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<title>Introduction to new realism</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>

<idno>ahlct015</idno>

<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any

way</p>

<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>

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<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Film and Television Studies</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

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<u who="nm0067"> <kinesic desc="slide projector is on showing slide" iterated="n"/><event desc="music plays" iterated="y" dur="49:50"/> you should # <pause dur="0.9"/> welcome back <pause dur="0.2"/> happy new year <pause dur="0.5"/> my name's <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> for those of you who i don't know which is most people <pause dur="0.6"/> # and i'm teaching this course this term <pause dur="0.3"/> and there are three handouts <pause dur="0.6"/> the first says at the top Aspects of European Cinema spring term nineteen-ninety-nine <pause dur="0.6"/> # Italian Cinema blah blah blah <pause dur="6.8"/><event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> so where are the the handouts are still <trunc>goi</trunc> # is the first handout <pause dur="0.6"/> got to the end yet <pause dur="1.0"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/></u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="ss" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm0067" trans="pause"> great <pause dur="0.2"/> thanks <pause dur="7.0"/><event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> thanks <pause dur="5.2"/> and then the second handout <pause dur="2.7"/> says at the top course outline <pause dur="0.7"/> # week one introduction to course neo-realism <pause dur="0.3"/> has that reached the <pause dur="0.2"/> end <pause dur="4.8"/> and the third <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>out</trunc> the third handout which is just one sheet of paper <pause dur="0.3"/> says on one side neo-realism <pause dur="0.3"/> and on the other side it says <pause dur="0.3"/> Paisà <pause dur="5.6"/><event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> thanks <pause dur="15.6"/> afraid your little # <pause dur="0.3"/> bobble has come off <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="4.7"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/> now what i'm going to do in this session <pause dur="0.5"/> this music which is sort of playing gently in the background <pause dur="0.4"/> is all from # neo-realists' films it's a selection of <pause dur="0.4"/> various <pause dur="0.4"/> soundtracks from neo-realist films <pause dur="0.6"/> # <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/>

what i'm going to do in this session <pause dur="0.5"/> is first of all to # do what i think of as sort of housekeeping <pause dur="0.3"/> to sort of organizational matters <pause dur="0.6"/> # then secondly i'm going to give you a sort of <pause dur="0.5"/> very general <pause dur="0.2"/> introduction to neo-realism a kind of taster really <pause dur="0.3"/> of the first part of the course <pause dur="0.4"/> and then i'm actually going to introduce at a bit greater length both this afternoon's films <pause dur="0.3"/> and also the next two films after that <pause dur="0.4"/> # because as you're only seeing each of them once at least <pause dur="0.3"/> # # <trunc>f</trunc> at a formal screening <pause dur="0.3"/> it's quite important that # you're actually primed to look for things and so on and have a sense of <pause dur="0.4"/> where they're coming from <pause dur="0.4"/> you're rather being thrown straight in the deep end with not having a screening <pause dur="0.4"/> before term obviously <pause dur="0.6"/> so if we <trunc>c</trunc> if you could turn first then just on the sort of housekeeping front <pause dur="0.4"/> to the # the first handout Aspects of European Cinema it's that's what it says at the top <pause dur="0.7"/> just one or two points to make i'm not going to sort of read

through all of this <pause dur="0.3"/> but just one or two points to make <pause dur="0.2"/> about this <pause dur="0.3"/> the first one is <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>please read it <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> all the information is there and if the information isn't there <pause dur="0.4"/> obviously please let me know what i have left out <pause dur="0.3"/> # but that is the basic sort of organizational things please do actually take the trouble to read it <pause dur="0.4"/> can i just draw your attention to two changes from last term <pause dur="0.5"/> one is the timetable <pause dur="0.3"/> which # # most of you seem to have <trunc>re</trunc> # remembered this change in the timetable <pause dur="0.2"/> but also i think i'm right in saying the screening <pause dur="0.4"/> is either earlier than i thought it was or earlier than it was last year on Friday <pause dur="0.3"/> was it twelve o'clock <trunc>o</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> on Friday always </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf0068" trans="pause"> mm </u><u who="nm0067" trans="overlap"> it was just me that thought it was two o'clock okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's there's only the only changes really are <trunc>f</trunc> today <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>m</trunc> # the <trunc>s</trunc> the lecture and screening <pause dur="0.7"/> the other change to take note of is the <pause dur="0.3"/> deadline for the long essay <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> and that is actually a week later <pause dur="0.4"/> than it says in the course <pause dur="0.3"/> handbook it's actually the first Monday of the

vacation <pause dur="0.4"/> and the reason for doing that is just quite simply that those that if that that if you wish to write about <pause dur="0.3"/> Fellini in general <pause dur="0.3"/> # obviously you can't really have the deadline <pause dur="0.2"/> when you're <trunc>s</trunc> when we're still <pause dur="0.3"/> lecturing and watching # Fellini movies <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's really to allow you the <trunc>f</trunc> maximum flexibility in what you choose to write about <pause dur="0.2"/> so the essay is actually a week <pause dur="0.3"/> later you can hand it in earlier if you wanted obviously <pause dur="0.4"/> but # the that the deadline is the first Monday of the vacation <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> otherwise <trunc>e</trunc> thing's i think are fairly straightforward i'm always <pause dur="0.3"/> perfectly happy to talk to people about other essay titles than the ones that are actually listed here <pause dur="0.3"/> if they if you if there are things you really want to pursue <pause dur="0.3"/> that i haven't actually signalled in the essays <pause dur="0.3"/> just come and see me and we can talk about the viability of it and so on but <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm always very happy for people to <pause dur="0.2"/> pursue their own ideas <pause dur="0.2"/> one other small thing i mean i've i've just put a little thing in

brackets at the bottom of the first page <pause dur="0.3"/> # about the about <pause dur="0.2"/> conventions about <pause dur="0.2"/> how you write titles in Italian <pause dur="0.3"/> now i don't want you to be too sort of # <pause dur="0.8"/><shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> traumatized <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> by the <trunc>prob</trunc> the fact of using Italian language i mean <pause dur="0.4"/> think there might be at least one person here who won't <pause dur="0.2"/> certainly won't be traumatized <pause dur="0.3"/> but # most # most obviously most people here don't know Italian at all <pause dur="0.3"/> and i don't want you to get into a terrible state about it <pause dur="0.4"/> but nonetheless you should <pause dur="0.4"/> as scholars <pause dur="0.2"/> write the titles of films and of any books or texts that you refer to <pause dur="0.3"/> # in Italian <trunc>a</trunc> <trunc>or</trunc> and <pause dur="0.3"/> get the <pause dur="0.2"/> not only get it correct in terms of spelling which is just a question of looking <pause dur="0.3"/> but also get it correct in terms of the <pause dur="0.2"/> convention <pause dur="0.2"/> for <trunc>represent</trunc> for making titles in Italian and that is # <pause dur="0.3"/> explained on this sheet <pause dur="0.6"/> now one of the things about what we're actually going to call the films <pause dur="0.3"/> and you'll notice that # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> i've <trunc>s</trunc> i sometimes slip between if you if you turn to the projection rota

for instance <pause dur="0.5"/> # i sort of slip between <pause dur="0.3"/> giving the # Italian title then putting the translation in brackets <pause dur="0.3"/> or else just giving the Italian title <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's simply because of # kind of what has become conventionalized in other words <pause dur="0.4"/> no one calls <distinct lang="it">la</distinct> <trunc>s</trunc> no one in England calls <pause dur="0.4"/> La Strada the road which is what it means it it's never called that <pause dur="0.2"/> in film study i don't know why but it isn't <pause dur="0.3"/> on the other hand <pause dur="0.3"/> few # # few # # British people feel <pause dur="0.2"/> brave enough to say Ladri di Biciclette <pause dur="0.5"/> like that even even as bad as bad as that <pause dur="0.3"/> they'd rather say Bicycle Thieves so it's become a kind of convention <pause dur="0.2"/> so in terms of our speaking <pause dur="0.2"/> you don't need to get your head # <pause dur="0.2"/><shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> head <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> your mouth around <pause dur="0.3"/> <distinct lang="it">biciclette</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> # you can <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>say Bicycle Thieves <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> but in the essays you should write it <pause dur="0.2"/> # correctly in Italian <pause dur="0.7"/> # i think that's all i want to say about this sort of level of housekeeping except just to draw your <pause dur="0.2"/> attention to the structure of the course <pause dur="1.4"/> the course # is # in basically in <pause dur="0.3"/> three parts

