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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>Medical dramas on TV</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:58:42" n="7876">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>

<language id="fr">French</language>



<person id="nm0063" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm0063, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<person id="sm0064" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm0064, participant, student, male</p></person>

<person id="sm0065" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm0065, participant, student, male</p></person>

<person id="sf0066" role="participant" n="s" sex="f"><p>sf0066, participant, student, female</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="m"><p>sl, all, medium group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="6"><p>number of speakers: 6</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Film and Television Studies</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>




<u who="nm0063"> as far as the history of the medical drama goes on T-V <pause dur="0.8"/> # i'm going to be showing a documentary <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> after the lecture <pause dur="0.9"/> # called <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> i think it's called Docs on the Box <pause dur="0.2"/> it's part of the Docs on the Box # <pause dur="0.4"/> theme <pause dur="0.4"/> evening on B-B-C-two <pause dur="0.5"/> couple of # <pause dur="0.8"/> it was about three years ago now <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> and in in that theme night there was a documentary <pause dur="0.5"/> # called Playing Doctor and it's it's interviews with it consists of interviews with <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="3.0"/> well the programme makers <pause dur="0.3"/> medical dramas <pause dur="0.2"/> and that gives quite a good history anyway it's very good actually <pause dur="0.4"/> gives <trunc>g</trunc> quite a good history of the # <pause dur="0.4"/> # development of the medical drama in in the U-K and in the U-S <pause dur="0.8"/> so we'll be seeing that <pause dur="0.2"/> anyway <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> after <pause dur="0.3"/> after this lecture <pause dur="0.7"/> so what i want to concentrate on is Cardiac Arrest mostly <pause dur="0.6"/> # although some of the things i'll be saying obviously one can extrapolate and generalize to other medical dramas and other programmes as well <pause dur="1.4"/> okay so i'm going to start <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> hot docs <pause dur="0.5"/> hot docs <pause dur="0.6"/> this is the cover of

the Radio Times <kinesic desc="holds up magazine" iterated="n"/> can you see that <pause dur="1.8"/> it's got Helen Baxendale <pause dur="0.7"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and # <pause dur="2.2"/> Mandy Patinkin <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah it's <pause dur="0.3"/> hot docs why we're addicted to medical dramas why we're addicted <pause dur="0.4"/> to medical dramas <pause dur="2.6"/> # <pause dur="2.9"/> and the <pause dur="0.4"/> and the date of that is ninety-five June ninety-five and that's really the high point of the medical drama in Britain it's <pause dur="0.6"/> at that point the medical drama was the <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the power genre <pause dur="0.4"/> of the nineteen-nineties <pause dur="0.4"/> today <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> the power genre is obviously something different <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> you might call it makeover <pause dur="0.2"/> television <pause dur="0.6"/> tune in on a <pause dur="0.2"/> on prime time on a Friday night <pause dur="0.4"/> # there's a succession of makeover programmes rooms being <pause dur="0.8"/> madeover people <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> gardens <pause dur="0.2"/> so on and so on <pause dur="0.3"/> so <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> it's a different power genre but certainly the mid-nineteen-nineties nineteen-ninety-five <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> think there were about three covers of the Radio Times that had references to medical dramas <pause dur="0.9"/> on it <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> so the Radio Times was quick to cash in on <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> what had become this power genre of the mid-nineteen-nineties the medical dramas they were <pause dur="0.3"/> seen by the Radio Times as

sexy and post-modern <pause dur="1.2"/> and of course they give a strong visual hint on the cover about the answer <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> ah <pause dur="2.3"/><event desc="student enters room" iterated="n" n="sm0064"/> only a couple of minutes in <pause dur="4.9"/> are there roadblocks <unclear>up</unclear> in Leamington or something </u><u who="sm0064" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm0063" trans="latching"> mm <pause dur="4.8"/> okay so why we're addicted to medical dramas <pause dur="0.6"/> answer Helen Baxendale Mandy Patinkin <pause dur="0.8"/> should have it should have been George Clooney obviously but # <pause dur="0.3"/> B-B-C were showing Chicago Hope <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so they can be <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> they were seen as sexy and post-modern medical dramas yeah sexy and post-modern <pause dur="1.7"/> and of course there's that playful use of the word addicted <pause dur="0.7"/> yeah <pause dur="1.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>a</trunc> at once we get the glamorous address of those programmes in terms of star <pause dur="0.2"/> appeal <pause dur="1.0"/> and in terms of the seductive visualization <pause dur="0.3"/> of medical <pause dur="0.4"/> procedure <pause dur="3.9"/> now with reference to Cardiac Arrest i want to argue that this series is is transitional <pause dur="1.8"/> hi there <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="2.6"/> a transitional series one that revises the concerns of earlier <pause dur="0.3"/> British medical dramas <pause dur="1.6"/> # within a generically aware <pause dur="0.3"/> context <pause dur="0.4"/> and this generically aware context is kind of in

dialogue with other British and U-S medical dramas <pause dur="1.1"/> what Cardiac <pause dur="0.2"/> Arrest does specifically <pause dur="0.3"/> is is to enact a shift of attention <pause dur="0.4"/> from a concern with the patient <pause dur="0.3"/> and nation <pause dur="0.5"/> as victims of welfare cuts <pause dur="0.5"/> # to a concern with <pause dur="0.3"/> junior doctors <pause dur="0.4"/> # as victims of a pernicious <pause dur="0.3"/> system <pause dur="2.2"/> and in addition to that <pause dur="0.5"/> a sense of the junior doctors themselves <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # being situated as victims <pause dur="0.3"/> there's another sense that they they have to <trunc>en</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>e</trunc> endure and suffer the weight <pause dur="0.3"/> of their generation <pause dur="0.3"/> of a kind of depoliticized <pause dur="0.5"/> # generation that doesn't have <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # direction <pause dur="0.9"/> as i said much of what i'll say about Cardiac Arrest can be extrapolated <pause dur="0.6"/> # and applied to other <pause dur="0.4"/> # nineties medical dramas <pause dur="0.7"/> and indeed instances of the <pause dur="0.3"/> # professional <pause dur="0.4"/> genre <pause dur="2.1"/> what interests me about this programme is the way that it self-consciously adopts # a radical <pause dur="0.4"/> formal a narrative rhetoric <pause dur="0.5"/> while abandoning <pause dur="0.3"/> our previous <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> # we might call <trunc>ol</trunc> old-fashioned # political <pause dur="0.2"/> commitments <pause dur="0.3"/> so in a sense i think it's <pause dur="0.2"/> # not so <trunc>n</trunc> so much conservative or

reactionary but it doesn't really have an alternative <pause dur="0.3"/> to its # <pause dur="0.9"/> # to its <trunc>n</trunc> # cynicism and and in some ways # # nihilism <pause dur="3.2"/> okay i'm going to give you some discursive contexts <pause dur="0.4"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> # the medical drama in the nineteen-nineties <pause dur="0.6"/> # in other words ways of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> these were ways of thinking about # <pause dur="1.3"/> # health care <pause dur="0.3"/> and the politics of health care in the world in general not just in the <trunc>t</trunc> in the television medical drama but in the world <pause dur="0.7"/> now clearly the <trunc>n</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> the biggest <pause dur="0.2"/> or the most <trunc>im</trunc> significant <trunc>di</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> discursive context is <pause dur="0.3"/> that of privatization <pause dur="0.6"/> okay so in the nineteen-eighties there was <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> considerable anxiety <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> about the # <pause dur="1.6"/> well the anxiety and and fear about the possible privatization <pause dur="0.4"/> # the creeping by the back door privatization <pause dur="0.4"/> of # <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> that may have been put in place by the Conservative Party <pause dur="0.7"/> indeed privatization was indicative and <pause dur="0.5"/> # closely connected to Margaret Thatcher's <pause dur="0.4"/> Conservative Party <pause dur="0.4"/> # rhetoric <pause dur="1.4"/> now this <pause dur="0.9"/> sense that <pause dur="0.5"/> this idea that the the N-H-S the National Health Service could would be <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/>

