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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>French film noir: the 1950s French gangster film</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:58:50" n="7785">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>

<language id="fr">French</language>



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<person id="su0071" role="participant" n="s" sex="u"><p>su0071, participant, student, unknown sex</p></person>

<person id="sm0072" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm0072, participant, student, male</p></person>

<person id="sm0073" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm0073, participant, student, male</p></person>

<person id="su0074" role="participant" n="s" sex="u"><p>su0074, participant, student, unknown sex</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="s"><p>ss, audience, small group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="s"><p>sl, all, small group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="8"><p>number of speakers: 8</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Film and Television Studies</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>





<u who="nf0069"> when talking about the French gangster film <pause dur="0.4"/> very often and <pause dur="0.3"/> paradoxically in French one talks about the policier <pause dur="0.4"/> that's the name of the genre <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> when you you see the word policier # I-E <pause dur="0.7"/> police which relates to the police it doesn't necessarily mean that <pause dur="0.4"/> it's to do with a police film or police procedure as the <pause dur="0.3"/> you have in the American genres <pause dur="0.3"/> but it's <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>co</trunc> covers all <pause dur="0.5"/> # virtually all the films # to do with crime <pause dur="0.3"/> # pretty much from the nineteen-fifties onwards so <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> a gangster film and a police film will both be called policier in French <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> sometimes you'll see the in slang this becomes <distinct lang="fr">polar</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="2.8"/> i'm sorry i hope it's not too awkward if i move <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> <distinct lang="fr">polar</distinct> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> is P-O-L-A-R <pause dur="1.0"/><event desc="student enters room" iterated="n" n="sf0070"/> # is <pause dur="0.7"/> yep </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf0070" trans="pause"> sorry </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nf0069" trans="pause"> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> we're just beginning <pause dur="0.4"/> <distinct lang="fr">polar</distinct> is the slang word for <pause dur="0.2"/> policier so <distinct lang="fr">le polar</distinct> refers to <pause dur="0.2"/> the genre of the <pause dur="0.3"/> police <pause dur="0.2"/> crime gangster movie in French <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> specifically from the nineteen-fifties late forties fifties onwards <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> so that i will

talk today about a particular genre <pause dur="0.3"/> or subgenre of French crime films and film noir which arises <pause dur="0.3"/> in the mid-fifties <pause dur="0.3"/> especially with three <pause dur="0.2"/> key movies <pause dur="0.2"/> which are the ones that are at the top of your handout <pause dur="0.4"/> # and that is Touchez pas au Grisbi <pause dur="0.3"/> which i'll refer to as Grisbi <pause dur="0.5"/> # Du Rififi Chez les Hommes <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>ri</trunc> Rififi <pause dur="0.4"/> and # Bob le Flambeur the film you're going to see <pause dur="0.2"/> this afternoon <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> okay and <pause dur="0.6"/> # the theme of the lecture in a sense will be that of hybridity <pause dur="0.5"/> and especially <pause dur="0.2"/> hybridity between <pause dur="0.2"/> French and American <pause dur="0.4"/> culture French and America cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and to start starting with <pause dur="0.2"/> literature <pause dur="0.6"/> so that <pause dur="0.6"/> if you look at the bottom of your handout there's # a kind of <trunc>s</trunc> skeleton of the <pause dur="0.5"/> # lecture <pause dur="0.5"/> and # i will start with the literary origins <pause dur="0.2"/> of the genre <pause dur="0.4"/> because <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> when it comes to those gangster films those policiers of the mid-fifties starting particularly with Touchez pas au Grisbi <pause dur="0.5"/> but also some Eddie Constantine movies <pause dur="0.2"/> # earlier on <pause dur="0.5"/> # they are films which are very directly related to <pause dur="0.4"/> #

literature <pause dur="0.3"/> to crime <pause dur="0.3"/> literature and in particular the famous <pause dur="0.3"/> Serie Noire <pause dur="0.3"/> # which i've already mentioned <pause dur="0.2"/> which was an imprint of the # French publisher Gallimard <pause dur="3.0"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> # which <pause dur="0.5"/> started <pause dur="0.2"/> at the # immediately at the end of the war <pause dur="0.4"/> and has remained extremely successful <pause dur="0.5"/> i brought you so just to <pause dur="0.2"/> make you # <pause dur="5.0"/><event desc="student enters room" iterated="n" n="su0071"/> like to <pause dur="1.0"/> one of these <pause dur="1.0"/> to show you # <kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> this is an original Serie Noire book <pause dur="0.5"/> # it's very precious to me <pause dur="0.2"/> it actually happens to be the one on which <pause dur="0.3"/> # Goddard's film Pierrot le Fou <pause dur="0.2"/> is very loosely based # in English or <pause dur="0.4"/> American it's called Obsession and this one in French it's called Le Démon d'Onze Heures <pause dur="0.3"/> if you read it <pause dur="0.2"/> it's very very distantly related to Pierrot le Fou in case you know that film <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> i just wanted to show you # the cover that is the original cover <pause dur="0.3"/> # of the Serie Noire and as you can see it's the the background is black <pause dur="0.4"/> and it uses red # <pause dur="0.3"/> yellow <pause dur="0.3"/> lettering <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and the series was founded by Marcel Duhamel his name is on

your # <pause dur="0.8"/> # handout <pause dur="0.5"/> who was # an ex-member of the surrealist group in the nineteen-twenties <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> he was very # much linked to the surrealists throughout the twenties and the thirties <pause dur="0.5"/> and James Naremore in the book More than Night which i've already quoted from <pause dur="0.4"/> says that # # Duhamel was particularly # interested in <pause dur="0.5"/> # the researches into sexuality which the surrealists conducted # during the the twenties and early nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> in the American hard-boiled <pause dur="0.2"/> # thriller what the surrealists saw as i've already mentioned was <pause dur="0.4"/> # this notion of <pause dur="0.3"/> eroticized crime <trunc>whi</trunc> <trunc>su</trunc> subverting as it were <pause dur="0.3"/> # the fabric of bourgeois society <pause dur="0.3"/> so that <pause dur="0.4"/> # one can see then the relationship # directed to the surrealists through the person of Duhamel # who <pause dur="0.3"/> then in forty-six begins the series of the Serie Noire <pause dur="0.5"/> and the Serie Noire published <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>primar</trunc> initially <pause dur="0.3"/> primarily American writers <pause dur="0.2"/> in translation <pause dur="0.3"/> and famously <pause dur="0.2"/> it always says underneath <pause dur="0.6"/> <distinct lang="fr">traduit de l'Americain</distinct> translated from the

American <pause dur="0.3"/> not from the English <pause dur="0.3"/> # even though sometimes some of the writers were British but <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> and also famously a number of French writers wrote for the Serie Noire <pause dur="0.4"/> under American pseudonyms <pause dur="0.3"/> # such was the the aura of so they pretended <pause dur="0.4"/> # to translate work into French from the American <pause dur="0.2"/> which in fact they had written into French in the first place <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> the the the basis of the Serie Noire was to <pause dur="0.2"/> to publish to translate and publish <pause dur="0.3"/> American <pause dur="0.2"/> writers <pause dur="0.3"/> and Duhamel encouraged also people like Chester Himes for example to to write for the series <pause dur="0.8"/> # Duhamel one finds also linked to the cinema # in two ways one is that he was <pause dur="0.3"/> he he appears in a number of films by Jean Renoir in the thirties as an actor <pause dur="0.4"/> and also <pause dur="0.3"/> he <trunc>wri</trunc> he wrote the preface to <pause dur="0.3"/> the book on film noir by Borde and Chaumeton <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>fa</trunc> book that's already been mentioned <pause dur="0.7"/> # several times <pause dur="0.8"/> # and i think i # also wanted to show you the the cover <pause dur="0.2"/> # and also the cover of another <pause dur="0.3"/> # Gallimard book <pause dur="0.6"/> to make the point that which i think is

