/> is that the activity <pause dur="0.3"/> of reading literature <pause dur="0.2"/> has itself been differently conceived just as the literature <pause dur="0.3"/> has <pause dur="0.6"/> been differently conceived <pause dur="0.3"/> at at different historical moments <pause dur="0.6"/> and perhaps one very broad <pause dur="0.3"/> # # <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> point of reference that we might put around this <pause dur="1.3"/> is that <pause dur="0.6"/> people often look back now to some <pause dur="0.5"/> period round the turn of the nineteenth into

the twentieth century <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> refer to something # # # called by the phrase linguistic turn <pause dur="0.2"/> a linguistic turn <pause dur="0.6"/> and i think what people have in mind by this <pause dur="0.9"/> is of course a big <pause dur="0.2"/> shift a big <pause dur="0.7"/> a big shift in the way of thinking <pause dur="0.2"/> about <pause dur="0.4"/> language <pause dur="0.8"/> and perhaps you might say in very crude terms <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> despite the complexity and variety of different ways in which <pause dur="0.3"/> human beings have thought about language <pause dur="0.5"/> right the way down till then <pause dur="0.6"/> they perhaps <pause dur="0.2"/> nonetheless stayed somewhat in the same view of language <pause dur="0.3"/> that we see Adam had <pause dur="0.3"/> in the garden of Eden <pause dur="0.6"/> it was God's job to create the world <pause dur="1.3"/> what was thought to distinguish the human traditionally was the possession of language <pause dur="0.6"/> and Adam in the garden <pause dur="0.5"/> gave the names to things <pause dur="0.4"/> okay so that is the the myth <pause dur="0.2"/> so he didn't create the world <pause dur="0.8"/> but he gave the world its names you see <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> what you might say perhaps <pause dur="0.2"/> happened as we entered into our phase of # of modern culture <pause dur="0.5"/> was the thought that <pause dur="0.9"/> it's not that the <trunc>wor</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> the world is <pause dur="0.3"/> out there

and we stick the labels on it <pause dur="0.8"/> it's actually the activity of naming <pause dur="0.4"/> that creates <pause dur="0.2"/> the world <pause dur="0.3"/> the world is there as existence <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's not there as world <pause dur="0.3"/> or as <pause dur="0.3"/> meaning <pause dur="0.5"/> in other words to put it in a physical image <pause dur="0.4"/> it's sometimes said that if a person blind from birth <pause dur="0.6"/> is suddenly given <pause dur="0.2"/> sight <pause dur="0.7"/> they don't wake up after the operation or the miracle <pause dur="1.0"/> just seeing the world that we see <pause dur="0.7"/> what they see is just a blur <pause dur="0.5"/> of colours <pause dur="0.5"/> because they have to learn to interpret <pause dur="0.4"/> you know # # what is in front of them <pause dur="0.6"/> in other words there's something out there all right <pause dur="0.4"/> but to put it together as world to distinguish one <pause dur="0.4"/> object from another <pause dur="0.2"/> this is actually an activity of language so there's an important sense <pause dur="0.3"/> in which <pause dur="0.3"/> language is prior to world <pause dur="0.6"/> that's what <pause dur="0.2"/> that's what's being <pause dur="0.3"/> thought about there <pause dur="0.3"/> and so all of our <pause dur="0.4"/> activities in looking critically at at language <pause dur="0.2"/> will tend to have <pause dur="0.2"/> that kind of consciousness <pause dur="0.4"/> in it <pause dur="0.5"/> that the whole world we live in as human beings and we're not <pause dur="0.3"/> we're thinking

even you could <pause dur="0.4"/> that is clearly true at the level of physical objects <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> it's obviously even more true at the level of cultural formations <pause dur="0.6"/> that these are products in some sense <pause dur="0.3"/> of language and your job is to be more and more <pause dur="0.3"/> critically <pause dur="0.2"/> aware <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # of all this <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> that's to put a very broad frame of reference let's sort of move in <pause dur="0.2"/> then a little bit more <pause dur="0.2"/> specifically by varying stages into our topic <pause dur="0.6"/> one thing that i think <pause dur="0.3"/> would be very useful for you <pause dur="0.8"/> would be to <pause dur="0.2"/> learn as it were to appreciate your language <pause dur="0.5"/> and the specificities perhaps of the English <pause dur="0.3"/> language now you're in a department of English <pause dur="0.4"/> and comparative literary studies <pause dur="1.0"/> some of you may be doing a purely English degree <pause dur="0.8"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> there would be available to you <pause dur="0.6"/> other languages <pause dur="0.5"/> and American <pause dur="0.6"/> English <pause dur="0.6"/> there are other traditions other kinds of language which you could also <pause dur="0.3"/> # you you know you could also take as options et cetera <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> remember that even if you're doing English <pause dur="0.3"/> there is <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>c</trunc> a comparative <pause dur="0.3"/> dimension

that helps you to give a focus on your own language <pause dur="0.3"/> it's taken <pause dur="0.3"/> a lot of English people <pause dur="0.7"/> a bit of a while to realize <pause dur="0.4"/> that it may not be entirely an advantage <pause dur="0.5"/> to have as your native language <pause dur="0.3"/> the world <pause dur="0.2"/> lingua <pause dur="0.3"/> franca <pause dur="0.2"/> very convenient for going everywhere and <pause dur="0.3"/> booking hotels and whatnot <pause dur="0.4"/> but it does tend to mean <pause dur="0.2"/> that the English are very often <pause dur="0.2"/> language blind <pause dur="0.4"/> they're not aware of language <pause dur="0.3"/> in the way that people <pause dur="0.2"/> learning the lingua franca from elsewhere <pause dur="0.3"/> # tend to be <pause dur="0.5"/> so internally to your studies <pause dur="0.3"/> in English <pause dur="0.3"/> it would be a good thing to develop something of that comparative <pause dur="0.4"/> awareness <pause dur="0.3"/> now even if you're doing English <pause dur="0.4"/> only <pause dur="2.4"/> there's another sense in which of course you acquire a comparative sense <pause dur="0.2"/> because you are reading the language historically <pause dur="0.6"/> so though you may not be reading American or German or or whatever it is <pause dur="0.3"/> you will be reading <pause dur="0.3"/> earlier forms of the same language <pause dur="1.2"/> and what you # <pause dur="0.2"/> would would find it very useful to do i think <pause dur="0.5"/> would be to always <pause dur="1.0"/> think of the language historically <pause dur="1.0"/>