the last part of which actually <pause dur="0.2"/> relates to the first two parts <pause dur="0.7"/> the first two parts deal with first of all neo-realism which is the first four weeks <pause dur="0.3"/> # and then # popular genre cinema <pause dur="0.2"/> in the middle # three weeks although it's only two 'cause one of them's a reading week <pause dur="0.7"/> and there we're looking at a contrast of practices within Italian cinema <pause dur="0.2"/> in this period <pause dur="0.3"/> that's to say we're looking at what is most famous in Italian cinema in the period <pause dur="0.3"/> namely neo-realism this is the most famous thing that anyone knows <pause dur="0.3"/> about Italian cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> a great period of of cinema Italian neo-realism so we're starting with that <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of canonical moment <pause dur="0.6"/> and that was a moment which was particularly concerned with <pause dur="0.4"/> # make with sort of trying to capture the spirit of the Italian people <pause dur="0.2"/> trying to show <pause dur="0.3"/> the ordinary lives of ordinary Italian people <pause dur="0.2"/> so it was very much concerned with the idea of <pause dur="0.3"/> the popular classes with the popular in the sense of <pause dur="0.2"/> the life of the people <pause dur="0.5"/> however <pause dur="0.5"/> the people <pause dur="0.3"/>

actually went to see <pause dur="0.2"/> epics and comedies and melodramas <pause dur="0.3"/> # and that's what we're looking at in the second part of the <pause dur="0.3"/> course particularly epics and comedies <pause dur="0.3"/> we're looking at the kinds of <pause dur="0.3"/> popular cinema the big box office hits <pause dur="0.3"/> # that were # that appeared at the time <pause dur="0.3"/> and some people have actually <trunc>s</trunc> been struck by this contrast of a <pause dur="0.3"/> of a <trunc>pe</trunc> of of a kind of filmmaking that is in a way <pause dur="0.3"/> about the people <pause dur="0.2"/> neo-realism and a kind of filmmaking <pause dur="0.5"/> that is <pause dur="0.2"/> for the people <pause dur="0.3"/> which is actually a comedy an epic and melodrama <pause dur="0.3"/> now as we <pause dur="0.4"/> as the course develops you'll <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>re</trunc> realize that it's <pause dur="0.2"/> that neat distinction is not quite that <pause dur="0.5"/> simple that a lot of neo-realist films were in fact <pause dur="0.3"/> very popular at the box office and were very melodramatic and could be comedies <pause dur="0.3"/> and similarly of course not every <pause dur="0.2"/> epic or comedy actually <pause dur="0.3"/> did very well at the box office so <pause dur="0.2"/> the distinction becomes more complicated when you look at it <pause dur="0.3"/> but that's the basic distinction <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm working with in the first two

parts of the course <pause dur="0.6"/> in the final part of the course <pause dur="0.3"/> we're looking at the work of Federico Fellini <pause dur="0.4"/> and what's interesting about Fellini <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> is that <pause dur="1.2"/> on the one hand he came out of neo-realism he was <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the scriptwriters even in Paisà which we're seeing this afternoon <pause dur="0.4"/> so he was very involved with neo-realism <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>he</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> but at the same time he also made extremely <pause dur="0.4"/> popular films particularly comedies in the early part of his career <pause dur="0.3"/> La Dolce Vita was one of the biggest box office hits in the history of Italian cinema <pause dur="0.8"/> # but his later films and even when you look at them the earlier films are actually very ambiguous in what they really think <pause dur="0.2"/> about both neo-realism <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> popular genre cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> so Fellini quite apart from being a wonderful filmmaker <pause dur="0.4"/> is particularly interesting to look at <pause dur="0.3"/> in the context of having looked at <pause dur="0.3"/> neo-realism and popular genre cinema <pause dur="0.4"/> so that's why the three <pause dur="0.3"/> that's the relationship between <pause dur="0.2"/> the three parts of the course <pause dur="0.3"/> # and i'll keep

signalling that as we go through the course <pause dur="1.1"/> okay well i'm to turn from that to # <pause dur="1.1"/> # saying something <pause dur="0.2"/> a little bit more about the course outline <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> now if you turn to the # # the sort of fattest bit really the course outline <pause dur="0.4"/> # i just wanted to make one or two again in a way organizational points about this <pause dur="0.7"/> the first is to say that <pause dur="0.3"/> about the readings <pause dur="0.2"/> now on the one hand this is not everything there is that could be read <pause dur="0.2"/> here <trunc>b</trunc> on all these topics <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and it's not nor is it everything i expect you to read <pause dur="0.6"/> basically what i've put down here <pause dur="0.3"/> in the readings are very good starting points <pause dur="0.4"/> and starting points particularly related <pause dur="0.3"/> to the work <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> in each week so <trunc>a</trunc> as as we go through in each week <pause dur="0.4"/> so you should really see these # <pause dur="0.5"/> recommendations as recommended starting points <pause dur="0.3"/> rather than kind of this is the reading <pause dur="0.2"/> for this week and when you've read that you've read everything <pause dur="0.3"/> so on the one hand i'm not saying you've got to read that one <pause dur="0.3"/>

you've actually got to <trunc>des</trunc> you've actually got to glance through things and think well actually this looks like <pause dur="0.4"/> the sort of thing that <pause dur="0.3"/> really <pause dur="0.2"/> talks about it in a way that i find useful <pause dur="0.2"/> so you've got to learn to <pause dur="0.2"/> discriminate between <pause dur="0.3"/> different texts different accounts and so on <pause dur="0.2"/> part of what becoming <pause dur="0.4"/> # you know a good student is is knowing how to <pause dur="0.2"/> distinguish between <pause dur="0.3"/> # different kinds of texts you may come across critical texts you may come across <pause dur="0.3"/> so i deliberately don't say oh this is the one <pause dur="0.2"/> i recommend this above all <pause dur="0.4"/> so on the one hand i'm not saying <pause dur="0.2"/> you must read this <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm saying these are good starting points for reading <pause dur="0.2"/> and i expect you to explore and obviously <pause dur="0.2"/> essays which show that people have really explored <pause dur="0.2"/> explored the library <pause dur="0.2"/> explored the C-D-ROMs in the library and followed up on <pause dur="0.3"/> things they've found through that <pause dur="0.4"/> that shows in an essay <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's obviously something for which you get <pause dur="0.3"/> you get credit as well <pause dur="0.9"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> the readings as i say are not sort

of are not <pause dur="0.3"/> things that <pause dur="0.3"/> # you have to read <pause dur="0.3"/> they're good starting points <pause dur="0.2"/> and the point is for you to develop your own <pause dur="0.2"/> scholarship really in relation to <pause dur="0.3"/> the topic week by week <pause dur="0.7"/> and some things i don't really put at all for instance i don't bother to list all the books <pause dur="0.2"/> about Rossellini <pause dur="0.2"/> # that there are in the library and not even all the books about Fellini <pause dur="0.4"/> # the i did for instance for this week <pause dur="0.3"/> mention the Brunette book on Rossellini because i think it's particularly good <pause dur="0.4"/> # so in that particular case i suppose i am actually recommending it <pause dur="0.2"/> as a particularly good starting point <pause dur="0.2"/> but there are other books on Rossellini in the library <pause dur="0.2"/> and you may look at them and think they're better <pause dur="0.6"/> # so i certainly <trunc>d</trunc> things like genres directors <pause dur="0.2"/> and i don't certainly don't give you general reading on the notion of genre or authorship or something i <trunc>s</trunc> assume <pause dur="0.3"/> you know all of that and don't need <pause dur="0.3"/> more theoretical input from me <pause dur="0.4"/> so # again the reading <pause dur="0.2"/> is not this is not meant to

be you should not see this as a complete reading list <pause dur="0.2"/> on the contrary it's an <trunc>ind</trunc> indication of where to start <pause dur="0.3"/> and if there are particular areas that you take up an interest in and <pause dur="0.3"/> can't <pause dur="0.2"/> don't quite know how to find your way around the library obviously come and see me <pause dur="0.3"/> and we can talk about that <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> again i don't <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>w</trunc> <trunc>e</trunc> <trunc>und</trunc> under the films you'll see each week it's # there's there's reading which relates to the topic of the week <pause dur="0.3"/> and there's reading that's very specifically relates <pause dur="0.2"/> to the film of the week <pause dur="0.3"/> and again i don't sort of say oh well you might have a look at <pause dur="0.4"/> Peter Bondanella's general history of # what's it called <pause dur="0.7"/> Italian Cinema from Neo-realism to the Present oh yeah i <trunc>d</trunc> i don't bother to list that <pause dur="0.2"/> for you to go and look and see what he says about Paisà i <pause dur="0.2"/> i assume that you'll realize <pause dur="0.4"/> that any general history <pause dur="0.2"/> or any general book on a director or a # an area or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> may well be worth looking at <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of the film of the week <pause dur="0.3"/> it's much more i try to # draw your