is very telling the design of that series <pause dur="0.5"/> is that <pause dur="0.3"/> the book combined <pause dur="0.2"/> the kind of sobriety <pause dur="0.5"/> of Gallimard publishing <kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> this is this was Gallimard <pause dur="0.3"/> very famous literary # imprint looks like this is <pause dur="0.2"/> # a copy of # a book by Marcel Proust but <pause dur="0.3"/> i could have picked up any <pause dur="0.2"/> they all look the same <pause dur="0.3"/> they have the this cream background and the red lettering <pause dur="0.3"/> and this <pause dur="0.2"/> this this design hasn't changed # throughout the century practically <pause dur="0.3"/> and there is that sense of <pause dur="0.2"/> classicism <pause dur="0.2"/> sobriety <pause dur="0.4"/> and what one sees here i think is is the a kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> mixture of that sobriety and classicism <pause dur="0.3"/> with the lurid colours of pulp fiction the black and the yellow <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> colours which <pause dur="0.2"/> tend to appear on a number of <pause dur="0.6"/> artefacts to to around crime <pause dur="0.3"/> and it <kinesic desc="holds up poster" iterated="n"/> this is # this is some press material for a film called <pause dur="0.4"/> Du Rififi Chez les Femmes which was <pause dur="0.4"/> # a kind of rip off as it were and and follow up to <pause dur="0.2"/> Rififi Chez les Hommes <pause dur="0.3"/> and you see that the black and white background and the and the lurid <pause dur="0.2"/> # yellow colour <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> and the <pause dur="0.3"/> # the

reason why # <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm talking about <pause dur="0.2"/> the # <pause dur="0.6"/> the Serie Noire writers <pause dur="0.5"/> # in relation to the films <pause dur="0.4"/> is is that <pause dur="0.4"/> they are on the one hand those indirect connections through Duhamel <pause dur="0.7"/> between surrealism <pause dur="0.4"/> # literary culture and the cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> but also because the three films we're talking about <pause dur="0.3"/> were directly based on or written by # <pause dur="0.7"/> writers from the Serie Noire <pause dur="0.3"/> and in particular you have it on your # <pause dur="0.4"/> handout <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Albert Simonin <pause dur="1.0"/> # who wrote <pause dur="0.5"/> Touchez pas au Grisbi <pause dur="0.5"/> # and i have here <pause dur="0.8"/> the the book Touchez pas au Grisbi alas it's not an original Serie Noire <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> it's a vulgar folio reprint of the <pause dur="0.4"/> late <trunc>eight</trunc> eighties but <pause dur="0.3"/> and you can see that on the cover what they've put is a a kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> # a graphic version of <pause dur="0.2"/> # Gabin Jeanne Moreau in the film <pause dur="0.6"/> # so that's the <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of obvious # <pause dur="0.8"/> connection to the movie <pause dur="0.3"/> for the readers of the eighties <pause dur="0.4"/> # but # Simonin then <pause dur="0.3"/> wrote <pause dur="0.3"/> # Touchez pas au Grisbi <pause dur="0.4"/> in slang <pause dur="0.4"/> and # the the the book was adapted to the film that you've saw you've seen this morning and Auguste Le Breton <pause dur="0.5"/>

wrote <pause dur="0.4"/> # Rififi and he wrote the dialogues of Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.8"/> which you will see <pause dur="0.4"/> this afternoon <pause dur="0.6"/> # after the lecture and the the importance of Le Breton of those writers in the fifties is shown by the fact that <pause dur="0.4"/> # Jean-Pierre Melville the director of Bob le Flambeur has # said that <pause dur="0.4"/> he <pause dur="0.2"/> used Le Breton <pause dur="0.2"/> as a marketing ploy <pause dur="0.2"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> # at the time he made Bob le Flambeur in nineteen-fifty-five fifty-six <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> he was not a well known director <pause dur="0.2"/> the film doesn't have a star unlike Grisbi which had Jean Gabin <pause dur="0.3"/> the star of Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.3"/> in nineteen-fifty-six <pause dur="0.3"/> was Auguste Le Breton <pause dur="0.2"/> that's the name that sold the movie <pause dur="0.4"/> today of course # it's Jean-Pierre Melville's name which which is prominent <pause dur="0.2"/> but at the time <pause dur="0.2"/> # Melville recognized that he needed # Le Breton <pause dur="0.8"/> in order to # to sell his film <pause dur="0.4"/> and Le Breton wrote the dialogue # in the slang <pause dur="0.3"/> which was accustomed to # the writers of the Serie Noire <pause dur="0.4"/> in French <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> just a word then about # language # <pause dur="0.8"/> and and that is that <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>tho</trunc> those books

were written in slang <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the <distinct lang="fr">argot</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> that's the French word for slang <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> # but you you'll come across it <pause dur="0.3"/> a number of times <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> which <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> was <pause dur="0.2"/> a a kind of romanticized version <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> crooks' <pause dur="0.6"/> slang <pause dur="0.3"/> # which has a long history # in in French language going back to the late Middle Ages <pause dur="0.4"/> # and which was revived in the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> by a number of classic writers like Victor Hugo but also <pause dur="0.4"/> # some of the writers of <pause dur="0.4"/> the popular novels which were the antecedents of the crime novels <pause dur="0.3"/> people like Eugène Sue his name is written on the # on the handout <pause dur="0.4"/> so that <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> that <trunc>sla</trunc> slang if you like had <trunc>lo</trunc> very <pause dur="0.3"/> # old history and and # <pause dur="0.6"/> distant origins in French language <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and went through a number of revivals <pause dur="0.5"/> and in the post-war period went through a particularly dramatic revival <pause dur="0.2"/> through the writers of the of the Serie Noire <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> importance of the slang # is is on is felt on many levels <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's it

advertises itself immediately from the titles of the film <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> for the French audience of the mid-fifties <pause dur="0.6"/> words like <distinct lang="fr">grisbi</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>ha</trunc> <distinct lang="fr">chnouf</distinct> as in Razzia sur la Chnouf which means drugs <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> <distinct lang="fr">rififi</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> and so on <pause dur="0.2"/> were words which were not # necessarily in everyday use but but had that aura <pause dur="0.2"/> of <trunc>crim</trunc> criminal language <pause dur="0.2"/> so that right from the title of the films <pause dur="0.2"/> the their # the nature <pause dur="0.3"/> of the literature on which the films were based and the criminal milieu <pause dur="0.3"/> which was evoked in the film <pause dur="0.2"/> was was made evident <pause dur="0.4"/> # and of course <pause dur="0.2"/> # if you <pause dur="0.2"/> if you don't speak French the # the kind of flavour of it # is lost and we we have to be reconciled to that <pause dur="0.3"/> but it is <pause dur="0.3"/> quite an important aspect of <pause dur="0.5"/> of the films the way in which the lines are spoken and the the words of slang <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> which are used <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's it's it was # very important to the film <pause dur="0.3"/> in a way which is made very self-conscious in the films <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> i want to show you now <pause dur="0.3"/> two <pause dur="0.3"/> extracts before we # move on to <pause dur="0.4"/> # the <pause dur="0.7"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> the the gangster

films themselves # and especially Grisbi and Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.5"/> i want to show you an extract first of all from # a film with Eddie Constantine <pause dur="0.6"/> # and then an extract from Rififi so i know some of you i hope most of you have seen Rififi but <pause dur="0.2"/> # nevertheless we'll <trunc>s</trunc> we'll look <pause dur="0.4"/> at an extract <pause dur="0.9"/> so backtracking a little bit # on on on on the handouts still on the <pause dur="0.2"/> literary origins <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> you see that i make mention of American <trunc>hard</trunc> hard-boiled writers which i've already mentioned so people like Dashiell Hammett Raymond Chandler and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> all those writers who were <pause dur="0.5"/> translated <pause dur="0.2"/> into the Serie Noire <pause dur="0.5"/> but another one another writer who was translated and who may not be <pause dur="0.3"/> as meaningful to you today as <pause dur="0.2"/> Chandler and Hammett are <pause dur="0.3"/> was Peter Cheyney <pause dur="0.4"/> who wrote # a series of novels with a a private detective called Lemmy Caution <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="3.4"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> and <trunc>a</trunc> according to # <pause dur="0.6"/> Jill Forbes # the <trunc>f</trunc> the very first <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> book published by Serie Noire <pause dur="0.3"/> was a book