if you are looking up # a word 'cause you're not sure how to spell it <pause dur="1.1"/> you should be curious not about how it's spelled <pause dur="0.5"/> but why <pause dur="0.2"/> it's spelled <pause dur="0.5"/> that way <pause dur="0.6"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> because that will be part of the history <pause dur="0.6"/> of the word <pause dur="0.4"/> you see <pause dur="0.4"/> so that # <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> there are words which <pause dur="0.4"/> change their meaning <pause dur="1.2"/> over the course of <pause dur="0.2"/> of of the centuries take a word like complacency <pause dur="0.7"/> that's about the worst sin that a modern person can be accused of is complacency <pause dur="0.9"/> and yet in the eighteenth century <pause dur="1.4"/> it <pause dur="0.6"/> referred to something that was <pause dur="0.2"/> # # highly approved <pause dur="0.7"/> a certain sense of <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>s</trunc> moral <pause dur="0.2"/> self-approval moral self-consciousness <pause dur="0.3"/> you see <pause dur="0.5"/> a complete <pause dur="0.5"/> change or the word <pause dur="0.2"/> sentimental <pause dur="0.2"/> you see which was one of the great terms <pause dur="0.2"/> of the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.2"/> everyone was rushing to be <pause dur="0.2"/> more sentimental than everyone else it was <trunc>competit</trunc> who could be most <pause dur="0.3"/> sentimental # now of course it's the very bottom of the pit you know to be <pause dur="0.4"/> to be sentimental and that's of course a term with a great importance <pause dur="0.3"/> for literary <pause dur="0.2"/> critical <pause dur="0.3"/> usage not

just in the text but in the way we <pause dur="0.3"/> we think about the text you see these things are changing <pause dur="0.3"/> or think of gothic <pause dur="0.8"/> and vandal <pause dur="0.4"/> they're really the same thing they're just the people who came and sacked Rome you know <pause dur="0.3"/> but the vandals we now think of as you know the the the urban nuisance <pause dur="0.3"/> the gothic has <pause dur="0.5"/> gone off on some other completely different <pause dur="0.4"/> track completely different set of meanings <pause dur="0.5"/> and so it's not a fixed thing if you want to know what the meaning of the gothic is <pause dur="0.2"/> you have to think of it <pause dur="0.6"/> historically see where it's come from and <trunc>h</trunc> # # # and and how it's been transformed <pause dur="0.6"/> and if it # just at the humble level of <pause dur="0.2"/> spelling <pause dur="0.4"/> you see you may wonder why # <pause dur="0.3"/> # people like me you know get sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> # itchy and worked up at # <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>s</trunc> sort of spelling mistakes and whatnot but <trunc>e</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> so if you <trunc>th</trunc> if you get people spelling <pause dur="0.6"/> the word separate <pause dur="0.7"/> as <distinct type="sampa">[sep3:reIt]</distinct> you see <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> what on earth is going on there <pause dur="0.2"/> <vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> it's made up of two Latin words there's <pause dur="0.2"/> section <pause dur="0.2"/> sec there's that bit of

it <pause dur="0.4"/> and then there's the par the parting the <unclear>part #</unclear> you see <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so if you spell it with an E you've completely lost its connection you know it's an etymological <pause dur="0.3"/> absurdity you've lost its connection with the <pause dur="0.2"/> the notion of parting you see that is that is that is built into the word <pause dur="0.4"/> so what it's signalling is not just <pause dur="0.3"/> a spelling mistake <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's a whole <pause dur="0.3"/> blankness as it were about the relation of that word to its own history and all the other words that it's <pause dur="0.2"/> it's moving along with <pause dur="0.4"/> and you couldn't plausibly <pause dur="0.2"/> you couldn't plausibly be a real reader of English poetry <pause dur="1.4"/> if you were sort of that word blind you see what i mean <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> what what i'm suggesting here is <trunc>n</trunc> that that that that spelling and and whatnot isn't just a matter of correctness <pause dur="0.7"/> it's a matter of understanding something about the nature <pause dur="0.4"/> of the language itself so if you have a good etymological dictionary <pause dur="0.7"/> and think of it in terms of roots and <pause dur="0.2"/> historical processes of of of all the words you pick up <pause dur="0.5"/> many of

them are very interesting <pause dur="0.2"/> just as little microhistories <pause dur="0.4"/> in themselves <pause dur="4.2"/> and of course that begins to <pause dur="0.2"/> to bring us round to # the question then of what actually we mean by correctness <pause dur="1.7"/> because <pause dur="0.5"/> obviously there will be a cadre of people here whose job it is to correct in some sense you know your # your essays <pause dur="0.4"/> including <pause dur="0.4"/> your use of English <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and it's as well to bring into focus a little bit what one might mean by <pause dur="0.3"/> correctness <pause dur="0.2"/> because i don't think that we do this quite in the spirit <pause dur="0.3"/> of disgusted Tunbridge Wells <pause dur="0.3"/> you know writing about the latest # <pause dur="0.3"/> # # linguistic solecism heard on the # # # on the B-B-C <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.5"/> because what i've been saying about language <pause dur="0.3"/> in the past <pause dur="0.5"/> must be going on <pause dur="0.3"/> in the present too <pause dur="0.5"/> language <pause dur="0.2"/> isn't <pause dur="0.3"/> fixed <pause dur="1.3"/> and so <pause dur="0.2"/> correctness very often <pause dur="0.5"/> is a kind of # <pause dur="0.4"/> you know nervous conservative tic you know that <trunc>g</trunc> a grid that people want to put over <pause dur="0.4"/> language when the whole nature of language <pause dur="0.3"/> is that it changes <pause dur="0.6"/> you see <pause dur="0.4"/> so the the thrust of what i would want to say to you <pause dur="0.4"/> here is

not so much <pause dur="0.2"/> that there is a kind of ideal correctness and our common job is to try to <pause dur="0.2"/> defend this you see against <pause dur="0.4"/> change in language <pause dur="0.5"/> what i'm saying rather <pause dur="0.2"/> is that the historical awareness of language that you might have <pause dur="0.3"/> reading things in the past <pause dur="0.4"/> should also be at work <pause dur="0.3"/> in the present you should be curious <pause dur="0.3"/> about <pause dur="0.2"/> what is happening to the language <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> in your day <pause dur="0.2"/> you see <pause dur="0.5"/> so we're not as it were what they call prescriptive <pause dur="0.2"/> grammarians you see we're not coming along <pause dur="0.3"/> with a notion derived largely from Latin grammar <pause dur="0.5"/> which of course is fixed 'cause it's a dead language <pause dur="0.7"/> but what people tried do and you know the grammar school and whatnot the whole force of this in our culture <pause dur="0.4"/> was to try to make English into a dead language <pause dur="0.5"/> but we're not in the business of making it into a dead language you know <pause dur="0.6"/> # but you can obviously all the you know all all all all the political trouble that in a sense that that you know that that would imply once you started to <pause dur="0.3"/> think about it of course in a