attention <pause dur="0.2"/> to things that you might <pause dur="0.4"/> not come across otherwise like the <pause dur="0.3"/> chapter in Film Hieroglyphs you're unlikely just to <pause dur="0.3"/> casually come across that <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so what i've been doing so far is just organizational matters trying to explain the structure of the course <pause dur="0.2"/> something about # how the how we work and so on <pause dur="1.1"/> now i want to turn from that then <pause dur="0.3"/> to actually talking about <pause dur="0.3"/> the # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> subject <pause dur="0.3"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> # this <trunc>s</trunc> part of the course <pause dur="0.3"/> which is <pause dur="0.2"/> namely neo-realism <pause dur="0.7"/> now let me first <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> if you can just first get this <pause dur="0.2"/> lit up <pause dur="0.6"/> to be going on with </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0067" trans="pause"> okay now i'm just going to begin by giving you a <pause dur="0.4"/> a flavour <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> neo-realism from just <trunc>b</trunc> by having partly the background music from the films <pause dur="0.3"/> and then just looking at one or two examples of <pause dur="0.2"/> posters or <pause dur="0.3"/> slides or stills from the films <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> basically neo-realism is a period of Italian <pause dur="0.5"/> cinema production <pause dur="0.3"/> usually dated from the mid-forties to the early fifties <pause dur="0.3"/> although again as we will be discussing next term <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> quite a <vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> lot <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> # debate is <pause dur="0.2"/> really about

when and when it starts and particularly when it finishes <pause dur="0.4"/> # and i come back to that in a moment <pause dur="0.4"/> many people see this film Ossessione obsession <pause dur="0.3"/> which is actually the <pause dur="1.1"/> second film version <pause dur="0.4"/> of The Postman Always Rings Twice <pause dur="0.4"/> there are actually four versions the first was French then this one then the <pause dur="0.3"/> two Hollywood ones were later <pause dur="0.4"/> # but this is <trunc>son</trunc> nonetheless seen <pause dur="0.3"/> as as something that <pause dur="0.3"/> was perhaps the first <pause dur="0.3"/> # Italian neo-realist film actually made in about nineteen-forty-one and almost instantly banned <pause dur="0.3"/> by Mussolini who <pause dur="0.3"/> thought it gave a degrading picture of # <pause dur="0.3"/> life in Italy <pause dur="0.4"/> but nonetheless and i'll show you an extract from that next week <pause dur="0.2"/> so there's an argument about <trunc>whe</trunc> whether it starts <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but it's usually <pause dur="0.4"/> # associated particularly with Rome Open City <pause dur="0.2"/> and Paisan which we're looking at <pause dur="0.3"/> but i suppose the film that most people have heard of <pause dur="0.3"/> is Bicycle Thieves # i guess it's the most famous <pause dur="0.3"/> Italian neo-realist film <pause dur="0.3"/> this is just the poster from it of course

what's quite interesting about it <pause dur="0.3"/> is the graphic style <pause dur="0.3"/> the fact that it's actually done in this <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of for a film poster rather impressionistic style <pause dur="0.3"/> rather <pause dur="0.2"/> not actually of course quite sophisticated but nonetheless <pause dur="0.2"/> quite simple looking as a style <pause dur="0.3"/> there was none of the kind of grandeur <pause dur="0.2"/> and special effects that even by <pause dur="0.2"/> the forties had become standard <pause dur="0.2"/> in posters <pause dur="0.2"/> so even in the <pause dur="0.2"/> even the fact that you've just got rather ordinary people <pause dur="0.2"/> and it's drawn in this particular or painted <pause dur="0.3"/> in this rather daubed on style even that <pause dur="0.3"/> is an indication of a different kind of cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> from the from the <pause dur="0.3"/> popular grandiose entertainment cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> that had been <pause dur="0.3"/> popular both in Hollywood <pause dur="0.3"/> but also in Italian in Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> in # the period before neo-realism <pause dur="0.3"/> so the but this as i say is the is the poster for <pause dur="0.3"/> the most famous <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> <trunc>ex</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> # Italian neo-realist film <pause dur="0.7"/> but there are an awful lot of Italian neo-realist films that actually most people outside of Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> have never heard of and that

actually don't exist in subtitled prints <pause dur="0.3"/> and can't really be shown <pause dur="0.4"/> this for instance # is a film called <pause dur="0.4"/> Molti Sogni per le Strade many cares along the road <pause dur="0.3"/> which is actually a comedy and an awful lot of Italian neo-realist films when you start to look <pause dur="0.3"/> are in fact comedies <pause dur="0.3"/> # and # this actually stars Anna Magnani who is one of the biggest <pause dur="0.3"/> stars of <pause dur="0.3"/> # Italian neo-realism she is the kind of the unforgettable star of Rome Open City <pause dur="0.4"/> but she's she was actually a very well known star in the period generally <pause dur="0.2"/> as indeed was Massimo Girotti <pause dur="0.3"/> who plays the hero in Ossessione <pause dur="0.3"/> so often in fact movie stars despite what you may have read <pause dur="0.3"/> movie stars did appear <pause dur="0.3"/> in Italian neo-realist films and again it's something we'll <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> come back to talking about <pause dur="0.8"/> this is another <pause dur="0.4"/> # just a sort of popular drama film <pause dur="0.2"/> that was nonetheless a neo-realist film it's means <pause dur="0.2"/> spring is here <pause dur="0.4"/> # so it's just another example <pause dur="0.2"/> but i'm just trying to suggest that <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a whole <pause dur="0.5"/> what we tend to talk about

maybe six films as neo-realist cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> but there's a huge output of cinema a lot of it very popular <pause dur="0.3"/> # comic <pause dur="0.2"/> melodramatic whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> behind the kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> what has become recognized as the canon <pause dur="0.3"/> of Italian neo-realist cinema <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> # particularly important moment <pause dur="0.3"/> was the casting of Silva Mangano who Silvana Mangano who became a <pause dur="0.3"/> a very big star later <pause dur="0.3"/> this is her <trunc>ro</trunc> her <pause dur="0.2"/> you know very famous still <pause dur="0.3"/> from # Bitter Rice which we'll be seeing in three weeks' time whatever it is <pause dur="0.5"/> and # of course the # <pause dur="0.9"/> i don't really need to point out to you the most obvious <pause dur="0.4"/> # feature <pause dur="0.3"/> of this picture but i mean the whole exploitation of sexuality <pause dur="0.3"/> within # neo-realism is also very important <pause dur="0.2"/> and particularly the whole <pause dur="0.2"/> celebration <pause dur="0.3"/> of # sort of beauty she she she like many of the stars <pause dur="0.3"/> of the late forties is an ex-beauty queen <pause dur="0.3"/> and that whole exploitation of the beauty queen the Miss Italia <pause dur="0.4"/> was very important and again is actually part of <pause dur="0.3"/> the neo-realist phenomenon it shouldn't just be thought of as

something <pause dur="0.2"/> imposed on neo-realism or <pause dur="0.4"/> # something that neo-realism did just to get people into the <pause dur="0.2"/> cinema though no doubt it helped <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> # and this is the poster for a film we're not going to see <trunc>mir</trunc> Miracle in Milan and what's interesting about Miracle in Milan which is <trunc>a</trunc> in on video in the library <pause dur="0.5"/> # is that it's a film <pause dur="0.9"/> which is actually involves fantasy <pause dur="0.4"/> so it's one of the clearest examples of a film that <pause dur="0.2"/> stylistically is absolutely clearly <pause dur="0.2"/> a neo-realist film <pause dur="0.3"/> and yet nonetheless involves the <pause dur="0.3"/> angel on the top of Milan cathedral coming to life and <pause dur="0.2"/> helping poor people to solve out their problems <pause dur="0.2"/> in other words something <pause dur="0.2"/> completely <pause dur="0.2"/> # fantastical at the same time <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's often seen as a <pause dur="0.2"/> a very interesting turning point <pause dur="0.3"/> and again we'll be talking about this whole question of <pause dur="0.6"/> when and why did neo-realism <pause dur="0.3"/> decline <pause dur="0.2"/> # later in the course <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and finally as a preview this is in fact from <pause dur="0.3"/> La Strada <pause dur="0.3"/> which is # one of the # films that we'll be seeing <pause dur="0.3"/> one of the <trunc>f</trunc> it's the

first Fellini film we'll see on the course <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's a film we're seeing in a few weeks' time <pause dur="0.4"/> # and i'll leave that up there for the rest of the <pause dur="0.3"/> session <pause dur="1.0"/> and but i'll put the lights back on <pause dur="0.2"/> if i can find them <pause dur="3.1"/><event desc="turns on lights" iterated="n"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/> okay so that's just to give you a very just a sort of general <pause dur="0.3"/> flavour as a sort of like a <trunc>p</trunc> a preview a preview of forthcoming attractions <pause dur="0.7"/> now what i want to say then is something a bit more then about <pause dur="0.5"/> really just to give you a very simple sketch of what is usually said about neo-realism in order to sort of get get you and get us into <pause dur="0.3"/> # being able to discuss it <pause dur="0.5"/> as i say it's normally thought to have # <pause dur="0.3"/> existed from about nineteen-forty-four to about nineteen-fifty-five <pause dur="0.4"/> there's a whole lot of dates of <pause dur="0.2"/> # and discussion about <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> whether it is just something confined to that period <pause dur="0.3"/> whether you can see it <pause dur="0.2"/> going back even into the silent period <pause dur="0.3"/> whether in fact you can still feel its influence now <pause dur="0.3"/> i don't know if any of <trunc>w</trunc> any of you have seen <pause dur="0.4"/> The Child Thief Il Lardro di Bambini <pause dur="0.4"/>