called Poison Ivy <pause dur="0.2"/> by Cheyney <pause dur="0.3"/> # and that's it's # and it's the book which is adapted <pause dur="0.4"/> # into a film called <pause dur="0.2"/> La Môme Vert-de-Gris <pause dur="0.3"/> which would translate as The Vert-de-Gris Chick <pause dur="0.2"/> # sort of that that's the sort of flavour of it <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> which was a film <trunc>wh</trunc> the <trunc>f</trunc> <trunc>wh</trunc> the film which really made Eddie Constantine into a star <pause dur="0.7"/> and i'm going to show you <pause dur="0.3"/> a quick extract <pause dur="0.5"/> # now Eddie Constantine # was an American <pause dur="0.3"/> but who'd come to work in France he was a singer <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> he # was a protégé of <trunc>e</trunc> of the singer Edith Piaf I-E lover <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> she kind of helped his career initially <pause dur="0.2"/> and then <pause dur="0.2"/> # he started getting parts small parts in movies <pause dur="0.3"/> and with # La Môme Vert-de-Gris he became a major star <pause dur="0.3"/> through the the the mid-fifties and <pause dur="0.2"/> # through the fifties really <pause dur="0.9"/> and the <pause dur="0.5"/> i i will come to <trunc>sa</trunc> to talk talk later on about <pause dur="0.3"/> # the <pause dur="0.2"/> attitude to American culture in those films but <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> # interesting aspect of <trunc>con</trunc> Eddie Constantine and i pronounce him <pause dur="0.2"/> on on purpose as Constantine and not

Constantine because <pause dur="0.2"/> he was known as Eddie Constantine in effect <pause dur="0.3"/> he became a French star <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact after he made those movies # he tried to revive his career in America and and sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> didn't it didn't work <pause dur="0.2"/> so he was really a French <pause dur="0.2"/> star <pause dur="0.2"/> but a French star as an American <pause dur="0.5"/> and in those <pause dur="0.2"/> # movies of the mid-fifties <pause dur="0.3"/> what he represented was <pause dur="0.2"/> the American <pause dur="0.3"/> which <pause dur="0.3"/> in the context of the film meant <pause dur="0.2"/> a man who was tall <pause dur="0.2"/> who was muscular <pause dur="0.4"/> athletic <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> who leaps and and # # leaps about # the frame <pause dur="0.3"/> who knocks people # out and so on <pause dur="0.3"/> and he's <pause dur="0.6"/> very often placed in contrast with French counterparts <pause dur="0.3"/> who tend to be <pause dur="0.2"/> older fatter <pause dur="0.3"/> less athletic and so on <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> if you think of <pause dur="0.2"/> Jean Gabin in Grisbi <pause dur="0.3"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> and now <pause dur="0.2"/> you're going to see Eddie Constantine in La Môme Vert-de-Gris <pause dur="0.2"/> you see what i mean <pause dur="0.3"/> # so <pause dur="0.9"/> # this is a bit towards the end of the film <pause dur="0.4"/> where and i i there are no # subtitles i apologize for that but # it'll be quite obvious <pause dur="0.3"/> he's been caught by the gang of villains he's investigating <pause dur="0.3"/> and

among those villains is <pause dur="0.3"/> the famous <pause dur="0.4"/> chick <pause dur="0.3"/> the <distinct lang="fr">la môme vert-de-gris</distinct> the woman <pause dur="0.4"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> you will see that she does a kind of dramatic <pause dur="0.2"/> # turnaround and <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of comes onto his side <pause dur="0.3"/> but just <pause dur="0.3"/> watch for the <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/><event desc="starts video" n="su0074" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="3:30"/> just watch for <pause dur="0.3"/> # the movements <pause dur="0.3"/> his presence in the frame <pause dur="0.3"/> and if you speak a little bit of French just listen to his accent <pause dur="1.4"/> when he when he speaks </u><pause dur="8.7"/> <u who="nf0069" trans="pause"> so that's him </u><pause dur="3:03.6"/> <u who="nf0069" trans="pause"> okay # <pause dur="2.1"/> the <pause dur="1.3"/> we'll <trunc>sto</trunc> stop it here <event desc="stops video" n="su0074" iterated="n"/> then then then there's a long pursuit on the on the roof <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> # can can you sorry eject this one and put the next one in <pause dur="0.2"/><event desc="changes tape" iterated="n" n="su0074"/> thanks <pause dur="0.5"/> as you can i mean as you can see # <pause dur="0.3"/> i think compared to Grisbi this morning <pause dur="0.2"/> really there's a much

more <pause dur="0.3"/> a lot more action <pause dur="0.3"/> # and there's # more than you see in this extract in the rest of the film <pause dur="0.4"/> # more physical action <pause dur="0.2"/> # and and the the his figure and and his # # body <pause dur="0.2"/> movements are very different from what you see <pause dur="0.4"/> in something like Grisbi and what you will see in Bob le Flambeur this afternoon <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but what is also very obvious is <pause dur="0.3"/> the kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> self-consciousness and the parody <pause dur="0.2"/> that that that <trunc>perma</trunc> <trunc>p</trunc> pervades the film <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's something which is <pause dur="0.4"/> i think <pause dur="0.3"/> # very # <pause dur="0.8"/> true of the genre in general <pause dur="0.2"/> but especially so of this Peter Cheyney adaptation <pause dur="0.2"/> it's already in the literature it's already in the books themselves <pause dur="0.3"/> but the way they play them the way Eddie Constantine <pause dur="0.2"/> # says his lines for example <pause dur="0.2"/> very much emphasizes this parodic element <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and this self-consciousness <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's the link to <pause dur="0.2"/> # the next extract from Rififi <pause dur="0.3"/> about the self-consciousness and <pause dur="0.3"/> also i wanted to show you that particular moment # well it's very nice anyway but also <pause dur="0.2"/> because <pause dur="0.3"/> # it <pause dur="0.4"/> # reveals the

self-consciousness about the use of language and and slang <pause dur="0.3"/> it's <pause dur="0.4"/> towards the beginning of the film and it's the a scene in a cabaret with a a woman who is who sings <pause dur="0.3"/> # the the theme song Rififi <pause dur="0.3"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> in the the the words of the song talks about <pause dur="0.2"/> the word <distinct lang="fr">rififi</distinct> itself <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.9"/> so let's <pause dur="1.1"/><event desc="starts video" n="su0074" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="3:15"/> have a look </u><pause dur="3:15.6"/> <u who="nf0069" trans="pause"> <event desc="stops video" n="su0074" iterated="n"/> what's interesting # about this # well many things are interesting about this # extract but <pause dur="0.4"/> it's the importance that's given to <pause dur="0.4"/> crime as a spectacle <pause dur="0.4"/> # which is then <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>m</trunc> what we see here is the perfect # <distinct lang="fr">mise-en-abyme</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> yes you know the expression <distinct lang="fr">mise-en-abyme</distinct> a kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> repeated mirror image of something <pause dur="0.3"/> so that <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>wha</trunc> what we have here are for example <pause dur="0.3"/> the relationship between the gangster and the gangster moll <pause dur="0.2"/> that's all <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>d</trunc> signified by the words of the song but also signified by the <pause dur="0.3"/> silhouettes of the dancers <pause dur="0.3"/> # that we see <pause dur="0.2"/> # projected <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and at the same time <pause dur="0.2"/> the importance of <pause dur="0.3"/> the language and the importance of <pause dur="0.2"/> # the <trunc>c</trunc> the criminal element are <pause dur="0.5"/> themselves made into a spectacle in