way we'd want it to be a living language <pause dur="0.3"/> but we want to see what's going on in the living language <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's things like # <pause dur="0.5"/> you know people of my age are likely to sort of twitch you know when they hear the word <pause dur="0.2"/> hopefully <pause dur="0.3"/> used as a kind of throat clearer <pause dur="0.2"/> at the beginning of the sentence you know <pause dur="0.2"/> hopefully we'll go <trunc>to</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> and all it means is # well we'll probably go you know <pause dur="0.3"/> on the other hand if you say <pause dur="0.7"/> we will travel hopefully <pause dur="0.7"/> i mean <pause dur="0.3"/> that means <trunc>w</trunc> <trunc>w</trunc> we are investing a very fundamental <pause dur="0.7"/> human emotion in this travel that we're going to do <pause dur="0.5"/> you know in other words <pause dur="0.2"/> the objection really to this kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> hopefully we'll do this and that and the other <pause dur="0.3"/> is that it somehow deadened <pause dur="0.7"/> the word when it's used in that <pause dur="0.3"/> context you know it it it's being its meaning <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> is being bracketed out <pause dur="0.2"/> but you can't say <pause dur="0.5"/> that it's not correct <pause dur="1.2"/> the we've got it really from American usage <pause dur="0.6"/> and i take it they've got it from German the Germans have always said <distinct lang="de">hoffentlich wir</distinct> <vocal desc="mumble" iterated="y" dur="1"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> they they use it as a sentence <pause dur="0.2"/> modified in that way you see <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/>

# you can't say it's incorrect <pause dur="0.5"/> but you could look at it and think and think about the nature of the usage you see <pause dur="0.3"/> or thinking about words like # <pause dur="0.8"/> disinterested <pause dur="0.9"/> and refute <pause dur="0.7"/> what's going on there <pause dur="0.6"/> you know there's all kinds of <pause dur="0.3"/> organized <pause dur="0.4"/> public debate we have about everything these days you know <pause dur="0.4"/> television and radio programmes and forums set up in universities and whatnot <pause dur="0.2"/> there's all a great <pause dur="0.5"/> # sort of you know activity of democracy but one has to <pause dur="0.2"/> at the same time look at the quality the nature the assumptions of it <pause dur="0.8"/> and of course what's happened to the word disinterested is <pause dur="0.6"/> itself of course very interesting <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> # that has come down to <pause dur="0.4"/> roughly our generation <pause dur="0.3"/> with a very important distinction between disinterested <pause dur="0.2"/> and uninterested <pause dur="0.4"/> disinterested as impartial <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> interested as you know <pause dur="0.2"/> taking an interest or perhaps having <pause dur="0.2"/> a certain <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> view on the outcome <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> we expect a judge <pause dur="0.3"/> to be disinterested <pause dur="0.6"/> we don't expect him to be uninterested reading his Beano or something you know while

the # <pause dur="0.4"/> while the the the talk is going on so there's a very important distinction there <pause dur="0.4"/> but we notice that it's collapsed <pause dur="0.9"/> that more people than not <pause dur="0.2"/> will use the word disinterested to mean <pause dur="0.4"/> uninterested <pause dur="0.9"/> does that tell us anything about the culture <pause dur="0.4"/> we're working in <pause dur="0.7"/> that the very notion the ideal of being disinterested <pause dur="0.2"/> of course in all kinds of ways is <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>i</trunc> is worth looking at closely culturally <pause dur="0.6"/> but yet it might still have a certain value as an ideal <pause dur="0.9"/> but rather than look at it <pause dur="0.2"/> critically as an ideal it seems just to be sort of disappearing from the usage you see <pause dur="0.3"/> similarly with the word refute <pause dur="0.7"/> you see because that's also concerned with <pause dur="0.5"/> public debate <pause dur="0.6"/> # to refute <pause dur="0.3"/> means to show the other argument to be erroneous <pause dur="0.2"/> it's to destroy the other argument it's a term from <pause dur="0.3"/> you know logical debate from the the the Middle Ages <pause dur="0.5"/> but it will be used now <pause dur="0.2"/> simply to mean someone got up and said they don't agree <pause dur="1.1"/> <trunc>suppo</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>y</trunc> she said this and then he got up and he refuted her

you see <pause dur="0.3"/> or he refuted what <unclear>she</unclear> well it <pause dur="0.3"/> all they mean is he got up and disagreed with her <pause dur="0.9"/> he contested what she said that's not <pause dur="0.3"/> what refute is <pause dur="0.2"/> so refute if you say someone refuted something <pause dur="0.3"/> you've actually exercised a judgement <pause dur="0.3"/> about the force of that argument <pause dur="0.4"/> against the other one <pause dur="0.4"/> you see <pause dur="0.3"/> but again <pause dur="0.3"/> that has rather disappeared <pause dur="0.3"/> from use <pause dur="0.4"/> and of course if you start looking at the way these <pause dur="0.4"/> television debates are staged and organized and whatnot one can see well <pause dur="0.3"/> that makes a certain amount of sense perhaps <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> that # <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> in a way it's the theatre that's more important than the you know the programme's more important <pause dur="0.3"/> than than than than than the outcome <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> these are ways in which you might # <pause dur="1.3"/> # think a little bit about the language changing in your own time <pause dur="0.6"/> see we're not really ultimately concerned <pause dur="0.2"/> what you decide about your own usage <pause dur="0.3"/> but we would like you <pause dur="0.3"/> to know the consequences the meaning of # # of what you're doing <pause dur="0.9"/> okay so that's a little bit about the notion

of correctness <pause dur="0.4"/> and the spirit of it okay <pause dur="0.7"/> now let's <pause dur="0.7"/> bring this home a little bit more to think about the practicalities of # of # of writing <pause dur="1.5"/> for academic purposes and this tends to fall into two broad categories doesn't it there's the exam answer <pause dur="0.9"/> and there's the essay <pause dur="1.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> very often when you're <pause dur="0.7"/> doing A-level <pause dur="0.5"/> the distinction isn't perhaps too important you know the you get the chance in an exam to put down about three written pages <pause dur="0.5"/> and lots of people can get their <pause dur="0.3"/> pretty much total sum you know of knowledge and reflection on this book <pause dur="0.3"/> you know into that page perhaps you know # # # at A-level <pause dur="0.4"/> but what you will certainly find when you're working at degree level <pause dur="0.2"/> is that you would never be able to fit in <pause dur="0.6"/> everything you've got to say <pause dur="1.0"/> and students are often very frustrated <pause dur="0.4"/> in their third year <pause dur="0.7"/> they put a lot of <pause dur="0.2"/> time and thought and there's all kinds of exciting things going on you know in the Shakespeare course and <pause dur="0.4"/> and then they've got a three hour exam <pause dur="0.5"/> and they can't you