# which was actually <pause dur="0.2"/> # had some success has been on television <pause dur="0.3"/> made about four or five years ago <pause dur="0.3"/> very clearly still within <pause dur="0.3"/> the neo-realist tradition even though it's only about five years old <pause dur="0.3"/> so you can make a whole argument about <pause dur="0.3"/> is it a particular period <pause dur="0.3"/> is it something that runs through all Italian cinema <pause dur="0.4"/> or what <pause dur="0.2"/> but we're going to take <pause dur="0.3"/> start from <pause dur="0.3"/> the conventional <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> wisdom <pause dur="0.3"/> which is that it's essentially a a quality of <pause dur="0.3"/> a certain kind of output <pause dur="0.2"/> in Italian cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> between nineteen-forty-four and nineteen-fifty-five we'll start with that <pause dur="0.3"/> and sort of complicate it a bit <pause dur="0.3"/> as we go along in the next three or four weeks <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> now what i've done here <pause dur="0.4"/> is just tried to convey to you <pause dur="0.3"/> some of the <pause dur="0.5"/> qualities of # of neo-realist cinema that are regularly referred to that is including this sort of # <pause dur="0.2"/> incredibly <pause dur="0.3"/> passionate dramatic music and this is i think actually Paisà <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but i mean that's that that that is that is a very neo-realist sound <pause dur="0.3"/> # in a way that some of the other things you've

heard <pause dur="0.2"/> # are much less obviously so <pause dur="0.2"/> i'll come back to that question in a moment <pause dur="0.5"/> so what i want to do is just describe to you some of the things that most people would agree <pause dur="0.2"/> are true about <pause dur="0.2"/> neo-realist films <pause dur="0.3"/> # and as i say once again we'll be complicating this <trunc>im</trunc> picture <pause dur="0.2"/> as the term goes on but for the moment <pause dur="0.3"/> let's just take this and it's <trunc>u</trunc> it's <trunc>ex</trunc> <trunc>ten</trunc> it's <pause dur="0.2"/> assumed to be <pause dur="0.2"/> a kind of filmmaking characterized by <pause dur="0.2"/> the following <pause dur="0.3"/> first of all <trunc>locate</trunc> location shooting <pause dur="0.5"/> now we of course are so used to location shooting <pause dur="0.3"/> that we might think it's almost not worth mentioning <pause dur="0.3"/> but you have to remember that in Hollywood in this period but also certainly <pause dur="0.3"/> in Italian cinema <pause dur="0.2"/> throughout the thirties and forties in fact well into the sixties <pause dur="0.4"/> the norm was to shoot in the studio <pause dur="0.3"/> the studio you shot in the studio because you could control everything in the studio <pause dur="0.3"/> you could <pause dur="0.2"/> the get the sound <pause dur="0.2"/> synchronization right <pause dur="0.2"/> you could get the lighting perfect <pause dur="0.2"/> you could take

and retake <pause dur="0.2"/> if you hadn't got problems that it might rain or <pause dur="0.3"/> kids suddenly run across the back or a dog <pause dur="0.2"/> whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> the the norm <pause dur="0.3"/> in filmmaking <pause dur="0.3"/> up until <pause dur="0.4"/> # really the seventies <pause dur="0.2"/> was to shoot in the studio <pause dur="0.4"/> so in the forties <pause dur="0.3"/> to actually shoot on location <pause dur="0.3"/> # was extremely impactful and in fact <pause dur="0.3"/> neo-realism had an <trunc>incre</trunc> extraordinary impact on world cinema generally <pause dur="0.3"/> and often the impact is <pause dur="0.3"/> the idea that you might go into the streets to make a film <pause dur="0.5"/> of course documentarists had done it <pause dur="0.3"/> but feature filmmakers very very rarely had ever done that <pause dur="0.2"/> actually made a story film <pause dur="1.1"/> conventional feature length <pause dur="0.4"/> in the streets or in the <trunc>c</trunc> in the countryside <pause dur="0.3"/> so the location shooting was a kind of extraordinarily <pause dur="0.2"/> important <pause dur="0.2"/> # impact and act <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> which was important <pause dur="0.4"/> because it was unusual and because in many ways it felt like <pause dur="0.4"/> a rejection <pause dur="0.3"/> of fascist cinema it felt like a rejection <pause dur="0.3"/> of the cinema that had gone before <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's not just that it was <pause dur="0.2"/> an innovation <pause dur="0.3"/> but that in some ways it

actually felt <pause dur="0.2"/> because it was so different <pause dur="0.3"/> from what had gone before within Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> it felt like a conscious rejection of it <pause dur="0.3"/> now of course many cynics come along and say <pause dur="0.5"/> well actually the studios were actually <pause dur="0.3"/> # being used for # <pause dur="0.3"/> prisoners of war or people who had <trunc>boos</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> been bombed out of their you couldn't use the actually you couldn't use the studios <pause dur="0.4"/> # they had to shoot on if they wanted to make a film at all <pause dur="0.3"/> they had to do it on location which is in fact true <pause dur="0.3"/> but the significance in a way is what they did with that fact <pause dur="0.3"/> the fact that they actually saw <pause dur="0.3"/> as it were it's the kind of you know necessity is the mother of invention <pause dur="0.2"/> because in a way <pause dur="0.2"/> they had to shoot on the streets <pause dur="0.2"/> they had to shoot on location <pause dur="0.3"/> they actually then <pause dur="0.4"/> made that the foundation of an aesthetic <pause dur="0.2"/> and saw <pause dur="0.3"/> what was significant about it <pause dur="0.2"/> in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/> the kinds of conventional filmmaking <pause dur="0.2"/> that people were <trunc>wa</trunc> had been watching up until that time <pause dur="1.4"/> because it's on shot on location <pause dur="0.3"/> the

light that is used tends to be of the available light so there's no actual assisted light and you have to remember again <pause dur="0.3"/> this is before <pause dur="0.2"/> highly sensitive film stocks <pause dur="0.2"/> that could adjust themselves <pause dur="0.3"/> to the <trunc>l</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> to even quite low levels of light <pause dur="0.3"/> and indeed to high levels of light <pause dur="0.3"/> this is <trunc>ve</trunc> very crude film stock and actually <pause dur="0.3"/> Rome Open City is made up of very different kinds of film stock <pause dur="0.4"/> # so that it sort of gives to it a very raw <pause dur="0.2"/> rough quality <pause dur="0.5"/> so but nonetheless they used the light that was available in the scene <pause dur="0.2"/> or occasionally some maybe one or two at most <pause dur="0.3"/> extra lights now if you actually see <pause dur="0.2"/> shooting on location now <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a <trunc>n</trunc> whole battery of lighting effects and <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>boun</trunc> # things to bounce light and so on <pause dur="0.2"/> so that even on location now <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a kind of smoothing out of appearances <pause dur="0.3"/> # if you <trunc>s</trunc> if think of a film like i don't know Sense and Sensibility or something like that <pause dur="0.3"/> all the location work <pause dur="0.2"/> yes it's on location <pause dur="0.3"/> but it's all been <pause dur="0.3"/> # lit and smoothed out in the process <pause dur="0.2"/> whereas

the point about a lot of neo-realist films is often you can't see them very well <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a sudden <pause dur="0.2"/> jump in the quality of the image <pause dur="0.3"/> you know there's there's a kind of roughness and rawness now again <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>y</trunc> one view is <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>that it's just crappy filmmaking <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> but another view is ah no it's really alive it's really raw it's really kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> get in there and catching the reality <pause dur="0.3"/> so again it's an idea of turning that <pause dur="0.3"/> disadvantage in a way <pause dur="0.3"/> to an aesthetic purpose <pause dur="1.3"/> the third # <pause dur="0.2"/> thing is the use of non-professional actors <pause dur="0.3"/> that a lot of the <pause dur="0.2"/> main characters <pause dur="0.2"/> in these films were played by people who were not in fact actors <pause dur="0.3"/> that's true of <pause dur="0.4"/> nearly all of the characters in # <pause dur="0.3"/> Paisan <pause dur="0.2"/> it's true of the hero of <pause dur="0.2"/> # Bicycle Thieves <pause dur="0.6"/> # there was i <trunc>s</trunc> mentioned earlier and i come back to it it's not true of everybody in these films <pause dur="0.2"/> nonetheless it's # was very very common to use non-professional actors <pause dur="0.3"/> again on the idea that somehow non-professional actors <pause dur="0.2"/> would get you past the kind of glamour