the the song of the woman and <trunc>a</trunc> and also the dancers <pause dur="0.4"/> # <distinct lang="fr">mise-en-abyme</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> in case you <pause dur="4.4"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> # it's <pause dur="0.5"/> comes a term that comes from heraldry which means <pause dur="0.2"/> that you know there's an image within an image within an image so <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> that moment really condenses a lot <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> what the rest of the film does <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the mode which is of course not <pause dur="0.2"/> # if you've <trunc>s</trunc> for those who've seen the whole film <pause dur="0.4"/> # that the mode is not <pause dur="0.6"/> the same throughout the film the film is much bleaker <pause dur="0.2"/> than this particular moment would suggest # # <trunc>s</trunc> particularly compared to <pause dur="0.3"/> Grisbi <pause dur="0.2"/> and Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.3"/> but nevertheless <pause dur="0.3"/> # i think that there is that that very interesting <pause dur="0.2"/> highlighting <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> the the the elements of the film and also <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>crim</trunc> of crime as a spectacle <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> a few words # my point two on the handout about the place of the gangster films <pause dur="0.4"/> in the French film industry of the time <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the films we're talking about were all <pause dur="0.3"/> very popular movies <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> at the box

office # and hence <pause dur="0.3"/> and especially with Grisbi <pause dur="0.4"/> # Bob le Flambeur and Rififi <pause dur="0.3"/> # they're films which won prizes and which were popular at the box office and <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's one of the reasons why they started <pause dur="0.3"/> # a kind of <pause dur="0.2"/> a new wave of the genre of the policiers # <pause dur="0.8"/> in French cinema <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but what's interesting about them <pause dur="0.3"/> with the exception of Bob le Flambeur which was very much an independent production <pause dur="0.5"/> is that <pause dur="0.4"/> films like Rififi like Grisbi <pause dur="0.2"/> were very much if you like in Hollywood terms there would be <pause dur="0.2"/> A productions in the sense of <pause dur="0.3"/> the directors were well known <pause dur="0.2"/> they're films with stars <pause dur="0.2"/> with large budgets <pause dur="0.2"/> with sets and so on <pause dur="0.3"/> for instance the sets of Rififi were designed by Alexander Trauner who Alexander Trauner who was # <pause dur="0.5"/> well known set designer <pause dur="0.2"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> in fact <pause dur="0.4"/> from the # <pause dur="0.8"/> period of the the poetic realist films <trunc>ver</trunc> one of the best known set designers in French cinema <pause dur="0.6"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> so these are very much <pause dur="0.6"/> A productions <trunc>g</trunc> big

productions <pause dur="0.3"/> but of course with quote unquote B subjects <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and that itself gave rise to a lot of controversy at the time <pause dur="0.3"/> the fact that <pause dur="0.2"/> so much talent and money in in the view of some was was as it were quote unquote wasted on <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> unimportant trivial <pause dur="0.3"/> and immoral subjects <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> even in a French context where censorship was much less <pause dur="0.4"/> # intent on questions of morals of sexual sexual depiction <pause dur="0.4"/> and morality generally <pause dur="0.3"/> # there were controversies about these films <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> the fact that the criminals of course are <pause dur="0.2"/> presented <trunc>sym</trunc> # with sympathy <pause dur="0.2"/> # that that the spectator is is expected to identify <trunc>wi</trunc> with them you identify with Max <pause dur="0.3"/> and his friends and you identify with Bob <pause dur="0.3"/> and his friends in Bob le Flambeur # as you will see <pause dur="0.4"/> # have <pause dur="0.2"/> created controversy <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> # i know the the reason why the print of # Grisbi you saw this morning was incomplete # <pause dur="0.4"/> is that # was due to the British censor so the censorship was was worse on the British side of # as usual <pause dur="0.3"/> # in in relations to morality and

and and sexuality <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the scene i will show you # <pause dur="0.6"/> in a little while from <trunc>gris</trunc> # from Grisbi is the scene <trunc>y</trunc> that that's missing but there were <pause dur="0.2"/> there are little bits <pause dur="0.2"/> which are missing and which are no doubt due to to censorship <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> one point i would i would plant here in your mind is that <pause dur="0.2"/> and and because i'll come back to it at the end of the lecture <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> # the fact that a star <pause dur="0.2"/> like Jean Gabin <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # saw the renewal of his career in Grisbi <pause dur="0.4"/> # and shortly after this film in the late fifties and early sixties <pause dur="0.4"/> two of the biggest new stars of French cinema <pause dur="0.2"/> namely Jean-Paul Belmondo and Alain Delon <pause dur="0.3"/> began their careers <pause dur="0.2"/> also playing criminals or <pause dur="0.3"/> # or policemen sometimes but or <trunc>g</trunc> <trunc>b</trunc> <trunc>y</trunc> very often gangsters <pause dur="0.2"/> so that <pause dur="0.2"/> there is as it were in the mid-fifties to the early sixties a rise in French cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> of the male star as gangster <pause dur="0.3"/> as a criminal or a delinquent <pause dur="0.3"/> and and that's that's a very # interesting point and it contrasts quite sharply <pause dur="0.2"/> with what happened <pause dur="0.3"/> # before the

war <pause dur="0.3"/> and and <pause dur="0.2"/> here you can make a direct comparison with Gabin because <pause dur="0.2"/> although <pause dur="0.4"/> in Pépé le Moko he played a gangster <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in in his other films he tended to play <pause dur="0.3"/> # a worker <pause dur="0.2"/> maybe a worker driven to crime but to # a <trunc>h</trunc> a an honest working class hero <pause dur="0.3"/> and as we discussed even in Pépé he was <pause dur="0.3"/> portraying a kind of # honest working class character even though he's a gangster <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.4"/> # when we move to the mid-fifties and early sixties we we see a change a very important change # in the way <pause dur="0.4"/> # major male stars begin to <pause dur="0.2"/> # be associated <pause dur="0.3"/> primarily with figures of gangsters <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> the point i would make about the place of the films in the French film industry <pause dur="0.3"/> # was that <pause dur="0.3"/> they combined <pause dur="0.3"/> popular <pause dur="0.2"/> box office well they combined box office popularity <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> critical <pause dur="0.3"/> # acclaim in many cases <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> i think that we can then see them as a very important transitional <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>y</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> cycle if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> between the tradition of quality <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the new wave that's about to come <pause dur="0.2"/> and it's interesting that <pause dur="0.2"/> #

most of these films certainly Grisbi <pause dur="0.3"/> and and certainly Rififi <pause dur="0.3"/> very much slot within the tradition of quality <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms as i say of stars budgets sets et cetera <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> yet the subjects are not <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="makes quotation mark gesture" iterated="n"/> typical quality subjects <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> # at the same time they are films which are approved of <pause dur="0.2"/> by the <trunc>n</trunc> the future new wave directors as critics <pause dur="0.3"/> and indeed <pause dur="0.2"/> when the new wave directors begin to make movies <pause dur="0.3"/> most of them <pause dur="0.8"/> # start by making <pause dur="0.2"/> # thrillers or films with delinquent characters and gangsters <pause dur="0.2"/> so think of Godard and A Bout de Souffle <pause dur="0.4"/> think of <pause dur="0.4"/> Truffaut and Shoot the Pianist <pause dur="0.3"/> # # <trunc>es</trunc> <trunc>tho</trunc> think of Chabrol <pause dur="0.2"/> # virtually all most of the new wave directors <pause dur="0.2"/> begin by making <pause dur="0.3"/> # thrillers so i think <pause dur="0.2"/> those films we're looking at this week are very important as a transitional point <pause dur="0.3"/> between tradition of quality <pause dur="0.4"/> and new wave <pause dur="0.2"/> # another # person i haven't mentioned here is Louis Malle who made Lift to the Scaffold Ascenseur Pour l'Echafaud <pause dur="0.4"/> in fifty-seven <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>whi</trunc> which is a thriller <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> okay so <pause dur="0.4"/> that that's i