know they they can't get it all in you see <pause dur="0.6"/> so what a little <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it's worth thinking a little bit at what the exam is actually trying to do <pause dur="0.6"/> and to distinguish that from what <pause dur="0.2"/> an essay <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> is trying to do <pause dur="0.4"/> and i think <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>o</trunc> <pause dur="0.9"/> what's lurking here of course <pause dur="0.3"/> is the <trunc>thi</trunc> is the point that you are doing <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> a very important <pause dur="0.7"/> and very real activity that many of you <pause dur="0.4"/> will go on in some form <pause dur="0.3"/> doing in the world afterwards <pause dur="0.9"/> but you're doing it under very artificial <pause dur="0.5"/> circumstances you're doing it to order on certain dates and suchlike so <pause dur="0.4"/> it's the relation between the reality of the activity <pause dur="0.3"/> and the artificiality which is <pause dur="0.5"/> part of the problem the artificiality is there for a purpose <pause dur="0.3"/> just as it there for a purpose in poems <pause dur="0.3"/> it produces <pause dur="0.3"/> a concentration <pause dur="0.3"/> that you wouldn't have <pause dur="0.2"/> you know without that as well as all the practical <pause dur="0.2"/> # reasons about you know doing something <pause dur="0.4"/> together and i think the way to think about exams is perhaps something rather like

this <pause dur="0.6"/> you tend to go into the exam very often thinking there's some <pause dur="0.6"/> ideal answer <pause dur="0.7"/> or that somehow you've got to pack into a few pages <pause dur="1.3"/> <trunc>w</trunc> what you might have put into <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>m</trunc> <trunc>m</trunc> <trunc>m</trunc> <trunc>m</trunc> many thousands of words in an assessed essay you know you're trying to get everything into this <pause dur="0.4"/> little pot you see <pause dur="0.3"/> now i think the way to think about <pause dur="0.5"/> exam answer is perhaps something <pause dur="0.3"/> # rather like this <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> when you go out into the world afterwards <pause dur="1.2"/> let's say you're # <pause dur="0.5"/> acting for a union <pause dur="0.7"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> you're a teacher <pause dur="0.6"/> you're a lawyer whatever kind of person you are <pause dur="0.3"/> who has <pause dur="0.4"/> a special skill <pause dur="0.7"/> a special body of knowledge enabling you <pause dur="0.7"/> to make informed judgements of things <pause dur="0.8"/> and people will come to you <pause dur="1.0"/> and they'll ask you questions <pause dur="1.2"/> and what they will want <pause dur="0.4"/> is a pretty economical <pause dur="0.3"/> but useful <pause dur="0.3"/> answer <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> is like a kind of iceberg you know there's a lot there that you know that you don't tell them <pause dur="0.9"/> but you <pause dur="0.3"/> organize that knowledge internally in such a way as to give them <pause dur="0.2"/> what they need from where they're coming from

whether it's a child in a classroom <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> or whoever it may be you see <pause dur="0.4"/> and if you think <pause dur="0.3"/> of the exam answer as a kind of practice in doing that <pause dur="0.8"/> and if you think that <pause dur="0.4"/> two or three pages of writing <pause dur="0.7"/> are not too different from a few minutes <pause dur="0.2"/> of speech <pause dur="0.7"/> you perhaps begin to get the feel <pause dur="0.4"/> of how an exam answer <pause dur="0.2"/> works it's not a test <pause dur="0.4"/> of your <pause dur="0.5"/> complete knowledge by putting it all out in the shop window <pause dur="1.0"/> it's a test more of your implicit grasp of the subject <pause dur="0.3"/> by the way in which <pause dur="0.2"/> you angle your knowledge <pause dur="0.2"/> towards the particular question <pause dur="0.5"/> that's been put there <pause dur="0.3"/> see what i mean <pause dur="0.3"/> and when it's in the flesh <pause dur="0.5"/> many of you would do it <pause dur="0.2"/> quite naturally <pause dur="0.6"/> you wouldn't think about it <pause dur="0.5"/> but when you're asked to do it under artificial circumstances <pause dur="0.3"/> you kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> put all that ability on one side <pause dur="0.6"/> and so you you forget you've got it you're looking for something else you see <pause dur="0.3"/> that's as artificial <pause dur="0.3"/> as the situation <pause dur="0.5"/> well i think it's probably true to say <pause dur="0.3"/> that the best exam answers <pause dur="0.6"/> come from the people

who deal that <trunc>d</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> you know answer them as it were most naturally <pause dur="0.7"/> you know who really do treat it <pause dur="0.2"/> as if it were a real question <pause dur="0.6"/> and get on giving it you know a real answer <pause dur="0.5"/> you know and that's what comes over with force <pause dur="0.3"/> and of course part of what you you you then register is that <pause dur="0.6"/> the thrust of your answer is should probably be there in the first paragraph <pause dur="1.3"/> and then there are more bits of <pause dur="1.2"/> possible confusions or counter-arguments or whatever that you need to unpack <pause dur="0.4"/> a little bit before you put it all back to bed again on the third page <pause dur="0.3"/> you know for your # # # for your conclusion <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's the <pause dur="0.2"/> simple thrust <pause dur="0.3"/> of an overall response to a complex question <pause dur="1.0"/> which communicates your awareness of the complexity <pause dur="0.2"/> but doesn't entirely necessarily <pause dur="0.2"/> go into it you see <pause dur="0.2"/> so that's a way of thinking perhaps about # <pause dur="0.4"/> # # exam answers <pause dur="0.3"/> and one of the best things you can do of course to practise for exams <pause dur="0.6"/> is to be <pause dur="0.4"/> as <pause dur="0.2"/> many of you will be <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> is to be active <pause dur="0.4"/> participants <pause dur="0.3"/> in seminars <pause dur="0.8"/> as

once you get into the way of # # # of using seminars as a kind of <pause dur="0.5"/> instrument this will give you a lot of useful training <pause dur="0.6"/> because we all sit in our heads <pause dur="0.4"/> understanding certain things <pause dur="0.6"/> and it's only when you start to <pause dur="0.2"/> say it or listen to other people <pause dur="0.3"/> you realize that they don't <pause dur="0.2"/> understand this or they understand you know <pause dur="0.7"/> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> in some totally different way <pause dur="0.7"/> and you begin to get the feel of what it is that you'd need to do <pause dur="0.5"/> to make what you've understood <pause dur="0.3"/> actually available to the whole group out there to sort of you know <pause dur="0.3"/> to objectify it to meet the various angles from which <pause dur="0.4"/> people might be looking on on ostensibly the same object <pause dur="0.4"/> so i think the kind of # <pause dur="0.4"/> tuning in that you need for for for for good examination <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> very largely a viva voce one <pause dur="0.4"/> and if you communicate that sense in the in in the answer <pause dur="0.3"/> that <trunc>a</trunc> as it were as if you were in a kind of debate but <pause dur="0.2"/> giving <unclear>your own</unclear> intervention as they say these days <pause dur="0.4"/> that that that's probably the thing that will come over well </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0061" trans="pause">

