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<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>The French revolution</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:51:28" n="8478">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>

<language id="fr">French</language>



<person id="nm0079" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm0079, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="l"><p>ss, audience, large group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="l"><p>sl, all, large group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="3"><p>number of speakers: 3</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">History</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>




<u who="nm0079"> okay well # <pause dur="0.6"/> today we're # <pause dur="0.9"/> going to be carrying on with the # French Revolution you may have noticed i was sort of getting rather # <pause dur="0.4"/> enthusiastic and carried away at the end of the last one i was sort of almost # like i sort of started at the beginning about someone standing on a coffee table and <trunc>s</trunc> shouting to arms citizens <pause dur="0.5"/> as if i was going to sort of <pause dur="0.5"/> leap up on the desk and say to arms let's storm <pause dur="0.6"/> the Rootes Social Building <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> or # let's go out arm in arm singing the Marseillaise or something # like that <pause dur="0.4"/> well this is obviously <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> partly at least because the revolution the French Revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> # resonates with something about us about the sort of political life that we lead the <pause dur="0.4"/> # way in the some type of society <pause dur="0.3"/> in which we # live <pause dur="0.4"/> and this is one of the reasons why historians have thought it # important because it does seem to set <pause dur="0.3"/> as i think i mentioned to you in a previous # <pause dur="0.5"/> # lecture <pause dur="0.2"/> set the sort of framework <pause dur="0.4"/> set the framework in

existence <pause dur="0.4"/> # through <pause dur="0.3"/> within which we still live much of our <pause dur="0.3"/> political <pause dur="0.2"/> and # <pause dur="0.5"/> social life <pause dur="0.9"/> sets a sort of # agenda if you like of what we expect as <pause dur="0.2"/> participants within <pause dur="0.2"/> the type of society in which we <pause dur="0.3"/> we live <pause dur="0.4"/> so the declaration of the rights of man <pause dur="0.3"/> which # as i said came out on the twenty-sixth of <trunc>w</trunc> was issued by this new <pause dur="0.4"/> national assembly <pause dur="0.3"/> representing the nation the French nation for the first time <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # an elected body which # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> worked according to a new constitution new written constitutional <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>s</trunc> # <trunc>o</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> settlement <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> this provides a set of <pause dur="0.6"/> rights <pause dur="0.5"/> which are <pause dur="0.5"/> not <pause dur="0.2"/> privileges of # a set of corporate groups not the sort of privileges of the nobility or the privileges of the clergy or the privileges of such and such a <pause dur="0.3"/> a town or cathedral or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> they are rights which every man <pause dur="0.5"/> # it is held <pause dur="0.3"/> # has <pause dur="0.2"/> and that <pause dur="0.4"/> that declaration is one of the biggest <pause dur="0.4"/> intellectual influences cultural influences <pause dur="0.4"/> on <pause dur="1.2"/> the United Nation Declaration of Human Rights <pause dur="0.3"/> which was issued

in nineteen-forty-seven and as as i say is you know the way in which we think about not just <pause dur="0.3"/> our own government not just European governments <pause dur="0.3"/> but world governments the way in which we think # <pause dur="0.2"/> # societies ought to operate in a fair and just <pause dur="0.3"/> and equal way <pause dur="0.4"/> so for example the freedom of speech the freedom <pause dur="0.3"/> to publish <pause dur="0.3"/> # the right to <pause dur="0.3"/> # live in a society without fear of arbitrary <pause dur="0.3"/> # arrest <pause dur="0.3"/> the right to <pause dur="0.2"/> # have a religion # religious views <pause dur="0.3"/> # of your own without any sort of harassment <pause dur="0.4"/> # from the state the right to have <trunc>pe</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> to have political rights if you like to belong to a nation <trunc>w</trunc> # in such a way that # <pause dur="0.3"/> # # a political entity i should say <pause dur="0.2"/> in such a way that you actually your views are heard <pause dur="0.3"/> you have a a a a a a role in shaping the political system <pause dur="0.5"/> in some ways <pause dur="0.3"/> the French Revolution really sets that out in a sort of model way for the # first time in in a way which is <pause dur="0.5"/> durably extremely <pause dur="0.2"/> influential <pause dur="0.4"/> so that when we think about <pause dur="0.2"/> seventeen-eighty-nine when we think

about the French Revolution <pause dur="0.5"/> we think about that movement of elan that movement of tremendous energy <pause dur="0.3"/> and excitement and enthusiasm <pause dur="0.3"/> when new things suddenly seem to be possible <pause dur="0.3"/> when a new epoch <pause dur="0.3"/> in human history seemed to be <pause dur="0.2"/> # starting up it's not for an <trunc>ac</trunc> it's not by any accident <pause dur="0.3"/> although it was a couple of years after seventeen-eighty-nine in fact <pause dur="0.6"/> that the French Revolutionaries introduced their own calendar a new calendar to get rid of the old <pause dur="0.3"/> # religious # # calendar which existed and to <pause dur="0.3"/> create a <pause dur="0.2"/> a calendar which and it's an amazingly obvious # sort of enlightenment # reference here <pause dur="0.3"/> a calendar which somehow reflected <pause dur="0.3"/> nature so months were named after <pause dur="0.6"/> weather conditions and types of # <pause dur="0.3"/> # the seasons were named after after after # <pause dur="1.0"/> after sort of natural objects the days were <pause dur="0.2"/> not saints' days but # <pause dur="0.3"/> # # plants and flowers and things like that <pause dur="0.3"/> so the idea that a new epoch has been created and the revolutionary calendar starts <pause dur="0.4"/> from year one <pause dur="0.4"/>