interfered with <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> by # the ideology of business and the market <pause dur="0.5"/> was particularly offensive <pause dur="0.4"/> for some on the political left <pause dur="0.6"/> and this was because they saw the N-H-S as strongly indicative <pause dur="0.4"/> of the potential for reforming <pause dur="0.4"/> capitalism <pause dur="1.2"/> so there's a section <pause dur="0.4"/> and and it wasn't just confined to the political left this this was also a popular perception that the <pause dur="0.3"/> N-H-S was really a symbol <pause dur="0.2"/> of the way in which capitalism could be reformed <pause dur="0.4"/> and # <pause dur="0.7"/> made into something that was caring <pause dur="0.3"/> yes that even though that that it was possible through state reform through state intervention <pause dur="0.3"/> to limit <pause dur="0.3"/> # the pernicious <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> penetration <pause dur="0.2"/> of the market <pause dur="0.5"/> and and around health care <pause dur="0.3"/> that was particularly <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # potent <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="0.3"/> # the idea of universal provision <pause dur="0.4"/> # free health care <trunc>f</trunc> # for all <pause dur="0.4"/> was # a very potent symbol <pause dur="0.3"/> of # <pause dur="0.6"/> a kind of caring state if you like <pause dur="0.6"/> so the idea that this could be tampered with <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # # # <pause dur="0.6"/> # by the Conservative Party was particularly # offensive to some <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # people <pause dur="1.2"/> and it was also this idea of interfering <pause dur="0.4"/> with # the N-H-S <pause dur="1.0"/>

# <pause dur="1.7"/> was also indicative of of the <trunc>f</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> of the idea that <pause dur="0.5"/> or the sense there that some on the right on the new right at least did not care <pause dur="0.6"/> yes one of the key metaphors in in in the medical drama and <pause dur="0.2"/> in these discursive contexts is the idea of caring <pause dur="0.6"/> yeah so there's a sense that the Conservative Party did not care enough <pause dur="0.5"/> about <pause dur="0.5"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>about <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> the people or about <pause dur="0.3"/> the N-H-S <pause dur="0.3"/> particularly <pause dur="0.4"/> # in regard to those who couldn't afford private treatment and one of the recurring <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> # sequences in medical dramas in the nineteen-eighties at least is <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the question of <pause dur="0.3"/> the waiting lists of <pause dur="0.3"/> those who can't afford <pause dur="0.2"/> you know there would be characters this particularly strong in Casualty always had this <pause dur="0.3"/> Casualty in particular had a very strong <pause dur="0.4"/> # # kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> moral sense to it i wouldn't i wouldn't say it's so much political very strong moral sense that <pause dur="0.3"/> if <pause dur="0.3"/> you know you'd you'd have characters coming along and <pause dur="0.3"/> they couldn't afford <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # private health care <pause dur="0.3"/> but then there were other characters in a

similar situation who were jumping ahead <pause dur="0.4"/> of the queue <pause dur="1.0"/> yes queue jumping <pause dur="0.2"/> because they could pay for it <pause dur="0.3"/> okay so this was seen as particularly <pause dur="0.3"/> # offensive <pause dur="0.4"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm going to be quite <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> controversial and say that <pause dur="0.7"/> to be really fair to the Conservative Party <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> # # which most people aren't these days <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> the left had always romanticized the N-H-S <pause dur="0.5"/> and this is partly because they had a strong very potent symbolic potential <pause dur="0.4"/> as a state institution <pause dur="0.3"/> as i've said reining back <pause dur="0.3"/> the iniquitous <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> stretch and reach of capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is despite the fact that fees for medical prescriptions <pause dur="0.5"/> and other fees for for dental and optical care <pause dur="0.5"/> # were in fact introduced by the Labour government pretty soon after <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>he</trunc> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # the N-H-S was # founded <pause dur="2.1"/> it was also the case i think that the Conservative Party realized that it would be political suicide <pause dur="0.3"/> to privatize the N-H-S <pause dur="0.6"/> and far from deregulating and privatizing it <pause dur="0.5"/> # if that the in fact the Conservative Party did not do that <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> what we got is a <trunc>r</trunc> is a <pause dur="0.5"/> a <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> quite

a a strong <pause dur="0.2"/> # and repeated <trunc>re</trunc> system of reregulation <pause dur="0.9"/> # and centralization of the N-H-S <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so a lot of <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> the rhetoric of kind of # N-H-S trusts and budgets and so on and so forth this idea that one can introduce a market system was <pause dur="0.4"/> really <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # simply <pause dur="0.4"/> about face value # on the face of it yes there was one would use the words like budget but in fact a lot of the <pause dur="0.3"/> the money was was controlled centrally <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> and and some people have said what you actually got is a kind of Soviet style <pause dur="0.5"/> # system of N-H trust that really mimicked <pause dur="0.4"/> # free market rhetoric <pause dur="1.2"/> now it's also the case that the medical industrial complex in <pause dur="0.2"/> # in <pause dur="0.4"/> well in the world and in <pause dur="0.2"/> in Britain <pause dur="0.3"/> is heavily dependant on state subsidy <pause dur="0.6"/> heavily dependant on state subsidy <pause dur="0.6"/> and that's provided through the N-H-S <pause dur="1.1"/> so any moves to privatize totally privatize the N-H-S would be economically problematic for those # multinational # companies <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> okay so that's one discursive contact <pause dur="0.2"/> # context <pause dur="0.9"/> it's not to deny the reality of

shortage in the N-H-S <pause dur="0.7"/> that was reflected in various ways by medical dramas in the nineteen-eighties and Casualty as i've said regularly showcased <pause dur="0.4"/> # such issues <pause dur="0.5"/> # Casualty is very much issue <pause dur="0.4"/> led and as i've said it it it tries to encase issues in a moral rather than a political <pause dur="0.4"/> context <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> # although i say that # Norman Tebbit # wanted <pause dur="0.3"/> Casualty to be <pause dur="0.6"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> or saw Casualty as indicative of the B-B-C's <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>Trotskyite tendencies <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>yes <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and he he was very very concerned about <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # the sorts of <pause dur="0.2"/> images and <pause dur="0.2"/> and scenes and narrative stories that were being <pause dur="0.4"/> shown on Casualty <pause dur="2.0"/> so it's not to deny the reality of difficultive cuts and shortage in the N-H-S <pause dur="0.4"/> but to know that the political reality was more complex <pause dur="0.3"/> than was dramatized in even the most overtly critical dramas <pause dur="1.1"/> instead these dramas and Casualty is <trunc>m</trunc> a sort of main example <pause dur="0.6"/> # redirected their critical energy to aspects of medical culture <pause dur="4.5"/> because these aspects of medical culture were indicative <pause dur="0.5"/> of # the momentum for

privatization <pause dur="0.8"/> what i mean by medical culture <pause dur="0.6"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> and it's very similar in the in the cop show genre as well <pause dur="0.4"/> # the question of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the macho <pause dur="0.3"/> yes <pause dur="0.3"/> the quest the issue of # <pause dur="1.4"/> consultants and doctors <pause dur="0.2"/> not treating their patients as human beings yes <pause dur="0.9"/> as <pause dur="0.2"/> # treating them as vehicles for disease and vehicles for treatment rather than as <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>a</trunc> as <trunc>a</trunc> as as people rather than caring for them <pause dur="0.3"/> and this has become quite a big issue certainly toward the end of the nineteen-eighties <pause dur="0.5"/> and in <pause dur="0.2"/> # the nineteen-nineties so that <pause dur="0.3"/> a lot of # health policy <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> even the most recent # Frank Dobson's # <pause dur="0.8"/> # paper <pause dur="0.4"/> # talks about <pause dur="0.2"/> you know we should stop the consultants being so snobbish towards their <pause dur="0.4"/> # patients we should make them <pause dur="0.4"/> # # treat treatment should be about manners in a way and the courtesy that should be extended to the <pause dur="0.3"/> consumer or to the customer or to the patient <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> in a way it's easier to dramatize and visualize those <trunc>a</trunc> aspects of culture <pause dur="0.2"/> than it is to go into <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> kind of the <pause dur="0.2"/> # quite