thinking about essays <pause dur="0.2"/> perhaps in some ways these are even more tricky <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="1.1"/> you invest more time in it <pause dur="1.0"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> essays are just about long enough by the time you're doing your second and third year essays you know for things if they're going to go wrong <pause dur="0.2"/> you know to go more <pause dur="0.4"/> seriously wrong <pause dur="0.7"/> so let's <pause dur="0.3"/> <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> think a little bit about # <pause dur="0.5"/> how you go about essays <pause dur="0.3"/> one thing of course <pause dur="0.7"/> is always the starting point that we've hung on to this word essay <pause dur="0.6"/> i mean we could call it <pause dur="0.2"/> something else <pause dur="0.9"/> but we do hang on to that <pause dur="0.2"/> word we don't call it a paper or something we call it an essay <pause dur="0.7"/> so it hangs on to this <pause dur="0.5"/> root meaning of an attempt <pause dur="0.5"/> having a go <pause dur="0.3"/> at something <pause dur="1.0"/> and of course that will be an important part of your <pause dur="0.7"/> education no one's expecting you <pause dur="1.1"/> to know all about you know the literatures <pause dur="0.2"/> you're reading <pause dur="0.2"/> you are actually in the act of discovering it <pause dur="0.8"/> and the act of discovery is not just the reading of the text <pause dur="0.5"/> but when you try to make sense <pause dur="0.3"/> of your <pause dur="0.4"/> response to that text <pause dur="0.4"/> very often it

starts as a kind of blur or a gut feeling about this and that <pause dur="0.4"/> and the discovery is very often a discovery of your own response <pause dur="0.6"/> so that the process of <pause dur="0.3"/> writing an essay <pause dur="0.3"/> you know is a process of discovering something <pause dur="0.5"/> you know # # about yourself really <pause dur="0.2"/> but of course in relation to the text it's a kind of dialogue between yourself <pause dur="0.4"/> and the text so hanging on to that <pause dur="0.6"/> notion of an attempt <pause dur="0.2"/> the essay is an attempt at something <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>o</trunc> # you know would be quite useful for for for tuning into <pause dur="0.3"/> # # <pause dur="0.4"/> what we're doing here <pause dur="0.9"/> # in the sciences for example <pause dur="0.7"/> when people are doing <pause dur="0.4"/> a PhD <pause dur="1.3"/> they will often refer to the process of what they call <pause dur="0.2"/> writing up <pause dur="0.7"/> are you <pause dur="0.2"/> writing up yet you know this this phrase goes around <unclear>it's going round</unclear> <pause dur="0.5"/> and of course that <pause dur="0.5"/> no doubt makes sense they spend about <pause dur="0.2"/> you know three years whatever it is <pause dur="0.3"/> getting all their <pause dur="0.4"/> # information in from their machines and in in their laboratory <pause dur="0.3"/> and then they have this bit at the end you know where they just <pause dur="0.3"/> write up <pause dur="0.2"/> you know what

the conclusions were <pause dur="0.4"/> you see <pause dur="0.4"/> well that of course would be a deeply misleading way to look <pause dur="0.6"/> at research or writing in English <pause dur="0.4"/> and it would be as misleading for undergraduates as it would be for <pause dur="0.3"/> PhD research students <pause dur="0.5"/> because they are actually <pause dur="0.4"/> doing their research as it were in the writing <pause dur="0.7"/> 'cause the research is partly <pause dur="0.4"/> into themselves <pause dur="0.5"/> you know and into their way of <pause dur="0.2"/> thinking about <pause dur="0.3"/> the topic <pause dur="0.5"/> 'cause i'll tell you one thing my friends <pause dur="0.3"/> in in the in the topic we work in in the subject of English <pause dur="0.5"/> answers are almost always banal <pause dur="0.5"/> and sort of useless and boring <pause dur="0.4"/> it's understanding the problem <pause dur="0.4"/> that's interesting <pause dur="0.4"/> so when you're doing essays <pause dur="0.2"/> don't feel driven <pause dur="0.4"/> to come up with some sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> you know a <pause dur="0.5"/> conclusion that puts it all to bed you know 'cause usually that that will actually be sort of rather <pause dur="0.3"/> tedious and was already there <pause dur="0.5"/> what actually <pause dur="0.3"/> gets the reader going is if you read something that opens up for you <pause dur="0.2"/> the complexity the difficulty the ambivalence the moving around you

know of the <pause dur="0.3"/> of of of what's going on in the text that you're looking at <pause dur="0.4"/> so don't feel necessarily driven <pause dur="0.5"/> by <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>a</trunc> as it were a need to have a Q-E-D at the end <pause dur="0.5"/> much more interesting <pause dur="0.2"/> to find out what the problems are <pause dur="0.2"/> but to now understand clearly what they are <pause dur="0.7"/> not just to know well it's # you know it's difficult it's problematic <pause dur="0.2"/> but actually to be able to identify <pause dur="0.3"/> why and how it is so <pause dur="0.2"/> that's what will usually give the # # the life <pause dur="0.5"/> to your essay <pause dur="1.7"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> now the other thing that you need to keep a <pause dur="1.1"/> # a careful eye on is the question as well of time management <pause dur="0.5"/> when you're writing essays <pause dur="0.6"/> we have a policy in the department <pause dur="0.9"/> of giving you at the beginning of your second and third year <pause dur="0.2"/> posted up <pause dur="0.2"/> on the board <pause dur="0.6"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> dates for all <pause dur="0.2"/> assessed essays that come in over the year <pause dur="0.9"/> sometimes they may be a bit bunched together <pause dur="0.7"/> that doesn't mean that you all have to sit down <pause dur="0.6"/> on the same week and write those essays <pause dur="0.3"/> individually <pause dur="0.2"/> personally <pause dur="0.2"/> you plan your own schedule <pause dur="0.2"/> to see which essays you want to do <pause dur="0.2"/> first

the point is they <pause dur="0.4"/> you may have three essays coming in within a week of each other <pause dur="0.4"/> it doesn't mean they have to be written <pause dur="0.3"/> within a week of each other <pause dur="0.6"/> now one of the ground rules of all this for all of us <pause dur="0.4"/> is that no one gets more time <pause dur="0.7"/> you know you've got your three-score years and ten as it were of your biblical allotment <pause dur="0.3"/> but you've got twenty-four hours a day you've got sixty <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # you know # # # minutes in the hour you can't change that <pause dur="1.2"/> but some people <pause dur="0.3"/> are better <pause dur="0.5"/> at making the time work better for them <pause dur="0.6"/> to work a bit more <pause dur="0.3"/> on their side <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and one tip <pause dur="0.3"/> might be for example <pause dur="1.6"/> # if someone asks me to give a talk in a year or so's time i may not really know what i'm going to say <pause dur="1.2"/> # but i will have somewhere or other you know in my anatomy a kind of gut <trunc>f</trunc> feeling or something that that <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah i'll i'll come up you know <pause dur="0.2"/> you know i'll sort of think about that over the year <pause dur="0.7"/> and i may not have time to think about it <pause dur="0.9"/> but i could put a little file on one side <pause dur="1.2"/> and while i'm going about my other