system <pause dur="0.2"/> would get you past all the <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> you know all the kind of tricks and # theatricality and actorliness <pause dur="0.3"/> of actors <pause dur="0.3"/> of course there's a certain paradox <pause dur="0.2"/> about <trunc>non-professi</trunc> using non-professional actors <pause dur="0.3"/> on the one hand they bring a kind of guarantee <pause dur="0.2"/> that they are as it were real people not actors <pause dur="0.3"/> okay we'll <pause dur="0.3"/> leave aside the fact that actors are after all real people <pause dur="0.3"/> nonetheless <pause dur="0.2"/> it brings along that sort of notion and there's a feeling of <pause dur="0.3"/> this is a guarantee <pause dur="0.3"/> of # <pause dur="0.2"/> you know we're really getting the real people now <pause dur="0.3"/> on the other hand of course most <pause dur="0.3"/> non-professional actors act dreadfully <pause dur="0.3"/> so in fact they're terribly stiff <pause dur="0.3"/> and in fact they look more like they're acting <pause dur="0.3"/> than does someone like Anna Magnani or Giulietta Masina who is # <pause dur="0.4"/> the star of La Strada <pause dur="0.2"/> so there's of course the paradox <pause dur="0.3"/> that that we <pause dur="0.2"/> because we have learned certain ways of acting <pause dur="0.3"/> as a kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> the normal way to represent how human beings are <pause dur="0.3"/> when we don't see that <pause dur="0.2"/> we're

often conscious of the kind of awkwardness <pause dur="0.3"/> of the of the non-professional actors the stiffness the woodenness <pause dur="0.3"/> of the non-professional actors <pause dur="0.3"/> now that's of course an interesting paradox and again <pause dur="0.2"/> does one say well actually it just isn't very good or does one say <pause dur="0.3"/> yes but there's a kind of authenticity in the woodenness <pause dur="0.4"/> and i think there is a view that even that <trunc>authe</trunc> even that woodenness <pause dur="0.6"/> is nonetheless <pause dur="0.3"/> worth a price worth paying <pause dur="0.2"/> for having a sense of you've got real people <pause dur="1.5"/> # a fourth quality is the organization of the narrative in a much more <pause dur="0.2"/> elliptical episodic way than we would be used to certainly from <pause dur="0.3"/> classical Hollywood cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> a feeling that you know <pause dur="0.3"/> there is a story but it's not all that driving <pause dur="0.3"/> an awful lot of what happens hasn't got much to do with the story <pause dur="0.3"/> a lot of the time the camera <pause dur="0.2"/> just sort of # looks at something and it's not really terribly relevant to the story it's just there <pause dur="0.4"/> so that sense that it can be a bit more rambling it

can be a series of episodes it doesn't have to be <pause dur="0.4"/> driving towards a goal according to the model of <pause dur="0.3"/> classical cinema <pause dur="0.2"/> is # said to be characteristic of <pause dur="0.3"/> # neo-realist films <pause dur="1.2"/> there tends to be <pause dur="0.3"/> a lack of close-ups it's not that there are no close-ups in Italian neo-realist cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> but there tend to be much less of them <pause dur="0.3"/> # the camera stays back <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> and the the importance of this really <pause dur="0.4"/> is that # <pause dur="0.3"/> it <pause dur="0.9"/> it emphasizes people as social performers <pause dur="0.3"/> rather than as individual <pause dur="0.3"/> # psychologies <pause dur="0.2"/> so the close-up <pause dur="0.2"/> tends to take you in on <pause dur="0.3"/> the interior thoughts of someone into the detail <pause dur="0.2"/> into the <pause dur="0.2"/> the individualization often of course celebrated in the case of stars <pause dur="0.4"/> whereas if you stayed back <pause dur="0.4"/> there was a sense at any rate the idea was <pause dur="0.3"/> that this always meant the people were seen in their context in their social context <pause dur="0.4"/> and # they were often seen interacting with other people they weren't just <pause dur="0.3"/> isolated individuals <pause dur="0.3"/> so it was a much more <pause dur="0.2"/> social <pause dur="0.3"/> concern with character <pause dur="0.2"/> # achieved partly through <pause dur="0.3"/>

the use of medium and long shots or the <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the the privileging of them <pause dur="1.2"/> and finally very often say finally for this first little group <pause dur="0.3"/> which is quite formal <pause dur="0.4"/> # <vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> the <trunc>charact</trunc> the camera will often <pause dur="0.7"/> hang in a scene will just kind of <trunc>l</trunc> just let the thing <trunc>r</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> roll on quite after any <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> plot business has been dealt with or even before any plot business is dealt with <pause dur="0.3"/> i'll show you a bit from a moment from <pause dur="0.3"/> Umberto D which is a very famous sequence which is completely <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>irre</trunc> it's quite long yet it's irrelevant <pause dur="0.3"/> to the the film in a certain way <pause dur="0.3"/> and yet in it's often seen as the quintessential <pause dur="0.3"/> neo-realist moment of just <pause dur="0.4"/> staying and watching and just looking at ordinary life taking the idea that <pause dur="0.5"/> Zavattini who was one of the main theorists of neo-realists said <pause dur="0.8"/> everyday life is interesting <pause dur="0.2"/> that was kind of one of the credos of <trunc>ne</trunc> Italian neo-realism <pause dur="0.2"/> that as it were ordinary life everyday life <pause dur="0.3"/> was interesting <pause dur="1.3"/> now all the things i've listed there are formal qualities <pause dur="0.2"/> and

they also relate to ideas of realism which i'll expand upon much more <pause dur="0.3"/> next week <pause dur="0.5"/> but it is worth signalling that nonetheless <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> <trunc>id</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> # neo-realism did in fact use stars <pause dur="0.3"/> # stars that who were <trunc>v</trunc> who were very well established <pause dur="0.4"/> for instance in Rome Open City the two main stars of that are <pause dur="0.2"/> Anna Magnani and Aldo Fabrizi <pause dur="0.4"/> and they were actually famous as movie stars but as comic stars <pause dur="0.3"/> and indeed as comic stars in theatre revues <pause dur="0.3"/> and one of the reasons they agreed to do Rome Open City is that it was rather good publicity <pause dur="0.3"/> for their revues that they were just putting on <pause dur="0.3"/> in Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> so you have to have <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>the idea <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>that you know you are dealing here with actually <pause dur="0.2"/> really major stars <pause dur="0.4"/> although it's interesting which stars <pause dur="0.2"/> did <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact end up <pause dur="0.3"/> making # # neo-realist films and which didn't <pause dur="0.3"/> there were some who were felt to be <pause dur="0.3"/> too artificial <pause dur="0.3"/> too beautiful often <pause dur="0.3"/> # whereas the # stars who became <pause dur="0.2"/> big in neo-realism were often seemed to have more <pause dur="0.3"/> of the common touch <pause dur="0.2"/> and often were associated with

popular theatre <pause dur="0.3"/> and popular theatre traditions not of the kind of # <pause dur="0.3"/> smart West End farce type but much more like music hall really <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.6"/> although they were professionals they were professionals <pause dur="0.3"/> and although they were film stars <pause dur="0.3"/> they nonetheless tended to come <pause dur="0.3"/> from the music hall vaudeville <pause dur="0.2"/> side of things <pause dur="0.2"/> more than from the <pause dur="0.2"/> high theatre <pause dur="0.3"/> or # mainstream # fascist # <pause dur="0.2"/> # cinema <pause dur="1.2"/> but the other thing that's really striking <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> and difficult perhaps for us to understand <pause dur="0.3"/> about something called neo-realism <pause dur="0.3"/> is that they are in fact very melodramatic <pause dur="0.4"/> and # we'll talk about that in <pause dur="0.2"/> two or three weeks' time but the <pause dur="0.5"/> the thing the first thing to <trunc>s</trunc> just one thing to signal to you now is that of course melodrama means <pause dur="0.7"/> # drama with music <pause dur="0.4"/> and melodrama <pause dur="0.3"/> is often used interchangeably <pause dur="0.3"/> in Italy with the term opera <pause dur="0.4"/> well of course in other words opera <pause dur="0.2"/> which is also of course is drama to music <pause dur="0.7"/> and it's worth <pause dur="0.3"/> knowing <pause dur="0.3"/> that Verdi who i suppose is regarded as the greatest of all opera directors opera <pause dur="0.4"/>