complicated economic reality whereby the N-H-S subsidizes <pause dur="0.3"/> # a medical industrial complex it's rather difficult to imagine how that could be visualized yeah <pause dur="0.6"/> whereas it's rather easy to <pause dur="0.2"/> to visualize <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # a kind of a consultant surgeon <pause dur="0.6"/> # being a bit <pause dur="0.4"/> # superior to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> the mother of a of of an ill child or something like that that's <trunc>gr</trunc> reasonably easy <pause dur="0.3"/> to put on the screen <pause dur="0.6"/> # <trunc>o</trunc> <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> now one example of this <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> of television's <pause dur="0.8"/> interest and concern with medical culture <pause dur="0.6"/> is a programme called The Nation's Health <pause dur="1.2"/> this was a series of four documentaries <pause dur="0.6"/> # written by G F Newman <pause dur="0.6"/> and shown on Channel Four in nineteen-eighty-two <pause dur="1.8"/> and <trunc>th</trunc> this The Nation's Health was seen as <pause dur="0.6"/> as very very critical <pause dur="0.4"/> of # the medical establishment <pause dur="0.5"/> Anne Karpf <pause dur="0.3"/> in her book # Doctoring the Media <pause dur="0.5"/> says that The Nation's Health <pause dur="0.3"/> was a watershed in medical television <pause dur="0.4"/> because it directly subverted <pause dur="0.4"/> the address of all that went before <pause dur="0.9"/> this is a quote from <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>ne</trunc> # # Anne Karpf <pause dur="0.9"/> and she says <reading>Newman delivered an almost

unqualified attack <pause dur="0.5"/> on the medical profession <pause dur="0.8"/> doctors under his gaze <pause dur="0.2"/> emerged as insensitive <pause dur="0.2"/> self-seekers <pause dur="0.3"/> pondering their next <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> contract over the first incision <pause dur="0.8"/> they blithely <pause dur="0.3"/> offered the <trunc>s</trunc> their services privately <pause dur="0.4"/> in lieu <pause dur="0.3"/> of a lengthy N-H-S <pause dur="0.2"/> wait <pause dur="0.4"/> they conspired with drug companies <pause dur="0.3"/> they were racist and sexist to a man <pause dur="0.9"/> the power and aloofness <pause dur="0.3"/> of intimidating consultants and surgeons <pause dur="0.5"/> were depicted with devastating <pause dur="0.3"/> authenticity</reading> <pause dur="2.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> Karpf is <pause dur="0.2"/> quite good although she <pause dur="0.2"/> doesn't quite see the <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/> the <pause dur="0.8"/> implications of what she's saying but <pause dur="0.2"/> she's quite good at pointing out what's very strong <pause dur="0.3"/> in The Nation's Health and it's that critique of <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>ma</trunc> it's really male culture <trunc>m</trunc> # and The Nation's Health has <pause dur="0.2"/> its central character is a is a woman called Jessie Marvell <pause dur="0.4"/> and she <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and the <trunc>f</trunc> the four <pause dur="0.7"/> # episodes <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> follow her as she goes through different <pause dur="0.4"/> # aspects through through of of of the N-H-S the the the # <pause dur="1.3"/> you know casualty to <pause dur="0.3"/> geriatrics to <pause dur="0.4"/> # # mental health care <pause dur="3.0"/> so it's very much concerned with that <pause dur="0.2"/> that sense

of culture about # # <pause dur="0.2"/> if you like a a really <pause dur="0.3"/> # really truly insensitive # # # # <pause dur="0.3"/> medical culture and very much a male <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> machismo culture <pause dur="5.3"/> now this is rather similar to Cardiac Arrest in a way because both shows offer a <trunc>simi</trunc> similar criticism of the specificity <pause dur="0.5"/> of the National Health Service and of the medical <pause dur="0.5"/> and of the medical culture <pause dur="0.9"/> in The Nation's Health <pause dur="0.5"/> # usually male doctors do not treat their patients as people <pause dur="0.4"/> but as vehicles for disease and and <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> injury <pause dur="2.2"/> # there's the sense that these people embody the macho science fuelled journey <pause dur="0.3"/> that exemplifies # <trunc>heg</trunc> hegemonic myths of progress <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> achievement <pause dur="0.2"/> and the people the sick people the patients were left behind <pause dur="0.4"/> in this impersonal <pause dur="0.3"/> journey <pause dur="1.0"/> and Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.4"/> offers a similar criticism <pause dur="0.8"/> except that those who are badly treated are not so much the patients <pause dur="0.5"/> although they might suffer along the way <pause dur="0.4"/> # but the junior medical staff <pause dur="2.3"/> the junior medical staff who are overburdened and undertrained <pause dur="0.2"/> by consultants who were

similarly happier <pause dur="0.3"/> to canvass more lucrative <pause dur="0.3"/> # private <pause dur="0.3"/> treatment <pause dur="1.4"/> so i'm going to show you two clips <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> one from <pause dur="0.2"/> The Nation's Health episode two <pause dur="0.3"/> # called Decline <pause dur="0.7"/> and one from Cardiac Arrest now in The Nation's Health <pause dur="0.6"/> we see a consultant surgeon <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.9"/> well discussing the possibility <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> N-H-S and <pause dur="0.2"/> private <pause dur="0.5"/> # treatment to one of his <pause dur="0.2"/> # patients <pause dur="0.3"/> then i'll show you a <pause dur="0.2"/> a rather similar scene <pause dur="0.3"/> from <pause dur="0.3"/> Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.6"/> okay so this is The Nation's Health it's from nineteen-eighty-two </u><pause dur="42.4"/> <event desc="starts video" iterated="n" n="nm0063"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="40"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause"> okay <pause dur="0.9"/><event desc="stops video" iterated="n"/> that scene actually comes after <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> an earlier consultation that he has with a woman where he advises her to have <pause dur="0.5"/> a hysterectomy <pause dur="0.6"/> he says oh we'll do some exploratory stuff i'll think we'll do a hysterectory hysterectomy as well 'cause you don't need that little box any more we'll just whip it out <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's that whole sense of quite <pause dur="1.1"/> it's almost like violence in in in attitude yes <pause dur="0.4"/> and and The Nation's Health's very critical of that a similar scene <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.3"/> except <pause dur="0.3"/> look at the way the the focus changes <pause dur="0.4"/>

the <pause dur="0.3"/> the people who are suffering aren't so much <pause dur="0.3"/> # the patients but <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the junior <pause dur="0.5"/> # doctors <pause dur="1.1"/> okay <pause dur="1.7"/> this is episode two i think two or three </u><pause dur="47.0"/><event desc="starts video" iterated="n" n="nm0063"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="45"/><event desc="stops video" iterated="n" n="nm0063"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause"> okay <pause dur="2.6"/> so you can see that the <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.6"/> the practice of privacy in Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.2"/> and in The Nation's Health has different consequences <pause dur="0.4"/> for each <pause dur="0.8"/> the the problem with private practice in <pause dur="0.2"/> # and it's become <trunc>com</trunc> something of a commonplace in medical drama by nineteen-ninety-six <pause dur="0.3"/> it's very common to see <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # this sense that <pause dur="0.2"/> # # <pause dur="0.2"/> private health care is in some way <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> # is is is is a priority over <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> over N-H-S health care which it is <pause dur="0.2"/> # it's clearly a <trunc>r</trunc> a kind of a reality <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> but the people who are are suffering who are # # from this are the are the junior doctors of course by implication their patients also <pause dur="0.3"/> die and kind of don't get very good treatment and <pause dur="0.3"/> in that sequence from Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.4"/> Andrew tries his best <pause dur="0.6"/> # but it's clear that he has <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>no idea <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>how to perform this operation as those of you who've seen it will know <pause dur="0.5"/> and he has to call in Claire who's who's drunk <pause dur="0.5"/> #