business whether it's teaching or watching the telly or going shopping whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> all kinds of thoughts flit through your mind <pause dur="0.5"/> and if you've established a certain theme <pause dur="0.3"/> that you've put <pause dur="0.7"/> on the back <pause dur="0.3"/> burner there <pause dur="0.7"/> it will in fact attract things to it <pause dur="0.5"/> so that things that would have passed through your head and out the other side while you were reading <pause dur="0.3"/> you know something unrelated <pause dur="0.6"/> those things that would have been lost <pause dur="0.8"/> can actually sort of collect <pause dur="0.2"/> gradually <pause dur="0.3"/> around this and your theme can sort of <pause dur="0.6"/> build up <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and so that's why we give you these things at the beginning of the year <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> so that you can plan the timing of your essay but also <pause dur="0.5"/> that you can start <pause dur="0.2"/> thinking about them <pause dur="0.4"/> rather than grab at the last minute <pause dur="0.3"/> a topic <pause dur="0.3"/> that you've got to you know give in in <pause dur="0.4"/> two weeks' time or whatever it is <pause dur="0.3"/> if you try to go into each course <pause dur="0.4"/> with an author <pause dur="0.9"/> a theme <pause dur="0.3"/> a question <pause dur="0.2"/> something or other that you think <pause dur="0.2"/> will be your point of interest you know what you're really

interested in <pause dur="0.4"/> if you identify that at the beginning of the year <pause dur="0.7"/> you'd be quite surprised how often <pause dur="0.3"/> the conversation in seminars and lectures and whatever <pause dur="0.2"/> might just sort of cross over <pause dur="0.3"/> that theme in a way as i say you wouldn't have noticed <pause dur="0.2"/> if you hadn't identified <pause dur="0.3"/> you know your centre of interest first <pause dur="0.5"/> and so even though you're not going to get more time <pause dur="0.7"/> to <pause dur="0.5"/> work on that essay <pause dur="0.7"/> you can give your mind more time <pause dur="0.5"/> and you can give that bit of your mind that's most important which is <pause dur="0.2"/> the less <pause dur="0.3"/> conscious the less willed bit of it <pause dur="1.2"/> to to to you know <pause dur="0.2"/> to let it <pause dur="0.4"/> get on with that job <pause dur="0.6"/> so that's just a few thoughts about time management you might as well # # # # # # # <pause dur="0.2"/> also think as part of time management <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> you don't really want to be doing that essay at two o'clock <pause dur="0.6"/> the night before <pause dur="0.7"/> you know it's given in <pause dur="0.7"/> # it's as well to try to time yourselves to give it a week or so beforehand <pause dur="0.9"/> so that you can reread it cold <pause dur="0.7"/> because one of the hardest things curiously enough to do is to

proofread your own work <pause dur="1.5"/> and i remember a <pause dur="0.2"/> a retired professor of this department some years ago remarking on this <pause dur="0.4"/> fact that you work on this book <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>k</trunc> God knows how many times you know you've read this <pause dur="0.5"/> typescript you know then it goes off to the publisher and they have professional people who go through it <pause dur="0.2"/> you know line by line very carefully you know and then <pause dur="0.3"/> then comes the day when the postman you know drops the finished book <pause dur="0.4"/> you know through your letter box and you pick it up and there is it you <pause dur="0.3"/> you open it and there's this stupid typo waving and jeering at you and you think <pause dur="0.2"/> how did that get there it's the first thing that you see when you open the book you see <pause dur="0.4"/> # and then you look but yes it was there it was there all the way your eye passes over it <pause dur="0.8"/> because you <pause dur="0.2"/> you're reading what you are expecting to read not what's <pause dur="0.4"/> on the page you see <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> although it sounds a very simple thing <pause dur="0.2"/> proofread proofreading is actually <pause dur="0.4"/> # something you really have to concentrate on and

do cold <pause dur="0.3"/> rather than doing it <pause dur="0.2"/> while you're still warm with the subject <pause dur="0.2"/> because the subject will otherwise just read over <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # what's you know on on the text on the page <pause dur="0.3"/> so give yourself some time to <pause dur="0.3"/> to make sure <pause dur="0.3"/> you're coming in <pause dur="0.2"/> properly dressed with your essay <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so that it makes the right impact on the # <pause dur="0.4"/> # # on the reader <pause dur="1.2"/> well the other <pause dur="0.2"/> i mean that's essay writing <pause dur="0.4"/> # <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> the other <pause dur="0.4"/> thing that we're thinking about this morning is the question of scholarly practice <pause dur="1.0"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> here what i particularly want to talk about is the <pause dur="0.3"/> your relation <pause dur="0.9"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> things that you read <pause dur="1.1"/> while you're getting your thoughts together <pause dur="0.5"/> for your essay <pause dur="0.5"/> you will be reading the primary text <pause dur="0.3"/> but you'll also be trying to get other kinds of historical and scholarly information <pause dur="0.5"/> you'll be trying to read around to see what kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> critical debates you know there have been about this question et cetera <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's quite right you should be bringing <pause dur="0.5"/> # a sense of of

that <pause dur="0.2"/> informed background <pause dur="0.3"/> to the text that you're reading that that is part of the skill <pause dur="0.9"/> but <pause dur="0.8"/> it's quite a dangerous area it's quite a slippery <pause dur="0.2"/> area <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> what i'm advising you to do is to take very careful notes of what you read <pause dur="0.5"/> because what's important is to be able to distinguish <pause dur="0.4"/> what you're saying <pause dur="0.5"/> from what <pause dur="0.3"/> other people <pause dur="0.3"/> have said <pause dur="0.5"/> if you want to agree with them that's okay <pause dur="0.4"/> but you still have to indicate <pause dur="0.3"/> that that is what you're doing <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> of course very often if you're very clear about what other people are saying <pause dur="0.3"/> it will become clearer to you how you've got your own <pause dur="0.3"/> slightly different <pause dur="0.6"/> take on it <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> and that there would be a perfectly legitimate a perfectly good <pause dur="0.3"/> kind of undergraduate essay <pause dur="0.5"/> that might have no very <pause dur="0.3"/> personal original <pause dur="0.3"/> # slant to it <pause dur="0.3"/> but which is a very lucid <pause dur="0.6"/> a very <pause dur="0.2"/> just you know very helpful <pause dur="0.3"/> summary of the debate <pause dur="0.6"/> that's been going on out there that would be a perfectly reasonable kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> undergraduate essay that would demonstrate a real <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of