think the the the main point here about <pause dur="0.2"/> how these films are placed within the film industry <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> although some of the critics raise objections as i said about the morality <pause dur="0.2"/> of the films <pause dur="0.2"/> in particular Georges # interestingly <pause dur="0.4"/> # a critic on the left Georges Sadoul # who's a Communist critic <pause dur="0.3"/> # raised objections to Grisbi <pause dur="0.5"/> very much along the lines of <pause dur="0.2"/> what a pity that Jacques Becker <pause dur="0.2"/> with all his talent <pause dur="0.2"/> is making a thriller <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> the next point i want to come to is # <pause dur="0.2"/> in a way the the the one of the most important points of about studying those films for us # at # in this course <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> the relationship between <pause dur="0.4"/> # French national identity <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> American <pause dur="0.4"/> cultural artefacts and <trunc>cultura</trunc> and American cinema <pause dur="0.4"/> and how <pause dur="0.3"/> that relationship <pause dur="0.3"/> is played out in the thrillers <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> as you can see on your on your handout the first point i would make here <pause dur="0.4"/> is to contrast in these films <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is very much something i want us to discuss tomorrow in the seminar <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # to look at the contrast

or <trunc>a</trunc> at least the relationship <pause dur="0.2"/> between <pause dur="0.7"/> the iconography which one may say is a very much # a Hollywood iconography <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.4"/> the the gangsters <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> now Max and his friends in Grisbi don't wear trench coats but as you will see in Bob we do see trench coat <pause dur="0.3"/> the hats <pause dur="0.2"/> the guns <pause dur="0.3"/> # the sharp suits and so on <pause dur="0.2"/> # we have <pause dur="0.3"/> # the iconography that Colin McArthur talks about in <trunc>ho</trunc> # <pause dur="0.3"/> Underworld U-S-A is very much there <pause dur="0.3"/> # the cigarettes the drinks <pause dur="0.3"/> the well dressed people <pause dur="0.3"/> jukeboxes <pause dur="0.4"/> # jazz musicians <pause dur="0.3"/> # a lot of <pause dur="0.4"/> # artefacts and objects # that we associate or certainly at the time were associated with American culture <pause dur="0.3"/> litter these films <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> the way the the characters dress <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.4"/> locations they inhabit <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> think about the ubiquitous cabaret <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>wh</trunc> which you've just seen in in Rififi you've seen that in in in Grisbi you will see it in Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> music the role of music and and et cetera <pause dur="0.3"/> # very much connotes <pause dur="0.3"/> an American iconography and an iconography which people then could relate directly to <pause dur="0.2"/>

American gangster films they could see <pause dur="0.2"/> and they'd been seeing since the thirties <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.7"/> however at the same time <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it's certainly in Grisbi <pause dur="0.2"/> and in # Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="1.1"/> interestingly differently in Rififi and i hope tomorrow there'll be enough people who've seen Rififi so we can discuss that in in detail <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> at the same time as we have this American iconography <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> which is very pervasive <pause dur="0.3"/> both visually and aurally <pause dur="0.6"/> we also have <pause dur="0.4"/> # a particular French type of <distinct lang="fr">mise en scène</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> which we <pause dur="0.2"/> may recognize you may recognize already from films you've seen # in the last two weeks <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> a more <pause dur="0.2"/> mundane # # type of # delivery if you like of the story <pause dur="0.2"/> and more of an emphasis on <pause dur="0.3"/> the quotidian <pause dur="0.3"/> on <pause dur="0.2"/> # the <distinct lang="fr">temps mort</distinct> the sort of dead time <pause dur="0.2"/> # a <trunc>l</trunc> a lot of the time when <pause dur="0.4"/> it doesn't seem that very much is happening <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> i used a quote which is from Roland Barthes' # text on on your <trunc>han</trunc> on the back of the handout <pause dur="0.3"/> which where he describes Grisbi <pause dur="0.2"/> in one of his rare look at looks at # a <trunc>f</trunc> a film at a

French film <pause dur="0.3"/> as <pause dur="0.2"/> the world of understatement <pause dur="0.3"/> the sense that <pause dur="0.3"/> in the <distinct lang="fr">mise en scène</distinct> in the way the characters # <pause dur="0.2"/> move in the way they they behave # between each other and so on <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a sense of understatement of minimalism <pause dur="0.4"/> # we are not <pause dur="0.2"/> we're not even in the world of the Eddie Constantine movie with a lot of movement and jumping about and so on and <pause dur="0.3"/> knocking people on the on the on the head and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> # we're certainly not in in the world of the American gangster film we're in a sort of very different world <pause dur="0.3"/> a very hybrid world <pause dur="0.3"/> # i would argue between <pause dur="0.3"/> # the American gangster film <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> particular <pause dur="0.2"/> traditions of French # quote unquote realist depictions <pause dur="0.5"/> # and i would also use # <pause dur="0.4"/> here i think as as very # <pause dur="0.7"/> telling a quote by # François Truffaut <pause dur="0.4"/> who who wrote in his review of Grisbi <pause dur="0.5"/> what happens to the character is less important <pause dur="0.5"/> important than how it happens <pause dur="0.3"/> so what happens to the characters in Grisbi <pause dur="0.2"/> is less important <pause dur="0.2"/> than <pause dur="0.2"/> how it happens <pause dur="0.3"/> and

therefore <pause dur="0.3"/> one one has this kind of understated <distinct lang="fr">mise en scène</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> throughout the film <pause dur="0.3"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> may seem actually surprising at as # at first <unclear>indeed</unclear> it's the first <pause dur="0.2"/> French gangster film one sees <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it seems that not very much is happening <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>li</trunc> as in Pépé le Moko <pause dur="0.4"/> the heist the main criminal activity has already taken place it's off screen <pause dur="0.2"/> it's already happened <pause dur="0.3"/> we're in a kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> # the world in which <pause dur="0.2"/> they they're discussing and they're looking at the reactions <pause dur="0.3"/> the are you all right <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> the impact of of the crime <pause dur="0.3"/> but not the crime itself <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> and here comes the <trunc>m</trunc> the little bit from Grisbi which you did not see this morning thanks to the British censor of the fifties <pause dur="0.5"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> that is when # <pause dur="0.2"/> Max takes his friend Riton to # <pause dur="0.6"/> his new flat <pause dur="0.5"/> you remember and they have this little scene which has become very famous actually # <pause dur="0.4"/> # of <pause dur="0.4"/>

Max and Riton eating the pâté and drinking wine <pause dur="0.3"/> while Max is explaining to his friend about # <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> where he's gone wrong basically <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> if you remember at the end of that scene he says right okay well we're tired let's go to bed now <pause dur="0.4"/> and there's a cut to the scene in the bank where Max is taking the gold <pause dur="0.3"/> # bullion to to give it to his uncle <unclear>the fence</unclear> yes remember <pause dur="0.4"/> you're with me <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so this is what comes in between <event desc="starts video" n="su0074" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="video plays" iterated="y" dur="3:09"/> </u><pause dur="2:59.0"/> <u who="nf0069" trans="pause"> oh <pause dur="13.9"/><event desc="stops video" n="su0074" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="3.8"/> we can <trunc>st</trunc> we can stop it there they just # <pause dur="1.3"/> we just see Max go <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.7"/> get up and <pause dur="0.2"/> go to the bank <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.6"/> can you think of why this would have been <pause dur="0.4"/> deleted from the print <pause dur="4.5"/> <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.9"/> no <pause dur="2.5"/> any idea </u><pause dur="1.3"/> <u who="sm0072" trans="pause"> well <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> 'cause i've never been <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> candidate so # because <pause dur="2.2"/> because <pause dur="0.6"/> staying together and all that kind of <pause dur="2.1"/> wouldn't say homosexual but <pause dur="0.2"/> homoerotic sort of bonding between </u><u who="nf0069" trans="latching"> mm </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sm0072" trans="pause"> kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> </u><pause dur="1.4"/> <u who="nf0069" trans="pause"> yeah well i think that that's well that's