you know to get rid of <pause dur="0.2"/> seventeen-eighty-nine and we go to a new calendar in human history so this idea of a new <pause dur="0.4"/> opening and <trunc>ne</trunc> new possibilities <pause dur="0.5"/> and with that the idea and this of course is something which is true of many revolutions the idea <pause dur="0.2"/> that <pause dur="0.6"/> the revolution could create could <pause dur="0.2"/> could # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> reorganize society <pause dur="0.4"/> rationally <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah again a very enlightenment sort of project <pause dur="0.4"/> # in a way <pause dur="0.3"/> # that <pause dur="0.3"/> # everyone <pause dur="0.2"/> had a say <pause dur="0.3"/> everyone had a say <pause dur="0.3"/> and this would produce a new type of human individual no longer <pause dur="0.3"/> a subject no longer a sort of person who just follows orders <pause dur="0.3"/> # but a citizen <pause dur="0.2"/> equal in rights equality before the law <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # to all other # <pause dur="0.2"/> # citizens this idea of a new man <pause dur="0.4"/> the nation the French nation <pause dur="0.2"/> would be regenerated in this way a new species of humanity <pause dur="0.3"/> would evolve <pause dur="0.3"/> and France would be in the sort of vanguard of a transformation <pause dur="0.2"/> of the whole of the world <pause dur="0.4"/> France was sort of leading the way <pause dur="0.2"/> in pioneering fashion <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # towards a new # future <pause dur="0.4"/> and that's exciting <pause dur="0.3"/> and that

because it links up with # # <pause dur="0.2"/> you know some of the things which we still feel <pause dur="0.5"/> is one reason why people look back to the revolution and think incredibly positive things about it <pause dur="1.9"/> but <pause dur="1.8"/> on the other hand <pause dur="1.2"/> what do we think about <pause dur="0.7"/> when <pause dur="0.2"/> another part of our mind <pause dur="0.2"/> thinks about the French Revolution <pause dur="0.7"/> it thinks <pause dur="1.0"/> guillotines <pause dur="0.4"/> it thinks <pause dur="0.5"/> reign of terror <pause dur="0.8"/> it thinks <pause dur="0.5"/> # a chilling <pause dur="0.3"/> bureaucracy <pause dur="0.7"/> it thinks <pause dur="0.2"/> a revolutionary tribunal <pause dur="0.5"/> # it thinks the mass execution <pause dur="0.4"/> of peasants men women and children <pause dur="0.3"/> in areas of # France <pause dur="0.2"/> which were not <pause dur="0.7"/> as excited <pause dur="0.2"/> about this new revolutionary beginning <pause dur="0.3"/> # as others it thinks about war <pause dur="0.4"/> it thinks about a war of <trunc>y</trunc> of France and revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> against just about the whole of the rest # of Europe <pause dur="0.6"/> and it's for this reason that i've sort of put the in the first heading there <pause dur="0.2"/> the term paradox <pause dur="0.5"/> you know <pause dur="0.5"/> that that is one of the great things about the revolutionary legacy if you like to the rest of the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> that there is this sense of paradox about # about

the French Revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> the whole of the nineteenth century really is intensely engaged with and <pause dur="0.2"/> which still in the twentieth century <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> we can we can sort of still sort of understand on the one hand the revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> as new opening new beginning <pause dur="0.4"/> # new possibilities the regeneration <pause dur="0.3"/> of the human <pause dur="0.2"/> # species <pause dur="0.4"/> on the other <pause dur="0.6"/> the revolution as <pause dur="0.2"/> an an instrument of terror <pause dur="0.3"/> of repression <pause dur="0.4"/> # a sort of early eighteenth century version <pause dur="0.3"/> # of the kind of totalitarian democracy <pause dur="0.4"/> totalitarian repression the totalitarian regimes i mean <pause dur="0.4"/> # which <pause dur="0.2"/> with which we've become depressingly familiar <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the late # <trunc>twentie</trunc> by the late # twentieth century <pause dur="0.6"/> so that sort of paradox the <trunc>posti</trunc> pluses and the minuses is what i want to sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> put absolutely in front of you <pause dur="0.3"/> # today <pause dur="0.3"/> i put it <trunc>un</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>t</trunc> at the start of the lecture i put it under this # <pause dur="1.0"/> heading living paradoxes <pause dur="0.4"/> because it <pause dur="0.5"/> the emphasis i'd like to <pause dur="0.4"/> place is that <pause dur="1.2"/> people <pause dur="0.2"/> just normal individuals <pause dur="0.4"/> had to try and live through the