composers <pause dur="0.6"/> # was thought to be a realist he's referred to as # his his work is referred to as verismo <pause dur="0.2"/> realism <pause dur="0.4"/> now i'll talk about the paradox of that <pause dur="0.3"/> # in a couple of weeks' time and try to think through what can that possibly mean <pause dur="0.2"/> opera realist how can you even say that <pause dur="0.3"/> but nonetheless <trunc>i</trunc> actually within the Italian context <pause dur="0.3"/> melodrama is much less of a kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> shock <pause dur="0.3"/> to the idea of realism <pause dur="0.2"/> than it is within an Anglo-Saxon context <pause dur="1.1"/> a final area i want to mention is much more the <pause dur="0.2"/> subject matter because the subject matter of neo-realism is also very important <pause dur="0.2"/> and in many ways i've already mentioned this everyday life <pause dur="0.2"/> ordinary people <pause dur="0.4"/> # and social problems often <pause dur="0.2"/> so first of all it's an idea simply of ordinary everyday life <pause dur="0.5"/> and # ordinary people now <pause dur="0.4"/> of course the interesting thing is well what is <pause dur="0.2"/> everyday life <pause dur="0.3"/> # and what actually <pause dur="0.2"/> you know after all <trunc>a</trunc> this is what i do every day <pause dur="0.2"/> # this <trunc>b</trunc> <trunc>b</trunc> but i wouldn't be in an Italian <trunc>ne</trunc> or even a British neo-realist film if

there was such a thing <pause dur="0.4"/> now certain things are thought to be more everyday than other kinds of things <pause dur="0.4"/> so # <trunc>ordin</trunc> so everydayness is already <pause dur="0.2"/> often confined to <trunc>i</trunc> for instance domesticity therefore <pause dur="0.2"/> becomes very important <pause dur="0.2"/> because domesticity seems like a more common everyday experience <pause dur="0.4"/> than # more than than many kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> jobs and in the public world <pause dur="0.6"/> and the idea of ordinary people often that <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> to be middle class is in fact perfectly ordinary <pause dur="0.4"/> but <trunc>n</trunc> # although statistically <pause dur="0.5"/> now it's statistically it's the most ordinary thing to be <pause dur="0.2"/> but certainly in # <pause dur="0.2"/> the forties it was more statistically ordinary <pause dur="0.3"/> to be working class or # peasant <pause dur="0.3"/> and that actually is what is really <pause dur="0.2"/> indicated by the notion of ordinary people <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> or just people actually <pause dur="0.3"/> # in Italian neo-realist cinema <pause dur="0.2"/> it's the working class it's the peasantry <pause dur="1.3"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> now at one level it's just that idea well you just observe what's going on <pause dur="0.4"/> now it's true that in Paisan <pause dur="0.3"/> and Rome Open City <pause dur="0.4"/> what you're also seeing is

the war and the resistance so it's rather incredible events and things that none of us <pause dur="0.3"/> have experienced <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.3"/> i think <pause dur="0.4"/> # but # the # <pause dur="0.2"/> obviously there you have to say well they had just been fighting a war <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> yes it's remarkable but it's a remarkable <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the impact of very remarkable events <pause dur="0.2"/> upon nonetheless <pause dur="0.3"/> the actually rather <trunc>a</trunc> <trunc>m</trunc> mundane ordinary lives <pause dur="0.3"/> of Italian people <pause dur="0.9"/> but that sense that really yes it was enough just to see ordinary life in a way <pause dur="0.2"/> did was not maintained and # <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> very often it needed to come down to something that <pause dur="0.2"/> could be thought of as a social problem <pause dur="0.4"/> so increasingly it became the problem of poverty <pause dur="0.3"/> the problem of unemployment <pause dur="0.2"/> the problem of prostitution <pause dur="0.3"/> the problem of the black market <pause dur="0.2"/> so that although <pause dur="0.4"/> there was a notion that oh it's just anything that happens is just ordinary life is interesting <pause dur="0.3"/> when it comes down to it it often means social problems <pause dur="0.3"/> that because they at least they have a kind of dramatic <pause dur="0.3"/> # hold <pause dur="0.3"/> which perhaps just

seeing someone <pause dur="0.3"/> doing the cooking and waiting for their husband to come home and whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> would would <trunc>d</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact didn't really have <pause dur="0.9"/> but also very important # is the notion of Italian identity <pause dur="0.4"/> that a lot of these films either explicitly as in Paisan or implicitly <pause dur="0.3"/> in many of them <pause dur="0.3"/> are actually about what does it mean to be an Italian <pause dur="0.4"/> and that that was of course a question of particular <pause dur="0.3"/> sensitivity <pause dur="0.3"/> when these films were made <pause dur="0.3"/> because of course only <trunc>un</trunc> until <pause dur="0.4"/> # the end of the war <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>it</trunc> Italy had been a fascist country <pause dur="0.4"/> and fascism had all been about <pause dur="0.2"/> the greatness of Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> it had been a great appeal to Italianness <pause dur="0.2"/> the rhetoric of fascism is all about <pause dur="0.3"/> national identity <pause dur="0.3"/> so after the war when everyone had this revulsion <pause dur="0.3"/> or everyone but i mean everyone claimed <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>to have a <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> revulsion <pause dur="0.3"/> against fascism <pause dur="0.4"/> # the # the question came well <pause dur="0.3"/> but if <pause dur="0.3"/> that's not if if i don't remember it was thirty years we had # sorry <pause dur="0.2"/> twenty years <pause dur="0.2"/> much longer than in # <pause dur="0.3"/> Germany <pause dur="0.2"/> that fascism was in Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> you

know if that if all of that Italianness of fascism isn't us <pause dur="0.3"/> what is it <pause dur="0.3"/> to be an Italian <pause dur="0.2"/> and a lot of the films are actually about the problem <pause dur="0.3"/> of Italian identity <pause dur="0.5"/> now that problem <pause dur="0.2"/> is exacerbated by something that's always been a problem <pause dur="0.3"/> about Italian identity <pause dur="0.3"/> and that is that Italy is in fact a very regional culture <pause dur="0.4"/> so that # regionality's often much <pause dur="0.5"/> more important to people <pause dur="0.4"/> # people tend to say i'm a Roman <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm a Milanese i'm Sicilian or whatever <pause dur="0.2"/> much more than they say <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm Italian <pause dur="0.4"/> so that # # regional identity <pause dur="0.3"/> is actually a problem and of course <pause dur="0.3"/> Italy has only really been a nation <pause dur="0.3"/> in any modern sense since eighteen-sixty <pause dur="0.3"/> when the <trunc>resorg</trunc> in what's called the Resorgimento <pause dur="0.2"/> happened which was the unification of Italy <pause dur="0.4"/> so the sense of # <pause dur="0.4"/> having been a country a long time which is so <pause dur="0.3"/> pervasive in British <pause dur="0.3"/> # sensibility <pause dur="0.2"/> is actually not true and was even less true <pause dur="0.2"/> in the forties <pause dur="0.2"/> where it was less than a hundred years that Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> had been a nation <pause dur="0.5"/>

so the question of Italian identity is partly very urgent <pause dur="0.3"/> because you want to have a sense of who you are <pause dur="0.3"/> in the context of not <pause dur="0.2"/> being fascist <pause dur="0.4"/> but on the other hand who are you as an Italian <pause dur="0.4"/> if really what you are is Sicilian or Neopolitan or <pause dur="0.3"/> whatever particular <pause dur="0.2"/> # regional identity is concerned <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's very much # <pause dur="0.2"/> the theme <pause dur="0.2"/> of a lot of the films and it's very marked <pause dur="0.3"/> in Paisan <pause dur="0.3"/> where you actually see which is actually a a trip through Italy <pause dur="1.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> now i just want to show you then very briefly <pause dur="0.3"/><event desc="looks for video tapes" iterated="y" dur="33"/> the extract from # Umberto D that i mentioned <pause dur="0.6"/> # just to show you <pause dur="0.6"/> the example <pause dur="0.9"/> oh <pause dur="1.6"/> where's <pause dur="1.3"/> did i fail to bring the <pause dur="0.2"/> the videos <pause dur="3.2"/> oh well i'll show it to you next week as an example of realism <pause dur="0.4"/> sorry about that i <pause dur="0.2"/> i hope i haven't lost them along the way <pause dur="0.4"/> # i'll just go straight on to the next # <pause dur="0.4"/> next topic <pause dur="0.2"/> i can't see them nobody can see two videos one <pause dur="0.8"/> just in an ordinary <pause dur="0.7"/> recording cover <pause dur="0.2"/> no <pause dur="0.4"/> sorry <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.0"/> so let me then turn to saying something about Paisan <pause dur="0.4"/> and about Rome <pause dur="0.7"/>