apparently that was the reason that it was felt to be <pause dur="0.4"/> slightly shocking those two men putting on their pyjamas and and <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> going to # <pause dur="0.2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>bed <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>although they go <trunc>s</trunc> separate beds <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and but <pause dur="0.5"/> that the reason why i'm i'm i think it's well first of all it's important you see it so you've seen the complete movie <pause dur="0.6"/> almost although there are <trunc>l</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> odd little bits missing as well <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> is is really <pause dur="0.3"/> # the fact that <pause dur="0.4"/> it <pause dur="0.4"/> the film can do without it in terms of narrative it is not particularly important in relation to <pause dur="0.4"/> # the unfolding of of the story <pause dur="0.4"/> of Grisbi and in fact you can you can understand the film <trunc>p</trunc> perfectly well without it <pause dur="0.4"/> # yet one one could argue i would argue that it's also it's a key scene <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> in <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the film <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> emphasizing this <distinct lang="fr">mise en scène</distinct> of <pause dur="0.3"/> # of the everyday of the quotidian <pause dur="0.3"/> these are <pause dur="0.2"/> two <pause dur="0.2"/> # and and of course # <trunc>the</trunc> these are two gangsters <pause dur="0.2"/> # but what

we see them is doing their teeth and putting on their pyjamas and <pause dur="0.4"/> and # in a way which emphasizes # <pause dur="0.3"/> their lack of glamour although they wear very nice pyjamas but but nevertheless they they're kind of <pause dur="0.4"/> # just like middle-aged men going to bed and in fact <pause dur="0.5"/> are musing over the <trunc>a</trunc> the issue of ageing <pause dur="0.2"/> # and <pause dur="0.2"/> Truffaut said in his review of the film <pause dur="0.3"/> # that apart from saying <pause dur="0.2"/> what happens is less important than how it happens <pause dur="0.2"/> and this scene demonstrates that it's not <pause dur="0.2"/> what happens <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the how <pause dur="0.3"/> it's it's the relationship <pause dur="0.3"/> between these men which is the depicted purely in terms of everyday quotidian actions like <pause dur="0.3"/> going to do your teeth <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> but Truffaut # also said that this is a film about ageing it's about about turning <pause dur="0.3"/> fifty and so on and so forth and <pause dur="0.4"/> as you you've noticed what when you watched the film this morning it's got a lot of you know # remarks about <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> wanting to retire getting old being tired and so on and <pause dur="0.3"/> when Riton looks at his the bags under his eyes you

recall that it refers to an earlier conversation where <pause dur="0.2"/> Max says you know look at yourself you know <pause dur="0.2"/> you should you should retire you know you've had enough <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> that but but it it's it's very much <pause dur="0.2"/> that that sort of that sense of muted everyday <pause dur="0.4"/> action <pause dur="0.3"/> which is at the centre of the film <pause dur="0.4"/> and yet <pause dur="0.2"/> this is a gangster movie this is a film about <pause dur="0.3"/> gangsters and about criminals <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> it seems seems to me to <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>emph</trunc> to really focus <pause dur="0.3"/> on <pause dur="0.2"/> that hybrid <pause dur="0.2"/> between <pause dur="0.2"/> a French style of <distinct lang="fr">mise en scène</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> and an American type of narrative and also iconography <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> two other points about # the the Franco-American # relationship in the film <pause dur="0.4"/> one is to do with the use of foreigners and foreignness in the films <pause dur="0.4"/> # that <pause dur="1.0"/> you will have noticed in Grisbi but this is true in Rififi and you will see that in Bob that <pause dur="0.4"/> # all the <trunc>poli</trunc> the French policiers of that period very much emphasize <pause dur="0.3"/> foreign characters # <trunc>a</trunc> among the French characters <pause dur="0.3"/> now # there's of course the Eddie

Constantine film where he's <pause dur="0.2"/> clearly an American <pause dur="0.3"/> but in in the the the more typical <trunc>g</trunc> French gangster films of the mid and late fifties <pause dur="0.3"/> what we have is a lot of <pause dur="0.4"/> Italians and a lot of Corsicans <pause dur="0.2"/> now that <pause dur="0.2"/> refers to <pause dur="0.2"/> # there's there's the <trunc>ref</trunc> referential reality of <pause dur="0.4"/> # the Corsican Mafia <pause dur="0.2"/> which was an important part of the French underworld <pause dur="0.3"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> also <pause dur="0.2"/> with the Italians <pause dur="0.2"/> a kind of nod towards the American gangster film and references to the Italian # <pause dur="0.3"/> and Sicilian Mafia <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> also <pause dur="0.2"/> one might want to see <trunc>thi</trunc> this emphasis on foreign characters <pause dur="0.3"/> # and and and look at how <pause dur="0.4"/> # they # behave in relation to the French ones <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> as another # displaced image of the relationship between France and America in the films <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> the contrast between the behaviour of the French characters <pause dur="0.3"/> and the behaviour of the non-French characters <pause dur="0.2"/> is always to the advantage of the French ones <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> that the <pause dur="0.3"/> non-French characters tend to be the one <pause dur="0.2"/> who betray <pause dur="0.2"/> who are weak <pause dur="0.3"/> # et cetera <pause dur="0.2"/> so that <pause dur="0.3"/> what what what

what one has there i think <pause dur="0.2"/> encapsulated is the way in which <pause dur="0.3"/> the films play <pause dur="0.5"/> very often on on a <trunc>f</trunc> on on one level <pause dur="0.4"/> on <pause dur="0.3"/> contrasting unfavourably the French characters they tend to be <pause dur="0.3"/> less good-looking # <pause dur="0.4"/> less slim less athletic and so on <pause dur="0.2"/> so on the surface <pause dur="0.2"/> there there's a kind of parody of of # <pause dur="0.2"/> particular <trunc>att</trunc> # French attitude <pause dur="0.2"/> yet at the same time <pause dur="0.2"/> the narrative resolution usually gives them the upper hand <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a kind of interesting # play there on <pause dur="0.2"/> # national identity <pause dur="0.4"/> # and as i say one can read it as as a displacement of <pause dur="0.3"/> # Franco-American <pause dur="0.2"/> relationship <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> and # <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> as one goes towards the late fifties and the early sixties and we'll we'll see that # <pause dur="0.6"/> when we look at # Alphaville and talk about the new wave <pause dur="0.3"/> and the new wave attitude to the thriller <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> there there's there's a more overt # move towards imitating American characters # everybody knows about <pause dur="0.4"/> Jean-Paul Belmondo in A Bout de Souffle imitating Bogart <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a more <pause dur="0.2"/> kind of self-conscious <pause dur="0.3"/> # play <pause dur="0.2"/> on on

Frenchness and non-Frenchness <pause dur="0.3"/> but in those mid-fifties gangster film <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the Italians and the Corsicans and also and <pause dur="0.2"/> the kind of Latin characters or # <pause dur="0.2"/> characters with <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps not to you but to French people <pause dur="0.2"/> foreign sounding names like <trunc>an</trunc> Angelo for example <pause dur="0.3"/> and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> at the same time <pause dur="0.2"/> note that <pause dur="0.4"/> all the main characters in the film the French characters <pause dur="0.2"/> have American sounding names <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> it's no accident that the heroes are called Max <pause dur="0.3"/> Bob <pause dur="0.7"/> Tony <pause dur="0.4"/> right in Rififi <pause dur="0.2"/> Tony le Stéphanois <pause dur="0.4"/> # in in Grisbi we have Max le Menteur <pause dur="0.4"/> and in # <pause dur="0.7"/> Bob we have Bob le Flambeur <distinct lang="fr">le flambeur</distinct> means the gambler <pause dur="0.3"/> in in slang <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> that </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm0073" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0069" trans="overlap"> as if you <trunc>y</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> sorry </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sm0073" trans="pause"> i thought it was somebody with the name Flambé <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/></u> <pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="nf0069" trans="pause"> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> well <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.9"/> well <pause dur="0.3"/> <distinct lang="fr">flambé</distinct> in slang means means # yes <distinct lang="fr">flambé</distinct> means to burn but it's it means <pause dur="0.2"/> in slang it means to play to gamble <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and # <pause dur="1.0"/> the <pause dur="0.6"/> you remember what i said about <pause dur="0.3"/> Pépé