and she manages to do it <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so there's <pause dur="0.8"/> Cardiac Arrest repeats the example from <pause dur="0.4"/> # The Nation's Health but within another context and the context is the supervision and training of junior doctors <pause dur="0.3"/> so this change from a wider interest <pause dur="0.5"/> # from interest in the wider implications for society <pause dur="0.5"/> # for patients <pause dur="0.8"/> and for doctors of of privatization <pause dur="0.5"/> is refocused in Cardiac Arrest to an exclusive more or less exclusive concern <pause dur="0.4"/> with the treatment and well-being <pause dur="0.4"/> of the next generation <pause dur="0.3"/> of doctors <pause dur="3.5"/> now when it began in nineteen-ninety-three Cardiac Arrest self-consciously situated itself in relation to <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>s</trunc> # G F Newman's # The Nation's Health <pause dur="0.5"/> and the writer Jed Mercurio <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> he uses the # pseudonym # <pause dur="0.2"/> John MacUre <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> just before the first episode explicitly situated # # his <pause dur="0.3"/> his programme Cardiac Arrest in relation to <pause dur="0.3"/> # The Nation's Health <pause dur="0.3"/> and said Newman's The Nation's Health you know did very well in eighty-two but it needs updating <pause dur="0.4"/> you know more than ten years later it needs updating for the

nineteen-nineties <pause dur="2.5"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> the most similar concerns in Cardiac Arrest are unsatisfactory medical culture <pause dur="0.9"/> still remains central concern <pause dur="0.4"/> but other discursive contexts <pause dur="0.2"/> updated <pause dur="0.4"/> # discursive contexts are now regularly <pause dur="0.3"/> # offered <pause dur="1.1"/> now some of these contexts can be detected in other genres such as the crime genre <pause dur="0.4"/> so # and i'll talk about that in a minute <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> well i'll talk about it now <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.6"/> so other <trunc>th</trunc> things that you'd see in other professional genres # <pause dur="0.2"/> # # and you you see in the medical drama as well things about equal opportunities yes <pause dur="0.6"/> in Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.5"/> # you'll see Claire Maitland and her immediate superior arguing about <pause dur="0.4"/> you know what it is to be a woman <pause dur="0.3"/> in # in the N-H-S in the nineties and how <pause dur="0.4"/> you know they have to behave # very very strictly in a very strict professional manner <pause dur="0.5"/> # so equal <trunc>opportunit</trunc> and you see that also of course in the crime genre if you look at things like <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> well Prime Suspect being the obvious one <pause dur="0.5"/> # Between the Lines things like that <pause dur="0.6"/> also # <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> questions of

race <pause dur="0.2"/> are are returned to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> in <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> in Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="1.0"/> but there are others <pause dur="0.3"/> that are really specific <pause dur="0.3"/> # to the medical drama and to Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.5"/> okay first of all is the way that privatization issues of privatization <pause dur="0.4"/> and the kind of culture of the N-H-S <pause dur="0.8"/> is # <pause dur="0.2"/> understood through ideas of new management <pause dur="1.1"/> the hospital manager <pause dur="0.4"/> is a kind of new figure <pause dur="0.4"/> # who arrives # # in the nineteen-nineties <pause dur="0.3"/> now hospital managers <pause dur="0.3"/> are generally are <pause dur="0.2"/> generally speaking are presented as a pernicious <pause dur="0.7"/> presence <pause dur="0.3"/> in the hospital <pause dur="1.2"/> they are interfering without any professional knowledge of medicine <pause dur="0.6"/> they're fuelled by the ideology <pause dur="0.4"/> and management speak of private business from which they were recruited <pause dur="1.5"/> and their attempts to import that business culture <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> into the running of the hospital <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.6"/> shown as directly hostile to the requirements of adequate and professional medical care <pause dur="2.1"/> now <pause dur="0.7"/> interestingly Cardiac Arrest takes this development a stage further <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="3.9"/> and says well it's not just it's not just inappropriate people

from business who are being recruited to run the hospital but it's sort of anyone but doctors <pause dur="0.6"/> yes <pause dur="0.5"/> so in a sequence that was used to trail an episode in the second series the older consultant Ernest Docherty <pause dur="1.0"/> # the old chap <pause dur="0.8"/> recognizes the new <pause dur="0.2"/> and very young manager in the corridor the manager's about eighteen years old <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="0.9"/> # to no one in particular but really sort of to the camera he says <pause dur="0.2"/> yesterday he was on the checkout in the canteen <pause dur="0.2"/> today he's running the hospital <pause dur="0.8"/> yes so the inference is <pause dur="0.2"/> is kind of clear <pause dur="0.3"/> from that <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # exchange that <pause dur="0.6"/> kind <pause dur="0.4"/> # professional paternal experience exemplified by Docherty <pause dur="0.3"/> counts for nothing <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but youth in a suit <pause dur="0.4"/> you know that's the future that's the future of <pause dur="0.3"/> # hospital management <pause dur="2.1"/> okay so that's one <pause dur="0.3"/> discursive context <pause dur="1.8"/> # now clearly that goes out of control a little bit in Cardiac Arrest toward the end <pause dur="0.2"/> # where the hospital manager himself gets suspended and there's this kind of Foucaultian sense that you don't know where power is <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah so they

have to bring in some lord <pause dur="0.3"/> governor from that we've never seen before <pause dur="0.2"/> in order to sort out the <pause dur="0.3"/> the power conflicts in the hospital <pause dur="0.2"/> so even the managers themselves <pause dur="0.3"/> are getting <pause dur="0.3"/> are kind of # accountable to some unseen force <pause dur="0.5"/> yes that comes from outside the hospital <pause dur="1.5"/> # now the other discursive context is public relations P-R <pause dur="0.2"/> in the hospital <pause dur="2.9"/> the importance of P-R for the hospital is also indicative of its transition to a business culture <pause dur="1.1"/> so Cardiac Arrest staff are regularly suspended <pause dur="0.3"/> for going to the newspapers to tell stories <pause dur="0.3"/> of mistreatment <pause dur="1.7"/> there's # an anxiety about the prospect of medical incompetence being leaked to the press <pause dur="0.5"/> and that kind of looms over nearly every medical decision <pause dur="1.4"/> there's also the issue of H-I-V <pause dur="0.3"/> the revelation that some medical staff <pause dur="0.4"/> have # # H-I-V <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and there were kind of regular dramatizations of parents <pause dur="0.2"/> # # sorry of patients finding this out that they've been treated by someone <pause dur="0.5"/> # with # H-I-V and then <pause dur="0.4"/> # # kind of complaining about it <pause dur="0.4"/> so for

British medical dramas and that sort of indicates the way that British medical dramas <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> are starting to pick up on that danger and anxiety about litigation <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> relatively recent in Chicago Hope it's more or less the norm <pause dur="0.5"/> that patients are expected to sue <pause dur="0.4"/> # their doctors <pause dur="0.3"/> # it's relatively recent in the British # # medical drama <pause dur="1.0"/> so this prospect of litigation <pause dur="0.2"/> further <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> enhances and intensifies that conflict between doctor and patient <pause dur="0.4"/> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> we saw the conflict being <pause dur="0.2"/> described in <pause dur="0.3"/> The Nation's Health in terms of <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of a macho culture and a and a disdain for the patient <pause dur="0.6"/> but now it's it's # more professionalized it's almost it's about <pause dur="0.4"/> you know can i sue you if you do something wrong so every decision <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> every medical decision has a kind of that kind of anxiety hanging over its shoulder <pause dur="0.2"/> and of course there's a relation <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean these programmes use news stories as plot stimulants so <pause dur="0.8"/> there is a relation to <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> more recent cases and we're getting a lot more of these cases of <trunc>d</trunc> of <pause dur="0.2"/> surgeons