saying first of all something about Paisan <pause dur="0.3"/> the film that we're just about to see <pause dur="1.4"/> first of all the title <pause dur="1.3"/> it's a very ambiguous title it's not a conventional <pause dur="1.1"/> Italian word <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a way of saying <pause dur="0.3"/> <distinct lang="it">paisà</distinct> <pause dur="0.8"/> or <distinct lang="it">paese</distinct> <pause dur="1.0"/> and # it's got a double meaning on the on the one hand <pause dur="0.4"/> to say <distinct lang="it">paisà</distinct> <pause dur="0.8"/> might well be how a peasant <pause dur="0.2"/> would talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> his or her <pause dur="0.3"/> village or his or her land <pause dur="0.3"/> it # <trunc>p</trunc> <distinct lang="it">paese</distinct> is a <pause dur="0.2"/> very fascinating word 'cause it means both village and land <pause dur="0.4"/> # so it's a way it's a could be a very <pause dur="0.4"/> intimate and # <pause dur="0.3"/> felt and located way of talking about where you live where you are <pause dur="0.4"/> so on the one hand it has a very <trunc>mu</trunc> it's very much about <pause dur="0.4"/> being Italian and being rooted in a particular place <pause dur="0.6"/> my place my <distinct lang="it">paisà</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> on the other hand it's also the term <pause dur="0.4"/> that the Allies used # particularly the Americans used <pause dur="0.3"/> to call <pause dur="0.3"/> the Italians that they met <pause dur="0.2"/> in that context it really means peasant <pause dur="0.4"/> it was actually rather derogatory and say oh you're a <pause dur="0.3"/> you know you're sort of backward <pause dur="0.3"/> # you're a sort of <trunc>s</trunc> you know you're

<trunc>un</trunc> uncivilized undeveloped <pause dur="0.2"/> it's actually <trunc>ra</trunc> it was rather a contemptuous term <pause dur="0.3"/> that was used by the Allies particularly Americans <pause dur="0.3"/> to describe <pause dur="0.4"/> the # people they met <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's a very very ambiguous <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>n</trunc> term <pause dur="0.4"/> and as you'll see the whole film actually <pause dur="0.6"/> is exactly <pause dur="0.4"/> plays upon that question of <pause dur="0.3"/> what it means <pause dur="0.2"/> to be an Italian for an Italian <pause dur="0.3"/> and how the Italians are perceived <pause dur="0.3"/> by the liberating forces <pause dur="1.0"/> the other thing to say by way of introduction before talking about what we're going to talk about tomorrow <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> is just to remind you you should know this from your reading by now <pause dur="0.3"/> # about the situation # in which this film would have been made <pause dur="0.6"/> Mussolini the fascist leader had been in power since the twenties <pause dur="0.4"/> # had # fled <pause dur="0.3"/> # # by the # nineteen-forty-four <pause dur="0.4"/> # and was eventually executed <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> Italy was then occupied <pause dur="0.2"/> by the Nazis who were of course the allies of the Italians <pause dur="0.3"/> during the Second World War <pause dur="0.4"/> so at the start of this film and also at the start of Rome Open City <pause dur="0.5"/> Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> is # <pause dur="0.5"/>

occupied by <pause dur="0.3"/> the Nazis which of course is has a very different feeling from the French <pause dur="0.3"/> who were also <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>occupied by the Nazis <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> at the same <pause dur="0.4"/> period <pause dur="0.3"/> but there they were very much <trunc>c</trunc> a conquered <pause dur="0.3"/> nation <pause dur="0.4"/> whereas of course there was the <trunc>ma</trunc> that there had been a history of an alliance <pause dur="0.2"/> between Germans and Italians <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's a # # # it's quite a complicated <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> it's quite complicated to sort of work out the sense of what it meant <pause dur="0.3"/> to be occupied <pause dur="0.3"/> by a # <pause dur="0.4"/> # by a nation <pause dur="0.2"/> who was nonetheless <pause dur="0.3"/> a # had been an ally of yours <pause dur="0.9"/> in addition to that it's worth remembering that <pause dur="0.2"/> Italy <pause dur="0.6"/> has a huge history of being occupied and had been occupied by <pause dur="0.4"/> Austria <pause dur="0.3"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>a</trunc> <trunc>a</trunc> about a century <pause dur="0.4"/> now # Austria is not Germany we all <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>know that <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> probably if you hear an a German voice <pause dur="0.3"/> it doesn't really matter to you too much if it's Austria or Germany <pause dur="0.2"/> it's all part of a sort of sense of <pause dur="0.2"/> an occupying force so it's an occupying force <pause dur="0.3"/> who in a sense were invited in <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's a very odd <pause dur="0.2"/> # situation <pause dur="0.5"/> and then the allies <pause dur="0.5"/>

particularly <trunc>br</trunc> the <trunc>bri</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> British and # Americans <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> liberated <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> starting # in Sicily <pause dur="0.2"/> and moving up the continent <pause dur="0.2"/> and # you'll see that <pause dur="0.3"/> in # that's what Paisan's all about <pause dur="1.2"/> now Paisan can be seen as a film <pause dur="0.3"/> that's essentially about the discovery <pause dur="0.2"/> of Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> after fascism well that's one of one of its themes <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's what i <trunc>w</trunc> particularly want us to focus on <pause dur="0.3"/> the way in which <pause dur="0.2"/> ideas of what it means to be an Italian <pause dur="0.3"/> are # <pause dur="0.3"/> focused on and developed through the structure indeed of a <pause dur="0.2"/> what is essentially a trip through <pause dur="0.2"/> six <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>z</trunc> areas of Italy starting in Sicily <pause dur="0.9"/> and one of the ways in which this sense of discovering Italy after fascism <pause dur="0.4"/> # the the the <trunc>wh</trunc> what is Italy if it's not <pause dur="0.2"/> that Italian rhetoric that rhetoric of Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> under Mussolini <pause dur="0.3"/> one of the ways in which it's done is actually in the way the <trunc>ha</trunc> the narrative structure is handled <pause dur="0.3"/> so very often the stories that are told <pause dur="0.3"/> in each of these episodes <pause dur="0.3"/> are actually about <pause dur="0.2"/> the discovery of a hidden truth <pause dur="0.3"/> # so that <pause dur="0.2"/> #

they're either about the <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> sometimes it's we that discover it <pause dur="0.3"/> sometimes the characters themselves <pause dur="0.2"/> discover the hidden truth <pause dur="0.4"/> # and that that that structure is is already very <pause dur="0.3"/> interesting as a way of realizing at the level of <pause dur="0.3"/> narrative form <pause dur="0.3"/> this basic concern with finding <pause dur="0.2"/> the real Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> that people felt had been hidden <pause dur="0.3"/> by # the # lies of fascism <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> the one exception to that <pause dur="0.3"/> # is the monastery sequence <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's very much seen as <pause dur="0.3"/> an enclave that actually almost <pause dur="0.2"/> # separate <pause dur="0.2"/> from <pause dur="0.3"/> # Italy generally <pause dur="0.2"/> and so that sense of a # <pause dur="0.4"/> this little <pause dur="0.3"/> enclave that's hidden away <pause dur="0.2"/> is although it's not in the narrative structure it's not about discovery <pause dur="0.3"/> nonetheless the overall <pause dur="0.3"/> # <trunc>struc</trunc> the overall sense of that is that it itself <pause dur="0.3"/> is a hidden part of Italy <pause dur="0.5"/> it's the most controversial part <pause dur="0.3"/> of the film really you either think it's nonsense <pause dur="0.3"/> or that it's really very moving <pause dur="0.4"/> and its ambivalence is <pause dur="0.2"/> actually because it's directed by Rossellini who was a Catholic <pause dur="0.4"/> and scripted by Fellini who was a

bit more <pause dur="0.2"/> ambivalent <pause dur="0.6"/> anyway <pause dur="0.3"/> # we can talk about that <unclear>#</unclear> <pause dur="0.2"/> tomorrow possibly <pause dur="1.0"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> so we've got this idea of the true Italy and the discovery of the true Italy now what i want us to talk about tomorrow and what we'll do tomorrow in the seminars is look at the Naples sequence in detail <pause dur="0.7"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> but # the in the essays i've asked you to look at other <pause dur="0.3"/> ones well it's it's a possible essay <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> what's interesting to think about is how exactly is this Italian<pause dur="0.3"/>ness constructed <pause dur="0.6"/> 'cause first there's the question about well who discovered Italy <pause dur="0.3"/> is this Italians <pause dur="0.2"/> discovering their own <pause dur="0.2"/> culture <pause dur="0.2"/> or is it # <pause dur="0.3"/> the G-Is the <trunc>am</trunc> the <trunc>amer</trunc> the liberating forces finding it <pause dur="0.2"/> or is it in some sense we the audience <pause dur="0.3"/> who have the <pause dur="0.3"/> the the the recognition <pause dur="0.2"/> of true Italianness that's signalled to us as something <pause dur="0.2"/> we can understand <pause dur="0.8"/> but equally important is who as # who as it were <pause dur="0.2"/> represents Italy and one might literally say quite literally who embodies <pause dur="0.3"/> Italy <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a sense in which different each <pause dur="0.2"/> episode <pause dur="0.3"/> # chooses a central