le Moko <pause dur="0.4"/> yes that <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>pep</trunc> in Pépé you have the the very French name Pépé very French sounding <pause dur="0.2"/> and le Moko <pause dur="0.3"/> evoked <pause dur="0.2"/> dark darkness <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> coffee strong coffee et cetera or the the exoticism of the character <pause dur="0.7"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> think about that name and think of <pause dur="0.2"/> Max le Menteur <pause dur="0.5"/> Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.6"/> Tony <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # but especially Max and Bob <pause dur="0.4"/> what we have there is a reversal <pause dur="0.3"/> we have the character <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>s</trunc> now have an American sounding name <pause dur="0.8"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the name that's attached to it <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.5"/> as it were redresses the balance <pause dur="0.2"/> to just show that they are <pause dur="0.4"/> French after all so <pause dur="0.3"/> Max le Menteur and Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah so there's an interesting play on on the hero's name <pause dur="0.5"/> # and just a quick word # <pause dur="0.2"/> # on the use of music <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the films # and we'll come back to that # tomorrow in our discussion <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> the policiers # of the mid-fifties the gangster films of the mid-fifties <pause dur="0.5"/> # herald the arrival of jazz music in mainstream French cinema <pause dur="0.3"/> now of course in <pause dur="0.3"/> French cinema in general in French culture <pause dur="0.4"/> jazz <pause dur="0.4"/> had arrived in in the nineteen-twenties

in the wake of the First World War <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> was very popular but especially popular with an intellectual elite <pause dur="0.5"/> # and and that that that's quite clear <pause dur="0.3"/> # there's an enormous enthusiasm for jazz in France # <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>i</trunc> restricted to a certain artistic intellectual milieu <pause dur="0.8"/> # what the policiers and # in the same way if you like as the <pause dur="0.2"/> # Serie Noire literature <pause dur="0.8"/> # broadens the audience for American literature <pause dur="0.3"/> to a very wide French <pause dur="0.5"/> public reading readership <pause dur="0.6"/> in the same way the films <pause dur="0.4"/> broaden the audience <pause dur="0.2"/> of jazz music <pause dur="0.4"/> to a very wide French # # <pause dur="0.3"/> set of viewers <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> # what what is very interesting to trace through the films is <pause dur="0.3"/> the # the way in which <pause dur="0.2"/> well the the <pause dur="0.2"/> the part the music plays <pause dur="0.7"/> and that's what i want to discuss with you tomorrow as well is <pause dur="0.3"/> look at <pause dur="0.3"/> how that jazz music plays <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> note that what the films do <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's why they were successful in in in a way broadcasting <pause dur="0.2"/> the jazz to to a wide audience <pause dur="0.3"/> was to <pause dur="0.2"/> propose there again a kind of hybrid <pause dur="0.4"/> which if you like you could call French jazz <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> what

what you have is music that is <pause dur="0.4"/> clearly influenced by jazz music by American jazz music <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> very often composed by French composers <pause dur="0.3"/> # and # the <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the what we can measure the success they had <pause dur="0.3"/> by the fact that <pause dur="0.3"/> the the theme tune in both Grisbi and Rififi <pause dur="0.3"/> became # big hits in in the mid-fifties and <pause dur="0.4"/> # <kinesic desc="holds up sheet music" iterated="n"/> this is the sheet music for Grisbi <pause dur="0.3"/> # # and <pause dur="0.4"/> apparently <pause dur="0.2"/> the film started a mini craze for harmonica <pause dur="0.3"/> # music # at at the time # <pause dur="0.4"/> thanks to the success of the # of the theme tune <pause dur="0.4"/> Grisbi which you remember is Max's tune <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>f</trunc> one of the first things he says is <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm going to put my tune on # <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> remember <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> and think about when you see Bob # # in a in a little while <pause dur="0.4"/> think about the the role that that music plays # <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> setting that hybrid mood between <pause dur="0.2"/> Frenchness and Americanness # aurally in a <trunc>s</trunc> and and how that interacts with <pause dur="0.3"/> the way <pause dur="0.3"/> the <distinct lang="fr">mise en scène</distinct> and the narrative work <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> visually <pause dur="0.8"/> so # <pause dur="1.1"/> and the the <trunc>l</trunc>

i want to <pause dur="0.3"/> finish <pause dur="0.2"/> # with <pause dur="0.2"/> # the last point on the <pause dur="0.2"/> on your # <pause dur="0.3"/> handout <pause dur="0.4"/> which is <pause dur="0.3"/> # to to <pause dur="0.3"/> offer two <pause dur="0.5"/> # not contrasting but <pause dur="0.3"/> interlocking <pause dur="0.5"/> symptomatic readings of these films # many people have thought about <pause dur="0.2"/> the success of those American gangster films # # sorry French gangster films of the mid-fifties <pause dur="0.5"/> # and <pause dur="0.8"/> # sought to understand <pause dur="0.2"/> their popularity and why <pause dur="0.4"/> at that particular moment in time <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> given that there had been <pause dur="0.2"/> crime films before there had been gangster films before you know about Pépé le Moko you've seen Quai des Orfèvres and so on <pause dur="0.4"/> why it was at that moment in the mid-fifties <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> # this particular cycle of Grisbi <pause dur="0.2"/> Rififi Bob and and a few others you've got on the sheet <pause dur="0.2"/> why these <pause dur="0.4"/> at that particular moment these <pause dur="0.2"/> worked so well and were so successful and and started <pause dur="0.3"/> # what what what became in fact <pause dur="0.4"/> # the second major genre of French cinema after comedy <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> so two possible <pause dur="0.5"/> # readings i will highlight now and <pause dur="0.2"/> # for you to think about while you watch Bob <pause dur="0.9"/> one is to do with <pause dur="0.2"/> # the

argument you've heard last week in relation to Quai des Orfèvres # to some extent is <pause dur="0.4"/> that one could read these films as a displacement <pause dur="0.7"/> # of <pause dur="0.5"/> issues to do with the war and the German occupation of France <pause dur="0.7"/> # this is the a reading proposed by people like Robin Buss # <pause dur="0.4"/> Jean-Pierre Melville himself when he talks about Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.2"/> very much proposes this particular reading <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> # Bob le Flambeur and and his other gangster film <pause dur="1.4"/> as films which are in in effect talking about <pause dur="0.2"/> the German occupation about the resistance about the war in France <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>w</trunc> one could read them as <pause dur="0.4"/> # a nostalgic <pause dur="0.2"/> revisiting of <pause dur="0.3"/> the war <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> also a nostalgic hankering after the prewar period <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> this is something which <trunc>i</trunc> incidentally is very explicit in a a British film which i i've put on your related viewing list called League of Gentlemen <pause dur="0.3"/> # it's a very different film # but <pause dur="0.4"/> # there the <trunc>r</trunc> the # nostalgia for the war is incredibly explicit <pause dur="1.0"/> here i would just say two things # that