for examples in Bristol <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> not # <pause dur="0.5"/> meeting their quality targets <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> and clearly that's going to # continue <pause dur="3.1"/> so all of these matters <trunc>pe</trunc> # and the final discursive context i'll return to that a bit more in the seminars is rationing N-H-S rationing <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> this is about the question about <pause dur="0.3"/> who deserves treatment first <pause dur="0.5"/> yes if one has to prioritize <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> health care and medical attention <pause dur="0.6"/> which patient deserves treatment <pause dur="0.4"/> and which patient doesn't <pause dur="0.2"/> now clearly in the outside world <pause dur="0.3"/> there are issues about <pause dur="0.4"/> for example sex change operations and cosmetic surgery <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> further down you know do you operate on a smoker or someone who's eaten fresh fruit and vegetables all their life <pause dur="0.4"/> all this kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> issue about <pause dur="0.2"/> choices <pause dur="0.3"/> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> in the N-H-S <pause dur="0.2"/> and this feeds in <pause dur="0.5"/> to # medical dramas <pause dur="0.3"/> and into Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="4.5"/> okay so those are the discursive contexts <pause dur="2.2"/> now i want to talk a bit more about <pause dur="0.2"/> # Cardiac Arrest and genre <pause dur="0.8"/> because i think the change in Cardiac Arrest from attention to # <pause dur="0.9"/> issues

around welfare cuts in the welfare state <pause dur="0.3"/> to <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> to something that's more focused on the welfare of junior doctors <pause dur="0.9"/> that shift of attention <pause dur="0.9"/> is also in <trunc>ta</trunc> in parallel with a a another shift of attention that happens in other genres <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and that's toward an interest in the details of professionalism <pause dur="0.5"/> to the details of professional <pause dur="0.3"/> life <pause dur="0.9"/> or more specifically <pause dur="0.3"/> the way in which professional procedure <pause dur="0.4"/> the rules <pause dur="0.2"/> the laws the manners <pause dur="0.4"/> # the conduct of <pause dur="0.4"/> # professionals <pause dur="0.3"/> becomes central to the content <pause dur="0.3"/> of many television programmes <pause dur="0.9"/> in other words the interest of these programmes is in the way that these professional codes of conduct <pause dur="0.4"/> are mediated through individual <pause dur="0.2"/> characters <pause dur="1.5"/> and examples of the sort of professional genre would be The Bill <pause dur="1.2"/> a lot of The Bill is spent lot of characters in time in The Bill is spent with characters discussing the <pause dur="0.2"/> the what they can and can't do <pause dur="0.5"/> yes the rules of conduct yes what's appropriate to do Casualty clearly <pause dur="0.6"/> # London's Burning <pause dur="0.5"/> # the professional genres <trunc>ge</trunc> genres about <pause dur="0.4"/>

professional <pause dur="0.5"/> # # people <pause dur="0.2"/> and in general that <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in the earlier nineties that's concerned with the emergency services <pause dur="0.2"/> clearly now it's being <pause dur="0.3"/> # # opened up a bit and and <trunc>g</trunc> and generalized <pause dur="2.9"/> so this and in other words the turn toward the spectacularization of professional discourse takes place in the early nineties <pause dur="0.9"/> and is # as i've said initially concerned with the <pause dur="0.7"/> emergency services in in drama <pause dur="0.4"/> and later on in the documentary genres <pause dur="0.9"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> this is # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in the medical drama <pause dur="1.7"/> this spectacularization of # professionalism <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="1.2"/> # part of one mode <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> # # # <pause dur="0.5"/> of the narrative <pause dur="0.3"/> the other mode <pause dur="0.2"/> is is something that's more action based <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so what i want to think about is <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> if you like different modes of <distinct lang="fr">mise en scène</distinct> <pause dur="1.8"/> <trunc>diffe</trunc> it's almost different styles <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> on the one hand there's the style <pause dur="0.2"/> # there's the mode which i call reflection <pause dur="0.2"/> which is more concerned with the <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> spectacle of <pause dur="0.2"/> # # professional discourse mediated through characters <pause dur="0.4"/> on the other hand there's the mode of action <pause dur="0.3"/>

which generally speaking is the <pause dur="0.3"/> immediate and intense delivery of of health care to casualty <pause dur="0.4"/> # patients <pause dur="3.4"/> and these modes are attached to setting they're generally specific to one place the hospital <pause dur="0.3"/> or less frequently the character sometimes <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> characters <pause dur="0.2"/> it's quite rare in <pause dur="0.2"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> ward based medical dramas like <pause dur="0.5"/> # E-R and Chicago Hope and Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.5"/> but sometimes the characters <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> Doctor Greene will <pause dur="0.4"/> will <pause dur="0.4"/> go shopping or something and <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> and sort of take the two modes with him so there'll be modes of action and reflection but they've taken outside the hospital and that's quite rare <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> indeed <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> the space where <pause dur="0.2"/> the two modes <pause dur="0.2"/> kind of the transition from one mode to the other <pause dur="0.3"/> where that takes place is the hospital corridor <pause dur="1.0"/> and Anne Karpf in the late eighties in her book # Doctoring the Media <pause dur="0.4"/> argues that the <pause dur="0.4"/> the corridor <pause dur="0.4"/> it becomes a central place in the # in the in the television medical drama where <pause dur="0.2"/> anything could happen there's a kind of unexpected <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> things # happening in the

periphery or in the background of a shot could suddenly become important <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="2.0"/> and clearly one of the <trunc>ke</trunc> you know the <trunc>k</trunc> the the <pause dur="0.2"/> # the sort of classic <pause dur="0.4"/> # icons of the genre is the is the <pause dur="0.3"/> is the the stretcher on a trolley bursting through swing doors <pause dur="0.4"/> yes that's one of the key ways <pause dur="0.3"/> in which we see the transition from reflection <pause dur="0.4"/> to an action mode <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="3.1"/> so just to recap by reflection i'm referring i'm concerned with sequences where medical staff are discussing <pause dur="0.3"/> whatever is of narrative importance either between themselves or with the patients <pause dur="0.8"/> so this mode is therefore evident <pause dur="0.4"/> by heavy reliance on dialogue <pause dur="0.9"/> and it's often stylistically nondescript <pause dur="0.7"/> concerned as it is with relaying standard delivered performances <pause dur="0.9"/> the action mode re-energizes style <pause dur="0.4"/> and depicts the urgent treatment of medical cases <pause dur="1.7"/> and various <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> styles are recruited to emphasize the contingency <pause dur="0.4"/> the immediacy and the urgency of those cases <pause dur="1.9"/> in fact in that transition to action mode <pause dur="0.4"/> # the ward based medical dramas delight <pause dur="0.3"/> in foregrounding

the radical contingency of accidents <pause dur="0.6"/> and the sudden turn for the worse that can befall patients <pause dur="0.6"/> unlike the horror film where moments of gore liberation <pause dur="0.2"/> are carefully prepared for by sound and image <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> the nineties medical drama profits from the realistic <pause dur="0.4"/> assumption that accidents can happen anywhere <pause dur="0.3"/> any time <pause dur="2.0"/> so the sudden event of an ambulance stretcher bursting through those double swing doors is clearly the most familiar icon that signals that transition that move into action mode <pause dur="3.7"/> okay <pause dur="1.1"/> just give you an example of that action mode this is from Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="1.0"/> okay and <trunc>th</trunc> as i say the transition is sudden <pause dur="0.3"/> okay it's not prepared for <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> this is a the most extreme example i could <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>find okay <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>and it's quite <pause dur="0.6"/> # unsettling <pause dur="0.4"/> but clearly the pace of the cutting changes the lighting changes we're introduced # <unclear>exordited</unclear> music is introduced <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> we're offered a different style yes <pause dur="3.8"/><event desc="starts video tape" iterated="n"/> so it's an R-T-A accident <pause dur="0.7"/> an R-T-A </u><pause dur="2:43.4"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="2:42"/><event desc="stops video tape" iterated="n" n="nm0063"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause">