understanding <pause dur="0.3"/> you see <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> to write that kind of essay of course you have to be very clear <pause dur="0.3"/> about what all these different people <pause dur="0.3"/> have said and that's why it it's a perfectly legitimate <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of essay to do <pause dur="0.4"/> but you can see that there is the danger <pause dur="0.8"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> reading things <pause dur="0.6"/> or taking notes <pause dur="0.3"/> and they all go into a kind of <pause dur="0.7"/> soup <pause dur="0.3"/> you know # in your mind and then <pause dur="0.2"/> later when it comes to <pause dur="0.3"/> # # writing your essay you're really sort of taking ladlefuls of this <pause dur="0.3"/> soup out not quite sure <pause dur="0.3"/> where it all came from you know what the <pause dur="0.4"/> # what the ingredients were you see <pause dur="0.4"/> now at this point you begin to get into the danger <pause dur="0.3"/> of course of what we call <pause dur="0.2"/> plagiarism <pause dur="0.6"/> which is really <pause dur="0.2"/> passing off other people's work <pause dur="0.3"/> as your own <pause dur="0.2"/> you see <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> of course i do have to say stern words about <pause dur="0.4"/> the possibility of plagiarism <pause dur="0.3"/> it is my belief <pause dur="0.6"/> that <pause dur="0.6"/> we don't have with you as groups of students going through <pause dur="0.2"/> a kind of serious problem about <pause dur="0.4"/> real plagiarism <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # i think that is # that's probably the case but it is a

matter that we have to <pause dur="0.3"/> take seriously for everyone's sake and you will find that the university <pause dur="0.3"/> takes a very serious view of it so that if <pause dur="0.4"/> someone has <pause dur="0.8"/> plagiarized <pause dur="0.2"/> an essay <pause dur="0.4"/> you know they will be treated quite <pause dur="0.5"/> severely and <pause dur="0.2"/> it it will be zero for the work et cetera <pause dur="0.2"/> okay and they they do take quite a stern <pause dur="0.3"/> view of that <pause dur="0.2"/> and it's not left really to our judgement there are university <pause dur="0.3"/> # rules about that so that's the little bit of the <pause dur="0.3"/> riot act you see that i need to <pause dur="0.3"/> make sure that you've # # that you've heard <pause dur="0.3"/> but what i'm really interested in is that most cases <pause dur="0.6"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> what <pause dur="0.3"/> might come under the heading of plagiarism <pause dur="0.5"/> will probably not be <pause dur="0.3"/> absolutely deliberate cheating <pause dur="0.8"/> but may be bad practice <pause dur="0.7"/> in terms of presenting your work <pause dur="0.4"/> and getting lost as to <pause dur="0.3"/> what you scribbled out as your own notes <pause dur="0.3"/> as a kind of draft <pause dur="0.2"/> and something that you scribbled out from a book <pause dur="0.4"/> # you know and then didn't # # # and then lost the reference or <pause dur="0.2"/> you know it just got <pause dur="0.4"/> assimilated to your own and you

you forgot that it it was someone else's et cetera <pause dur="0.3"/> there's this whole sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> grey area that you have to keep a <pause dur="0.4"/> have to keep an eye on you see <pause dur="0.4"/> so do keep very careful notes on that <pause dur="0.5"/> and indicate <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>w</trunc> what you've taken and what you're <pause dur="0.2"/> what you're using <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> of course as far as <pause dur="0.8"/> straight plagiarism goes <pause dur="1.9"/> i mean one thing about it is that's it's a <pause dur="1.1"/> it's a folly <pause dur="1.1"/> because <pause dur="1.5"/> as strange as it may seem to you and incredible though it may seem to you most of the people who work in education <pause dur="0.3"/> do actually rather like students <pause dur="0.4"/> and they're rather interested in the subjects that they they do <pause dur="0.4"/> and so <pause dur="0.2"/> actually they're not <pause dur="0.6"/> you know they can't be made happier than by you know giving you know # # giving you the subject teaching you getting you to understand it you see <pause dur="0.5"/> but if you <pause dur="0.4"/> put yourself in a position <pause dur="0.3"/> where you isolate yourself from that <pause dur="0.4"/> process <pause dur="0.4"/> there's nothing they can do about it and they don't know about it <pause dur="0.4"/> so the person who does as it were <pause dur="0.2"/> build these defensive <pause dur="0.2"/> bulwarks by <pause dur="0.4"/> you

know # plagiarizing essays or whatnot <pause dur="0.3"/> has only in a sense <pause dur="0.2"/> damaged themselves in the first instance you know they've lost the possibility <pause dur="0.4"/> of # # # # of the tutor <pause dur="0.3"/> being able to help them <pause dur="0.2"/> and like most things in life then of course it becomes a <pause dur="0.3"/> a reinforcing <pause dur="0.4"/> cycle <pause dur="0.3"/> they would get more and more nervous about really putting them<pause dur="0.2"/>selves in the hands of the tutor whereas if they'd done that right at the beginning <pause dur="0.4"/> they might have found that it was quite a fruitful <pause dur="0.3"/> relation they develop more confidence and of course it's becomes <pause dur="0.5"/> a virtual cycle you know <pause dur="0.4"/> so it is a folly because it it it it hurts you first <pause dur="0.6"/> but <trunc>o</trunc> but of course it is something more than a folly <pause dur="0.4"/> because <pause dur="0.5"/> it's a crime <pause dur="0.4"/> you know as i said <pause dur="0.3"/> we have <pause dur="0.4"/> regulations and rules <pause dur="0.3"/> and if you break them <pause dur="0.2"/> you know you <pause dur="0.2"/> you you have to be punished <pause dur="0.5"/> but # <pause dur="1.1"/> more than a crime of course it's a sin <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # because a thing may or not be <pause dur="0.8"/> illegal under any kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> jurisdiction <pause dur="0.5"/> but a sin is something that <pause dur="0.2"/> runs right against and damages the values of <pause dur="0.3"/>

everything we're here for <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="1.0"/> in fact it's more than a sin it's a dishonour <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> because <pause dur="0.5"/> not just our subject but the whole scholarly community in a certain sense <pause dur="0.7"/> works <pause dur="0.2"/> on a measure of trust <pause dur="0.5"/> even in the sciences <pause dur="0.6"/> which you think of as hard bench <pause dur="0.4"/> you know information <pause dur="0.4"/> no one actually can go around <pause dur="0.3"/> and actually test out <pause dur="0.3"/> all of the things <pause dur="0.3"/> that they have to take in <pause dur="0.4"/> when they're <pause dur="0.2"/> you know developing new <pause dur="0.4"/> theories they work in their own patch <pause dur="0.4"/> and they have in a certain sense <pause dur="0.2"/> to trust <pause dur="0.7"/> what the larger scholarly <pause dur="0.3"/> community you know in their <pause dur="0.3"/> # # in their area is doing <pause dur="0.8"/> so it's # <pause dur="1.0"/> it it it it's because of that trust that we are in a certain sense <pause dur="0.4"/> on our honour <pause dur="0.5"/> to behave properly in these things <pause dur="0.3"/> and the <pause dur="0.2"/> of course the positive way to look at this to put a positive spin on it <pause dur="0.6"/> is rather to think <pause dur="0.3"/> what is the state of the person who <pause dur="0.5"/> you know who who who who who gets into this frame of mind <pause dur="0.3"/> i think we're all <pause dur="0.5"/> rather <pause dur="0.6"/> overcome <pause dur="0.6"/> you know by the massive amount there is <pause dur="0.2"/> to know <pause dur="0.3"/> to understand