<trunc>w</trunc> might help us understand # or at least <pause dur="0.2"/> # see whether one can back up this particular reading of a film <pause dur="0.4"/> one would be <pause dur="0.2"/> the emphasis on old men on men on the edge of retirement men who've <pause dur="0.3"/> who've had enough who've seen all the battles <pause dur="0.2"/> who've been through it all <pause dur="0.2"/> and what one could read that as men who've been <pause dur="0.2"/> through the war <pause dur="0.3"/> # and so on <pause dur="0.5"/> but also <pause dur="0.2"/> who are <pause dur="0.3"/> there's constant emphasis in in in those films about <pause dur="0.4"/> how <pause dur="0.3"/> # the the underground world is not what it used to be <pause dur="0.2"/> that it was better before that there was a real code of honour among among the the gangsters <pause dur="0.2"/> and you know that Grisbi in English is called Honour Among Thieves <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> # the other thing is that <pause dur="0.3"/> there are moments in those films where the iconography <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>e</trunc> evokes <pause dur="0.3"/> # the resistance evokes # i mean there are scenes in cellars <pause dur="0.4"/> # evokes literally underground activities # with the # the <trunc>resi</trunc> to do with the resistance <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> there are characters <pause dur="0.4"/> tortured <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.4"/> whom we see in a position # tied up as if they were about to be tortured

or had been tortured <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> and <trunc>the</trunc> these evoke very very <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of strong images of <pause dur="0.5"/> the resistance # and resistance <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>l</trunc> # linked activities <pause dur="0.3"/> okay so that's one <pause dur="0.4"/> type of reading <pause dur="0.2"/> and and there's a lot of course these films are <pause dur="0.3"/> totally to do with <pause dur="0.4"/> honour <pause dur="0.3"/> loyalty and betrayal <pause dur="0.2"/> and of course loyalty and betrayal are are are kind of values which one <trunc>c</trunc> one can associate with what happened <pause dur="0.3"/> in the underground resistance against the the German <trunc>ge</trunc> in the during the German occupation <pause dur="0.8"/> # okay so that that's one way so it would be a symptomatic displaced reading <pause dur="0.5"/> the second one is <pause dur="0.2"/> which is proposed by people like Jill Forbes # <pause dur="0.6"/> and and # and a couple of others <pause dur="0.5"/> is to read these films as a mirror <kinesic desc="makes quotation mark gesture" iterated="n"/> quote unquote <pause dur="0.3"/> of contemporary French society <pause dur="0.6"/> a society which was <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> moving towards <pause dur="0.3"/> modernity <pause dur="0.3"/> which was being <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="makes quotation mark gesture" iterated="n"/> quote unquote Americanized <pause dur="0.2"/> # in in terms of <pause dur="0.2"/> # consumer goods <pause dur="0.2"/> in terms of of culture <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> a culture <pause dur="0.3"/> of consumption <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> # France in the nineteen-fifties is <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> moving out of of of the post-war <pause dur="0.4"/>

# recession and and is is a country being rebuilt <pause dur="0.4"/> we're on almost we're three years away from General de Gaulle's Fifth Republic <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> and the real modernization of France <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the beginning of what # historians called <pause dur="0.6"/> call # <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/><distinct lang="fr">les trentes glorieuses</distinct> <pause dur="0.8"/> which # means <pause dur="2.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>lit</trunc> means literally the three the thirty glorious years <pause dur="0.4"/> meaning <pause dur="0.2"/> the forties # # well <pause dur="0.2"/> from the mid-forties to the mid # to the late sixties and and seventies the thirty years <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.4"/> economic boom <pause dur="0.3"/> and the rise of the consumer society <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> France in the fifties then is is beginning to be in the grips of <pause dur="0.3"/> consumer society <pause dur="0.4"/> # of <pause dur="0.4"/> # increased wealth of economic boom <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> one could read then the gangsters as <pause dur="0.2"/> being about <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> a community which used to be <pause dur="0.2"/> the working class community of the thirties poetic realist films <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> of community of workers of producers <pause dur="0.2"/> who've become a community <pause dur="0.2"/> of consumers <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> consumers who are <pause dur="0.2"/> motivated by individual <pause dur="0.3"/> # gain and # and greed <pause dur="0.3"/> and

so if you like <pause dur="0.2"/> one can then read the gangsters as symptomatic <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> French society at large # and it's # <pause dur="0.7"/> # desire <pause dur="0.3"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> consumption <pause dur="0.4"/> # think about how the films are littered with images of conspicuous consumption <pause dur="0.3"/> of wealth <pause dur="0.3"/> of high living living of <pause dur="0.3"/> # # people drinking champagne or whisky in cabarets and # <pause dur="0.3"/> driving <pause dur="0.2"/> huge cars <pause dur="0.4"/> sometimes American cars <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> kind of desiring <pause dur="0.2"/> the objects which are # <pause dur="0.3"/> in for the French linked then to modernity <pause dur="0.4"/> and in the <trunc>f</trunc> in the context of France in the fifties <pause dur="0.2"/> that means to America <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> the and the <trunc>g</trunc> the we see the gangsters if you like in the grips of <pause dur="0.3"/> desire for <pause dur="0.3"/> a trilogy <pause dur="0.2"/> which the <trunc>trilo</trunc> the the which the the gangster film <pause dur="0.4"/> # very much focused on which is of money <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> consumer goods <pause dur="0.3"/> and women <pause dur="0.3"/> # and <trunc>g</trunc> and among those consumer goods <pause dur="0.2"/> cars figure very importantly <pause dur="0.5"/> so that <pause dur="0.8"/> and think about the way the gangsters are now <pause dur="0.3"/> very much seen as professionals <pause dur="0.3"/> as organized it's we're we're moving towards <pause dur="0.2"/> the idea of organized crime as the <trunc>bi</trunc> as a business <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/>

and that in the context of France in the fifties <pause dur="0.3"/> # the idea of organized business would again <pause dur="0.3"/> connote America <pause dur="0.4"/> # rather than than France <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the key <pause dur="0.2"/> novels of France in the sixties was a novel <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="11"/> called <pause dur="0.4"/> Les Choses <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> which means <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> things <pause dur="0.3"/> by Georges Perec <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> and # it was <pause dur="0.3"/> it was published in sixty-three <pause dur="0.2"/> but it's very much about French society in the fifties and early sixties <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # it's a sort of parody of a young couple <pause dur="0.4"/> totally whose life is totally dominated by <pause dur="0.5"/> things <pause dur="0.3"/> goods objects <pause dur="0.2"/> objects that they desire <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.9"/> then one can read the gangsters as <pause dur="0.3"/> # a figuration if you like of <pause dur="0.3"/> that desire for for objects for things <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> for # capital # for # for gain and and consumer goods <pause dur="0.5"/> and and again i go and here i would go back <pause dur="0.2"/> just to finish to the point i made about <pause dur="0.3"/> the new stars <pause dur="0.3"/> of French cinema <pause dur="0.4"/> # the renewal of Gabin's # <pause dur="0.8"/> # stardom <pause dur="0.4"/> and the the the new

stardom of Jean-Paul Belmondo and Alain Delon <pause dur="0.4"/> as <pause dur="0.2"/> perhaps <pause dur="0.2"/> an image of that <pause dur="0.2"/> # mirroring of French society <pause dur="0.5"/> okay now we can discuss tomorrow whether you agree <pause dur="0.3"/> with # one of those two readings or or you think both can be read # <pause dur="0.3"/> concurrently <pause dur="0.4"/> # and # <pause dur="1.1"/> we will i will just my last word would be <pause dur="0.3"/> to say that <pause dur="0.3"/> # the <pause dur="0.4"/> figuring of the this hybrid culture between France and America <pause dur="0.5"/> is for you <pause dur="0.4"/> to to bear that in mind <pause dur="0.3"/> and sort of carry it through the course and <pause dur="0.3"/> see <pause dur="0.2"/> how when we arrive to a film like Lion <pause dur="0.5"/> that hybridization of French and <trunc>cul</trunc> and American culture <pause dur="0.4"/> is so different <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> whereas <pause dur="0.2"/> here we have a utopia <pause dur="0.3"/> of American goods <pause dur="0.2"/> when we come to Lion we have a complete dystopia <pause dur="0.4"/> of of what <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="makes quotation mark gesture" iterated="n"/> American culture means <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> i'll just # finish on end on this i'm sorry we're <pause dur="0.2"/> just a few minutes late but we did start late <pause dur="0.5"/> # so we'll have # <pause dur="0.4"/> a mini break now and we'll start the <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the video of Bob le Flambeur <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> remember there isn't a print so that's why you're seeing <pause dur="0.6"/> the tape <pause dur="1.1"/> okay