okay <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> so that's really <pause dur="0.3"/> there's no preparation for that moment where the the tube goes in you don't <pause dur="0.3"/> that's just given to you and it's lit very very brightly yeah so you don't miss <pause dur="0.5"/> you know you can't miss it <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> it's quite interesting that sequence because i mean it's it's <pause dur="0.6"/> very very extended <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> and <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>very very excessive i think <pause dur="0.4"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> sort of shots of <pause dur="0.4"/> # # of <pause dur="0.2"/> of that woman in pain <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> how that's used to balance # against Scissors' decision when he sees the driver of the car who <pause dur="0.2"/> who <trunc>ki</trunc> who <pause dur="0.2"/> she dies obviously <pause dur="0.6"/> who <trunc>ki</trunc> he killed this woman <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> he doesn't treat her he doesn't treat <pause dur="0.5"/> he doesn't treat the driver of the car because the driver of the car is male <pause dur="0.6"/> is white <pause dur="0.5"/> yes <pause dur="0.3"/> he's <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/><shift feature="voice" new="mimicking another's voice"/> just made a lot of money <pause dur="0.5"/><shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> yeah <pause dur="0.5"/><shift feature="voice" new="mimicking another's voice"/> i got a bit pissed 'cause i just made a lot of money <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>yeah he's given <pause dur="0.4"/> as many of the characteristics yes that are associated actually with that older male culture as possible <pause dur="0.5"/> and Scissors therefore who's quite a good doctor yeah <pause dur="0.6"/> and he refuses to treat him <pause dur="0.6"/> okay so there's a there's a

kind of balancing going on there there's a there's a <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a you're being offered <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> should he be given treatment <pause dur="0.3"/> for causing that <pause dur="0.5"/> you know that extreme level of pain <pause dur="1.0"/> so the the move from reflection to action takes place generally speaking takes place in the hospital corridor <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> and of course the hospital corridor's is the place between <pause dur="0.3"/> the unregulated outside world <pause dur="0.3"/> and the regulated <pause dur="0.2"/> but falling apart <pause dur="0.3"/> inside world of the hospital <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's # that's what # Mark Greene refers to at the end of the episode of E-R you saw on Friday <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> it's as he said something about <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a sense of the <trunc>ins</trunc> outside getting inside i thought we could <trunc>kee</trunc> this place should be safe <pause dur="0.3"/> but in fact it's got into the hospital <pause dur="1.0"/> yeah <pause dur="0.9"/> so the style in a in the mode of action the style changes to a faster tempo <pause dur="0.6"/> use of Steadicam or hand-held camera <pause dur="0.3"/> rapid cut cutting <pause dur="0.3"/> the fragmentation of bodies yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> so you got a lot of shots of <pause dur="0.3"/> kind of bits of body hands <pause dur="0.4"/> bits of faces yes rapid fragmentation of bodies <pause dur="0.5"/> the dialogue

changes it becomes a very very fast medico <pause dur="0.4"/> # medibabble <pause dur="0.4"/> yes lots of <pause dur="0.6"/> sort of babbling about medical <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> technobabble yeah <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> okay so that <pause dur="0.3"/> that style changes we <pause dur="0.2"/> often get low-key lighting which is contrasted with bright shots of the injuries themselves <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> like in this sequence where <pause dur="0.6"/> # we had that very very bright shot of the plastic tube being inserted into the body cavity <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and lots of special effects # bleeding is usually visible attached to a pulse <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> generally speaking it's explicit but not hard core <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> The Nation's Health <pause dur="0.5"/> # is a bit of an exception because The Nation's Health used real <pause dur="0.4"/> operations <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> surgeons who were willing to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> have their operations <pause dur="0.5"/> or their # <trunc>op</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> their <pause dur="0.3"/> medical procedures filmed <pause dur="0.3"/> so actually The Nation's Health is very hard core in what it shows <pause dur="0.6"/> there's a lot of coyness actually even in contemporary medical drama <pause dur="0.4"/> # so that bit where <pause dur="0.5"/> # she's # the patient's aborting <pause dur="0.4"/> her child we don't see that yes what we see is Raj <pause dur="0.2"/> seeing that <pause dur="0.4"/> okay so <pause dur="0.2"/> there's

kind of a limit to those special effects <pause dur="0.9"/> i guess limits of taste <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> so well the sense of <pause dur="0.2"/> of that # <pause dur="1.2"/> action mode is <pause dur="0.4"/> is not really of an ordered procedure but more one of confusion <pause dur="0.9"/> and there's also the sense that the patients are resisting <pause dur="0.4"/> there's there's <pause dur="1.0"/> a <pause dur="0.3"/> a kind of # <pause dur="0.2"/> a frequently used <pause dur="0.6"/> # shot of patient attached to lots of lines and then moving around <pause dur="0.7"/> yeah sort of struggling against it <pause dur="0.5"/> sort of <pause dur="0.8"/> you know it's quite a potent image because it signals a sense of needles moving around in the skin the possibility of yes attachment to <pause dur="0.5"/> # # kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> # # # drugs and things <pause dur="2.5"/> and of course the outcome of those scenes of action scenes <pause dur="0.8"/> has a greater impact on the doctor and the hospital rather than the patient generally speaking we don't follow up <pause dur="0.5"/> # what happens to the patient in any real detail the exception of course in Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.4"/> is the boy who's waiting for <pause dur="0.4"/> # dialysis # # for a <trunc>k</trunc> a kidney # donation <pause dur="0.3"/> # that's rather unusual <pause dur="0.4"/> to keep returning to one patient again and again <pause dur="0.3"/> clearly

his function <pause dur="0.3"/> is to show <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>hel</trunc> the Helen Baxendale character <pause dur="0.4"/> is to place her in a position of care <pause dur="0.4"/> yes she's given him as her little boy <pause dur="0.4"/> you know to look after and be nice to <pause dur="0.8"/> okay we'll talk more about Baxendale in the seminars <pause dur="1.4"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/> there's a sort of a sigh of <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="mimicking an other's voice"/>oh no <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/> now modes of reflection <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> are not quite as stylistically # inventive <pause dur="0.3"/> but i think are very very interesting they're usually a lot quiet quieter <pause dur="0.3"/> but can also have stylized <pause dur="0.3"/> moments <pause dur="1.1"/> what i want to think about is the way in which <pause dur="0.5"/> # the dialogue is constructed around <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>th</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>sen</trunc> that sense of professionalism <pause dur="3.6"/> generally speaking the programmes i've been talking about Cardiac Arrest and other medical dramas and even the you know the police series and the # London's Burning and things like that <pause dur="0.3"/> have professional advisers <pause dur="0.8"/> whether they're from the Met or whether they're actual doctors or surgeons <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> so there's # that <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of level of authenticity is given <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # # <pause dur="0.6"/> to those # # <pause dur="0.6"/> to the # <pause dur="0.2"/> the action procedures and to <pause dur="0.3"/> # the exchanges that # # <pause dur="0.2"/> # the dialogue exchanges in

<trunc>mo</trunc> modes of reflection <pause dur="0.9"/> you can generally spot when these <pause dur="0.6"/> # exchanges are going to happen <pause dur="0.3"/> in Casualty it's usually <pause dur="0.4"/> # prefaced by <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> Charlie will say a word <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/> yeah a word in my office <pause dur="0.3"/> and they go away into a little space and they have their words yeah and these are <pause dur="0.2"/> what i'd call reflection modes <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> so a word is is kind of an obvious signal but sometimes it doesn't happen like that sometimes it's just cut <pause dur="0.4"/> to the <pause dur="0.5"/> # mode of reflection i call it reflection as distinct from any other <pause dur="0.2"/> narrative mode in there <pause dur="0.3"/> 'cause it's a way in which the the <pause dur="0.2"/> the professionals are talking about <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> what's happened in the modes of action <pause dur="0.4"/> but talking about their procedure rather than talking about # sort of their personal matters or anything like that <pause dur="0.2"/> although clearly the personal <pause dur="0.3"/> issues get <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # embedded <pause dur="0.3"/> in those exchanges <pause dur="0.5"/> so i've i've <pause dur="0.2"/> kind of created a rather schematic <pause dur="1.0"/> sort of frighteningly simple <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> way of thinking about these exchanges <pause dur="0.4"/> let's put it on the <pause dur="1.2"/><event desc="turns on overhead projector" iterated="n"/> overhead <pause dur="0.6"/> <unclear>now the</unclear><kinesic desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="adjusts transparency" iterated="y" dur="3"/> <pause dur="1.3"/> # that's better yes here we go <pause dur="3.7"/> okay exchanges between <pause dur="1.8"/>