we're all like <pause dur="0.2"/> # you know Isaac Newton on the <pause dur="0.4"/> on the beach there thinking of what there was to know this infinite ocean and he was just <pause dur="0.4"/> picking up the odd stone the odd pebble from the beach you know this is <pause dur="0.3"/> Isaac Newton you know who was a great figure of the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.5"/> knowledge that's how he saw it you know let alone any of us coming along you see <pause dur="0.3"/> so we're it's very easy <pause dur="0.2"/> to feel <pause dur="0.6"/> psychologically overwhelmed you know by what you're doing <pause dur="0.7"/> and maybe a kind of fruitful image to have # # in relation to the scholarly <pause dur="0.5"/> practice is that maybe <pause dur="0.5"/> you know we're all there to put the odd little brick in the odd little stone in the pyramid <pause dur="0.9"/> and we can sort of see the whole <pause dur="0.2"/> pyramid in very rough terms <pause dur="0.4"/> but none of us really can build the whole pyramid by ourselves <pause dur="0.7"/> but what we can do is make sure that that particular stone was laid properly <pause dur="1.4"/> now what that means in scholarly terms <pause dur="0.5"/> is that if you are making a claim based on something else <pause dur="0.3"/> or passing on a judgement from somewhere

else <pause dur="0.3"/> whatever it is that you're putting into the debate or the pyramid <pause dur="0.4"/> you always indicate <pause dur="0.4"/> who your source is where you got it from <pause dur="1.2"/> and then you leave that for the next stone <pause dur="0.4"/> to sit on <pause dur="0.4"/> as it were <pause dur="0.5"/> now if someone comes along at a later point and says <pause dur="0.4"/> hang on <pause dur="0.3"/> there's something fishy here because that's how <trunc>m</trunc> knowledge moves on <pause dur="0.6"/> you realize that a mistake has been made way down there somewhere <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> and so you go back to try to rethink that but you need the chain you need to be able to get back <pause dur="0.5"/> so what you leave in place <pause dur="0.2"/> is not that you are responsible for the whole pyramid <pause dur="0.3"/> but you're responsible for your brick <pause dur="0.2"/> your stone <pause dur="0.4"/> you've indicated <pause dur="0.3"/> where your sources were <pause dur="0.3"/> and the next person who comes along who wants to check that out <pause dur="0.3"/> can get back to that level <pause dur="0.2"/> and then that level <pause dur="0.3"/> and that level you see what i mean <pause dur="0.5"/> you see <pause dur="0.4"/> and these things <pause dur="0.7"/> <trunc>y</trunc> <trunc>y</trunc> # you know are just a matter of <pause dur="0.3"/> as it were getting the right disciplinary practice <pause dur="1.2"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> of course big things can hang on them <pause dur="0.5"/> you know there was the

case of a man called # <pause dur="0.7"/> Sir Cyril Burt who was a kind of educational <pause dur="0.6"/> psychologist sort of in the period <pause dur="0.2"/> after the war used to study <pause dur="0.7"/> twins and things and and and and looking at the question of <pause dur="0.5"/> intelligence and <pause dur="0.5"/> development <pause dur="1.0"/> and of course there's been a big argument through the century <pause dur="0.4"/> about to what extent intelligence is <pause dur="0.3"/> genetically given <pause dur="0.4"/> to what extent what we measure as intelligence <pause dur="0.3"/> is in fact a fact # # # # a response to culture and circumstance <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> and of course this man was working at a time <pause dur="0.4"/> when the government was setting up <pause dur="0.2"/> in this country you know that <pause dur="0.6"/> tripartite level if you thought that <trunc>pe</trunc> kids were born <pause dur="0.5"/> already intelligent <pause dur="0.2"/> then it made sense to scoop them out <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> stick them in special schools you know twenty per cent or so or whatever it was you know <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # that that would make a certain amount of sense if you didn't think <pause dur="0.5"/> that what you measured as intelligence was quite so clearly genetic as that then

you might <pause dur="0.3"/> hesitate about that sort of thing you see <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> the the the conclusions about this would be quite important but you see there was a big scandal about this man i mean it's argued both ways i wouldn't <pause dur="0.3"/> take a position on that but you see people found <pause dur="0.4"/> when they started looking into the research <pause dur="0.4"/> that you couldn't actually get back <pause dur="0.4"/> to the sources <pause dur="0.6"/> the statistics were quoted about research on kids you see and whatnot <pause dur="0.2"/> but when you actually tried to get back well who was this <pause dur="0.3"/> researcher who who who who did this and where is the <pause dur="0.4"/> evidence they found that it it tended to sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> run into the sand you see so all kinds of questions were then <pause dur="0.3"/> thrown up <pause dur="0.2"/> about the whole edifice of knowledge and <pause dur="0.3"/> and judgement that was built up <pause dur="0.3"/> there you see <pause dur="0.3"/> and none of us know <pause dur="0.3"/> none of us know really what kind of things <pause dur="0.2"/> at some later point are going to prove to be important <pause dur="0.5"/> but one thing you can do is to go out in the world <pause dur="1.0"/> properly trained in that kind of internal discipline <pause dur="0.5"/> so that

you're responsible <pause dur="0.4"/> for your own patch <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> that's really what # <pause dur="0.3"/> # # <pause dur="0.2"/> we're after <pause dur="0.9"/> # because in a way you see <pause dur="0.2"/> although <pause dur="0.4"/> intellectual life is often a matter of a debate and opponents and arguing with other people <pause dur="0.8"/> the most dangerous person around is always yourself of course <pause dur="0.9"/> # as Cicero said in one of his # # legal orations <pause dur="0.3"/> men will <pause dur="0.4"/> readily believe <pause dur="0.8"/> what they wish to be true <pause dur="0.6"/> and that's what we all do <pause dur="0.2"/> you know we're inclined you know to see much more force in the evidence <pause dur="0.3"/> that supports us <pause dur="0.3"/> you know than the evidence that doesn't et cetera <pause dur="0.4"/> so we need these kind of externally <pause dur="0.3"/> acquired disciplines <pause dur="0.3"/> to protect us not just from the subject and from others <pause dur="0.2"/> but most importantly <pause dur="0.3"/> # from ourselves okay <pause dur="0.5"/> but other than that despite all my # <pause dur="0.2"/> you know # # admonitory tones there <pause dur="0.2"/> of course i i wish you every success in what you're doing over <pause dur="0.4"/> over the next three years <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> thank you