character <pause dur="0.3"/> who in themselves <pause dur="0.2"/> represents something way in the and the way they look and everything about them <pause dur="0.2"/> suggests a particular <pause dur="0.3"/> regional identity a regional Italianness if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's worth thinking about well why is it people of this class <pause dur="0.3"/> # this age <pause dur="0.2"/> # this gender what you know what does it tell us that these are the people <pause dur="0.3"/> who are selected to represent the real Italianness <pause dur="0.4"/> but also think about what they actually look like <pause dur="0.4"/> # you know in other words in the Naples episode which we'll talk about tomorrow <pause dur="0.3"/> you know why choose a little boy <pause dur="0.4"/> why choose a why choose a young <pause dur="0.2"/> why choose a boy <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="waves arms and shakes body" iterated="y" dur="2"/> why choose a boy that's all like this and moving all over the place like that <pause dur="0.3"/> you know what's that about <pause dur="0.3"/> as a <trunc>percept</trunc> as an embodiment <pause dur="0.3"/> of the Neopolitan <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but also it's important to think about how they're introduced into the narrative <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>t</trunc> are they very clearly seen as <pause dur="0.2"/> this is the star this is the person this is about <pause dur="0.4"/> or are they seen as emerging from the crowd <pause dur="0.4"/> # who they're

just one of many we could have looked at this one this one <trunc>th</trunc> what we're actually going to look at this one but it could have been any <pause dur="0.5"/> or are they very much a kind of object of enquiry are they <pause dur="0.2"/> actually although they're the main character are they really <pause dur="0.3"/> the object of a an enquiry <pause dur="0.3"/> of some other character <pause dur="0.9"/> and finally what does Italy look like the actual Italy the actual land <pause dur="0.4"/> and here there's the notion of <distinct lang="it">paesaggio</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> which means the idea as it was spirit of place <pause dur="0.3"/> the idea that a particular landscape or cityscape <pause dur="0.6"/> itself embodies certain <pause dur="0.3"/> qualities <pause dur="0.3"/> # which are moral aesthetic <pause dur="0.5"/> almost # psychological or felt qualities <pause dur="0.3"/> # which # are make it distinctive to a particular area <pause dur="0.5"/> and again it's worth just thinking about <pause dur="0.3"/> well <pause dur="0.2"/> what does each location <pause dur="0.2"/> look like <pause dur="0.3"/> what <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>w</trunc> # what what are the actual characteristics of the various locations <pause dur="0.3"/> # that that we see <pause dur="0.5"/> and are <pause dur="0.2"/> characters actually <pause dur="0.4"/> integrated into their location are they seen as very much emerging <pause dur="0.2"/> into their location or are they <pause dur="0.3"/>

are they seen as part of it or are they seen as <pause dur="0.3"/> set set against it in some way <pause dur="0.7"/> and it's important to think of ideas of the natural <pause dur="0.2"/> the eternal the uncivilized <pause dur="0.4"/> that after when you start looking for <pause dur="0.3"/> the real something <pause dur="0.3"/> that <trunc>of</trunc> that often draws you into thinking in terms of <pause dur="0.3"/> the natural <pause dur="0.3"/> the # the the eternal the uncivilized <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's important to think about <pause dur="0.3"/> how those are suggested <pause dur="1.8"/> finally i just want to say something very briefly about Rome because # it's <trunc>m</trunc> i'll repeat this next week but i want you to i want to say it before you see <pause dur="0.5"/> Rome Open City <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> there's an episode in Rome in Paisan <pause dur="0.3"/> Bicycle Thieves is also set in Rome <pause dur="0.4"/> and the whole question about what Rome means <pause dur="0.3"/> # is another possible short essay topic <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Rome is of course the capital <pause dur="0.2"/> of Italy and was then <pause dur="0.2"/> on the other hand <pause dur="0.3"/> it's also seen as a <trunc>r</trunc> as regional <pause dur="0.3"/> it's not actually seen # culturally <pause dur="0.3"/> as necessarily the centre of things even if it's got most money and the most monuments and so on <pause dur="0.3"/> nonetheless <pause dur="0.3"/>

# it's still seen as a region and people say oh right that he's that's very Roman <pause dur="0.2"/> that accent that <trunc>mat</trunc> that attitude is very Roman <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's a very strong sense of it as a <pause dur="0.3"/> as a regional identity <pause dur="0.2"/> even though it's the capital <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> and it's worth thinking about what Rome means on the one hand of course you've got the Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> the famous Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> the Rome of the monuments the Rome that <pause dur="0.2"/> everybody probably has some sense of <pause dur="0.2"/> even if they've never been there <pause dur="0.3"/> and there are probably two important aspects of that <pause dur="0.3"/> one is ancient Rome or classical Rome the Rome of the <pause dur="0.2"/> ancient Roman Empire <pause dur="0.4"/> # and you in Paisan for instance you see the G-Is <pause dur="0.2"/> outside the Colosseum at one point <pause dur="0.2"/> it's a such a famous monument <pause dur="0.4"/> i imagine a lot of people recognize it <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> there's that there's those monuments of of Roman antiquity <pause dur="0.7"/> but of course Rome is also <pause dur="0.4"/> # the seat of the Catholic Church <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's also very important as a Christian city <pause dur="0.3"/> and the last shot of Rome Open City <pause dur="0.3"/> is in fact a shot of St Peter's <pause dur="0.3"/>

the # you know which is like the most important Catholic church in the world <pause dur="0.5"/> # so # the <trunc>s</trunc> that's an equally important aspect of Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's a Rome that's <pause dur="0.2"/> of of monuments both to <pause dur="0.4"/> ancient antiquity and to <trunc>christi</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> Christianity <pause dur="0.3"/> there are other things like <pause dur="0.5"/> # <trunc>i</trunc> within the <trunc>his</trunc> like Renaissance and so on which are important <pause dur="0.3"/> but i think much more difficult for us to pick up i think those two <pause dur="0.3"/> are not too difficult for us <pause dur="0.6"/> now the interesting thing to think about in terms of neo-realism is <pause dur="0.4"/> do we get a kind of tourist view of that <pause dur="0.3"/> do we get a a celebration of that do we get <pause dur="0.4"/> the kind of perhaps the official <pause dur="0.3"/> heritage industry <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="0.2"/> use a <pause dur="0.3"/> anachronistic term <pause dur="0.2"/> view of that <pause dur="0.4"/> or on the contrary <pause dur="0.2"/> is the Rome of the monuments nonetheless <pause dur="0.3"/> very much part of the texture of ordinary life <pause dur="0.3"/> what has the Rome of the monuments got to do <pause dur="0.3"/> with this function of showing ordinary <pause dur="0.4"/> people in everyday lives <pause dur="0.3"/> # do is it a tourist view that's irrelevant <pause dur="0.3"/> is it a <trunc>pa</trunc> part of an official view <pause dur="0.3"/> or is it <trunc>s</trunc> is it indeed

integrated into the lives <pause dur="0.8"/> but equally important of course Rome is a working city <pause dur="0.4"/> and Rome is also a living city <pause dur="0.3"/> there's both the question of people actually working for a living and to what extent <pause dur="0.3"/> that is emphasized <pause dur="0.4"/> and the fact that people actually live there <pause dur="0.4"/> and what do we see of their lives <trunc>d</trunc> is what we see of their lives essentially domesticity <pause dur="0.8"/> is it more a sense of neighbourhood <pause dur="0.6"/> how important is leisure activity for instance as part of the sense of what Rome is <pause dur="1.0"/> and the last thing to mention is that this of course is Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> after a terrible defeat <pause dur="0.2"/> in the Second World War <pause dur="0.3"/> a Rome of ruins not of the sort of grandiose Colosseum type of ruins <pause dur="0.3"/> but of modern buildings in ruins <pause dur="0.4"/> to what extent does one see <pause dur="0.4"/> the the the the impact of <pause dur="0.3"/> fascism and particularly of the Second World War <pause dur="0.2"/> within the Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> that we see in these <pause dur="0.3"/> two and two-and-a-<pause dur="0.3"/>fifth <pause dur="0.3"/> films <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so i just wanted to mention those <pause dur="0.2"/> things as things to kind of have in your mind <pause dur="0.3"/> when watching the the films and they're all they are in fact of course relevant to the short essays <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> we'll watch Paisà now and tomorrow as i say what we'll do <pause dur="0.2"/> is look at the <pause dur="0.2"/> # Naples sequence # in detail in the seminars <pause dur="0.3"/> okay let's we'll take a five minute break <pause dur="0.4"/> before the film <pause dur="0.2"/> thank you

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