# <pause dur="0.6"/> between professionals <pause dur="3.5"/> okay so the first one <pause dur="0.2"/> goes senior <pause dur="0.2"/> to junior <pause dur="0.3"/> i've never <pause dur="0.5"/> written on one of these before see if i can do it <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="writes on transparency" iterated="y" dur="1"/> senior <pause dur="1.2"/> can you see that <pause dur="0.8"/> that's meant to be an arrow by the way <pause dur="1.0"/> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> okay that's the direction <pause dur="0.4"/> senior to junior <pause dur="0.6"/> you can spot these pretty quickly <pause dur="0.2"/> # they're generally the ones that start this is the way we do things around here <pause dur="0.4"/> yeah this is the procedure <pause dur="0.6"/> that we that we use around here <pause dur="0.4"/> yes <pause dur="0.3"/> it's that kind of address <pause dur="0.4"/> to the junior doctor <pause dur="1.6"/> # okay <pause dur="0.4"/> senior to junior <pause dur="1.9"/> often you get that at the beginning of a series yes where the the senior to junior dialogue is about <pause dur="0.2"/> also telling the viewer <pause dur="0.3"/> about <pause dur="0.2"/> this is the sort of this is the kind of thing we do in this genre <pause dur="0.6"/> yes <pause dur="1.2"/> this is the kind of programme it is we do this around here <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah <pause dur="2.1"/> now you've noticed # you've probably noticed i put competent and not competent there <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> this is about medical competence but it could refer to the one's <pause dur="0.2"/> you know the competence of the character as a police officer or as <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> a fireman or <pause dur="0.3"/> or a lawyer or

whatever <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> generally speaking the junior in this <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on transparency" iterated="n"/> this <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> first relationship is not competent <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.7"/> that's why they're juniors they're learning the ropes from the senior the senior is training them <pause dur="0.5"/> the senior is competent <pause dur="0.6"/> yes <pause dur="2.0"/> clearly a not competent <pause dur="0.4"/> to competent <pause dur="0.9"/> not competent senior to competent junior <pause dur="0.5"/> doesn't work this is the way we do things around here <pause dur="0.3"/> junior <pause dur="0.2"/> oh no it isn't you don't do things like that doesn't really <pause dur="0.6"/> doesn't really work <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="4.2"/> also this <kinesic desc="indicates transparency" iterated="n"/> exchange is an invitation <pause dur="0.3"/> # in Cardiac Arrest and the other medical dramas for the junior to explain <pause dur="0.3"/> why <pause dur="0.2"/> he didn't do he or she didn't do things <pause dur="0.2"/> as they should be done around here <pause dur="0.5"/> personal circumstances prevented <pause dur="0.2"/> me from doing it properly <pause dur="0.3"/> i haven't been trained <pause dur="0.6"/> # to do that properly <pause dur="0.6"/> yes <pause dur="2.8"/> now that exchange that explanation really comes at the bottom it's the most radical <pause dur="0.5"/> so it's the reply if you like <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="writes on transparency" iterated="y" dur="1"/> not competent <pause dur="2.8"/> junior <pause dur="0.3"/> to senior that's the reply happens down at the bottom there <pause dur="3.7"/> but it can also be

kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> more radical than that <pause dur="0.5"/> it could be when the junior member catches out the senior member breaking the rules <pause dur="0.4"/> or bending them <pause dur="0.3"/> to their own liking <pause dur="0.3"/> and that often happens in that privatization <trunc>con</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> context <pause dur="0.3"/> so you get a competent junior <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="4.1"/> talking to a <pause dur="0.5"/> a competent <pause dur="0.5"/> # # senior saying <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact you're bending the rules around here <pause dur="0.8"/> yes you're not doing things as you should and that happens a lot in Cardiac Arrest obviously <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="2.5"/> so what's crucial is is the discrepancy in that exchange is the discrepancy between how things should be done the real this is how we do things around here <pause dur="0.4"/> and the <trunc>offi</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> if you like the official version <pause dur="0.2"/> and the actual practice <pause dur="2.6"/> okay <pause dur="1.1"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="5.0"/> obviously the other one is equal <pause dur="0.4"/> equal rank to equal rank <pause dur="0.2"/> i've got handouts of this so you can <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="writes on transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> so junior to junior <pause dur="1.4"/> to finish it up <pause dur="0.2"/> senior <pause dur="0.2"/> to senior <pause dur="1.3"/> 'cause these people are ranked equally and this is often a source of disagreement and conflict yes <pause dur="0.4"/> this is the way we do things around here no it

isn't we do it this way <pause dur="0.4"/> they're both of the same rank <pause dur="0.2"/> yes <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but the disagreements are likely to be caused by personal conflict <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> this equal to equal <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>e</trunc> exchange <pause dur="0.2"/> is likely to be particularly <pause dur="0.3"/> potent # # <pause dur="0.3"/> if the equals are sleeping together <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah which they often are <pause dur="0.2"/> in those sorts of exchanges <pause dur="0.3"/> and in fact <pause dur="0.3"/> personal relationships start disrupting <pause dur="0.3"/> all of these exchanges <pause dur="0.3"/> so senior to junior where the senior is <pause dur="0.3"/> having a relationship with a junior <pause dur="0.2"/> has that kind of second level <pause dur="0.3"/> second order level <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> beneath it <pause dur="0.4"/> i'll show you an example of it <pause dur="0.5"/> this is an example of a senior <pause dur="0.3"/> to junior <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/> address <pause dur="0.3"/> but clearly it also has this other second order <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> structure to it <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="0.6"/> they're lovers as well <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="3.4"/> and again it starts off <pause dur="0.2"/> this is how we do things around here <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah <event desc="starts video" iterated="n"/></u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="51"/><event desc="stops video" iterated="n" n="nm0063"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause"> so <pause dur="0.2"/> clearly the relationship changes <pause dur="0.4"/> the point when he says masterful it changes from that senior to junior level to <trunc>v</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> one of equal to equal yeah they're equal in the bed in the sack as it were <pause dur="1.2"/>

okay <pause dur="1.2"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> this relationship is further complicated by another <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> factor <pause dur="0.5"/> and that is that each of their as i've as i've mentioned at the bottom each of <pause dur="0.3"/> the senior and juniors can be good or bad <pause dur="0.2"/> very very schematic i know <pause dur="0.3"/> but can have <pause dur="0.4"/> positive or negative <pause dur="0.5"/> # characteristics <pause dur="1.7"/> so it's entirely possible for a competent senior <pause dur="0.2"/> doctor for example like Adrian <trunc>devre</trunc> DeVries to be a bad character <pause dur="0.4"/> generally speaking bad characters went to public school <pause dur="1.0"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>yes <pause dur="0.7"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>they # belong to that older <trunc>ma</trunc> machismo culture <pause dur="0.6"/> that doesn't care <pause dur="0.3"/> about <pause dur="0.4"/> # the patients <pause dur="0.5"/> yes <pause dur="0.7"/> # it's again it's this level of care if there's a low level of personal investment in the patient <pause dur="0.8"/> the lower that level is <pause dur="0.3"/> the more the the <pause dur="0.2"/> the the particular doctor will be seen as <pause dur="0.4"/> a as a bad doctor however competent <pause dur="0.3"/> and clearly the Baxendale character's very very interesting in this respect <pause dur="0.2"/> 'cause she's very competent <pause dur="0.5"/> yes in what she does <pause dur="0.4"/> but her level of care of personal investment <pause dur="0.4"/> is quite <pause dur="0.5"/> quite low <pause dur="0.2"/> on the other hand she's a recurring <pause dur="0.5"/>

character in <trunc>cardia</trunc> for the three series of Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah so you can see the in the in the second in the third series the one we're watching at the moment <pause dur="0.4"/> where in which she's trying <pause dur="0.4"/> the series tries to give her the and teach her how to care <pause dur="0.7"/> for her patients first of all it gives her <pause dur="0.4"/> the kidney the the young boy who wants a kidney donation <pause dur="0.3"/> and then secondly it gives her <pause dur="1.0"/> # this issue about Adrian DeVries and whether he loves her <pause dur="0.2"/> and whether she can understand people properly <pause dur="0.3"/> if she's never been in love <pause dur="0.4"/> yes <pause dur="0.4"/> okay which is part of the project of the <pause dur="0.3"/> of the final series of Cardiac Arrest <pause dur="0.3"/> so you can have good <pause dur="0.4"/> or bad doctors <pause dur="0.3"/> and the <pause dur="0.2"/> my <trunc>t</trunc> <pause dur="1.0"/> next clip i'm going to show you a <pause dur="0.5"/> senior to junior exchange from <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> E-R <pause dur="0.3"/> okay and this is just after an action mode <pause dur="0.3"/> so the mode <trunc>l</trunc> it leaves an action mode it's a defibrillation yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> and then it switches quite quickly into a <trunc>r</trunc> reflection mode yeah they're talking about the action <pause dur="0.6"/> and it's Greene <pause dur="0.4"/> telling # <pause dur="0.6"/> Noah Wyle what's his name <pause dur="0.2"/></u><u who="sm0065" trans="overlap"> Carter </u><u who="nm0063" trans="overlap"> Carter <pause dur="1.1"/> # </u><u who="sf0066" trans="overlap"> <vocal desc="gasp" iterated="n"/> </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause"> yes he's sort

of telling him off <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1" n="ss"/> for <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> for being not competent <pause dur="0.2"/> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> so he's accused of being <pause dur="0.3"/> not competent of not doing the procedure the way we do things around here <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.7"/> you notice the <pause dur="0.2"/> # the Carter character is rescued <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> because he cares <pause dur="0.5"/> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> that's why he's rehabilitated as a good character </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <event desc="starts video" iterated="n" n="nm0063"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="55"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause"> okay <event desc="stops video" iterated="n"/> </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause"> and in <trunc>st</trunc> Cardiac Arrest juniors doctors generally start off incompetent but good <pause dur="0.5"/> that is their <trunc>midi</trunc> medical skills are lacking <pause dur="0.2"/> but their interpersonal skills are okay <pause dur="0.5"/> they have time for their patients <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> they may be incompetent at what they do but they're good still because they ask for supervision and advice <pause dur="0.4"/> some don't however <pause dur="0.3"/> Liz Reid the character <pause dur="0.2"/> the new doctor in Cardiac Arrest doesn't ask <pause dur="0.2"/> she clearly doesn't care <pause dur="0.5"/> either <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> and she's a good example of a junior doctor who's incompetent <pause dur="0.2"/> and bad <pause dur="0.5"/> yes <pause dur="2.9"/> as i've said competent but bad doctors are

often senior like Graham Turner and Adrian DeVries <pause dur="1.0"/> and as i said the bad aspects of their characters generally come from that public school education and also their interest in private practice <pause dur="0.4"/> the result <pause dur="0.3"/> no human concern with the patient's welfare <pause dur="1.4"/> what you tend to get <pause dur="0.2"/> throughout the series is a move from <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> # from different positions yes <pause dur="0.2"/> both as we saw there within <pause dur="0.2"/> particular scenes and also the long term of the series <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> so as i've said Helen Baxendale's character moves from being competent and bad to competent and good <pause dur="0.4"/> Scissors for example is <trunc>comp</trunc> is good and good yeah he's competent and he's good <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # the <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.5"/> the younger character Andrew yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> is sometimes incompetent but always <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah always a good character <pause dur="6.8"/> so these <trunc>ref</trunc> moments of reflection modes of reflection stage the tension between maintaining the stability of professional procedure <pause dur="0.4"/> and a satisfactory personal life <pause dur="1.8"/> the second the satisfactory personal life is always prioritized over <pause dur="0.4"/>

the stability of professional procedure <pause dur="1.2"/> so doctors who can only relate to patients on a procedural level <pause dur="0.2"/> are bad <pause dur="0.3"/> doctors <pause dur="0.6"/> those who offer authentic personal investment in what they're doing <pause dur="0.3"/> are good <pause dur="2.0"/> what happens in Cardiac Arrest is that a new generation of doctors <pause dur="0.2"/> are prevented from being good <pause dur="0.3"/> by the system <pause dur="0.6"/> so they lose faith in their own ability <pause dur="0.5"/> what Cardiac and this is why the importance of training <pause dur="0.7"/> they can't be good <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="0.2"/> they're not supervised or trained to be <pause dur="0.5"/> yes <pause dur="1.1"/> they can't be competent i mean they're always good </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0063" trans="pause"> i think the second tendency is generation specific there's been a lot on the news <pause dur="0.6"/> # recently about # <pause dur="0.3"/> Generation Y is it <pause dur="0.6"/> there's Generation X a sort of a new <trunc>n</trunc> study of sixteen to twenty-one year olds saying that their <pause dur="0.3"/> their aspirations are different they're supposedly ambitious <pause dur="0.6"/> # seventy-two per cent of them think that <pause dur="0.4"/> whatever they do in <pause dur="0.5"/> # <trunc>w</trunc> however they vote they'll make no impact on political life seventy-two per cent think they <trunc>c</trunc> they <trunc>c</trunc> they will make no

impact <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but i think <pause dur="0.5"/> the one of the innovative things about Cardiac Arrest was the youth <pause dur="0.2"/> of the actors yes they were all in their early to mid-twenties when <pause dur="0.4"/> when it started <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> this is a quote from an interview i did with the writer with <pause dur="0.2"/> from Jed Mercurio <pause dur="1.9"/> i asked him about why the the # # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>c</trunc> doctors were so young was it just realism <pause dur="1.2"/> # he said <reading>that was really apparent when we came to casting it first <pause dur="0.5"/> they</reading> <pause dur="0.2"/> meaning the production company <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>they were thinking of people in their thirties i said no <pause dur="0.4"/> they've got to be younger for realism <pause dur="1.7"/> it was really about a twenty-something bloke <pause dur="0.3"/> where everything he'd do is life-threatening and all the women are nuts <pause dur="0.8"/> i wanted it to be really grungey <pause dur="0.7"/> Kurt Cobain killing himself</reading> and he references this as a kind of key <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> # event while he was writing the series <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>really grungey about people in their mid-twenties with no sense of belonging <pause dur="0.6"/> that's what i thought the series was about but the producers didn't get it</reading> <pause dur="0.4"/> and the producer's # <pause dur="0.3"/> is Tony Garnett <pause dur="0.4"/>

yes <pause dur="0.6"/> there's this kind of rather interesting <pause dur="0.4"/> disagreement <pause dur="0.2"/> # between Mercurio the writer and Tony Garnett <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> you probably know that Cardiac Arrest began <pause dur="0.4"/> as an advertisement i think in the British Medical Journal or the Lancet asking for <pause dur="0.2"/> a junior doctor <pause dur="0.6"/> who would want who would <pause dur="0.5"/> does anyone want to write for television for a T-V sitcom a T-V comedy about <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> hospitals <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # Mercurio applied and got the job <pause dur="0.5"/> # but wanted it to be <pause dur="0.4"/> something different something <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> more realistic <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="2.4"/> in in particular # i'll show you he's in the in in the documentary i'm going to show you <pause dur="0.3"/> but in particular he's very influenced by the Hill Street Blues <pause dur="0.3"/> idea of a kind of grainy <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # realism <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> in a way <pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> you know Mercurio was a junior doctor <pause dur="0.3"/><shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> yes <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> he <pause dur="0.3"/> # part of the way the programme is sold is through the fact that it's authentic because he's lived it