two aspects of the # revolution and try somehow keep them in <pause dur="0.5"/> within the same sort of # box in their in their lives <pause dur="0.3"/> # in in the # in the seventeen-nineties <pause dur="0.3"/> and many groups found it <pause dur="0.2"/> too difficult to keep those <pause dur="0.2"/> things <pause dur="0.6"/> you know together <pause dur="0.4"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> what you actually see in the revolution is an increased <pause dur="0.3"/> polarization <pause dur="0.3"/> of # society <pause dur="0.2"/> a pro <pause dur="0.2"/> enthusiastically pro the revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> and an <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>enthusiastically <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> against the revolution a counter-revolutionary <pause dur="0.4"/> # movement as well <pause dur="0.3"/> a revolution which has stressed <pause dur="0.3"/> harmony <pause dur="0.2"/> equality <pause dur="0.5"/> every community everyone being in together <pause dur="0.5"/> i mean the best illustration which historians usually give of that is <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the <trunc>s</trunc> the first celebration of the fourteenth of July <pause dur="0.7"/> which was obviously a year later in seventeen-ninety <pause dur="0.2"/> the French have what <pause dur="0.2"/> # the in in Paris they create this enormous sort of amphitheatre <pause dur="0.3"/> people come up from every part of France they have an enormous civil <pause dur="0.3"/> # <trunc>festi</trunc> a civic festival <pause dur="0.2"/> this so-called <distinct lang="fr">fête de la fédération</distinct>

the the festival of the federation <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> symbolizing i think this idea of the new unity the new indivisibility of the new # regime <pause dur="0.5"/> and yet even by seventeen-ninety i think <pause dur="0.3"/> the fissures are opening up <pause dur="1.1"/> let me start <pause dur="0.3"/> let me start at the top <pause dur="1.6"/><event desc="takes off jumper" iterated="n"/> sorry i'm not just going # it sounds like i'm doing a striptease <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="2"/> if i don't take my # pullover <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> which wasn't the intention at all <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> let's start with the king <pause dur="1.2"/> there's a really good engraving i've i'm sorry i meant to bring it along <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> it's an engraving of Louis the Sixteenth and it's an engraving <pause dur="0.5"/> originally done under the Ancien Régime so he's looking i don't know if you've ever seen a picture of Louis the Sixteenth but he's trying to look serious <pause dur="0.6"/> which is difficult for Louis the Sixteenth because he's very very he's a simpleton really he's he's well meaning but <pause dur="0.5"/> you know profoundly <pause dur="0.5"/> silly <pause dur="0.3"/> # a twerp in # in # breeches <pause dur="0.3"/> # Louis the Sixteenth and he's there sort of looking in this bovine way <pause dur="0.4"/> and the

genre of the engraving is sort of very sort of adulatory you know trying to make him look good he's got a star and he's you know looking good <pause dur="1.2"/> Ancien Régime version of the king <pause dur="0.3"/> okay on the top of this on the top of his head like just painted on the top <pause dur="0.4"/> is a big red bonnet <pause dur="0.3"/> the bonnet which came to symbolize <pause dur="0.2"/> revolutionary patriotism <pause dur="0.5"/> it was actually <pause dur="0.7"/> # the idea of a red bonnet to symbolize freedom and equality <pause dur="0.3"/> came from <pause dur="0.3"/> the red bonnet which in antiquity <pause dur="0.3"/> was given to slaves who had been freed <pause dur="0.4"/> okay so under in <pause dur="0.2"/> # ancient Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> if you were a slave you got freedom you could wear the red bonnet to show that you were <pause dur="0.2"/> emancipated as a slave <pause dur="0.3"/> and the revolutionaries pick up on this idea because they have been slaves allegedly <pause dur="0.3"/> under the Ancien Régime and now they are free men <pause dur="0.6"/> and what <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>thi</trunc> and with this moreover goes a <distinct lang="fr">tricolore</distinct> the <distinct lang="fr">tricolore</distinct> flag <trunc>a</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> but a <distinct lang="fr">tricolore</distinct> <pause dur="0.2"/> <distinct lang="fr">coquet</distinct> the <distinct lang="fr">tricolore</distinct> is the <pause dur="0.5"/> mixture of the colours of Paris <pause dur="0.2"/> the the ceremonial colours of Paris <pause dur="0.4"/> red and blue <pause dur="0.3"/>

# with the white <pause dur="0.4"/> colour which is the Bourbon the Bourbon dynasty the the the royal dynasty's <pause dur="0.3"/> # ceremonial colour so putting these together <pause dur="0.3"/> seems to symbolize that new <pause dur="0.3"/> new unity <pause dur="0.4"/> okay so you've got <pause dur="0.2"/> Louis the Sixteenth in this sort of <pause dur="0.7"/> # Ancien Régime type of engraving with on his <trunc>ho</trunc> sort of painted <trunc>i</trunc> on in this sort of very crude way <pause dur="0.3"/> a red bonnet a revolutionary <distinct lang="fr">coquet</distinct> and for me what that painting says is <pause dur="0.6"/> can Louis the Sixteenth <pause dur="0.3"/> be <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> a free man <pause dur="1.0"/> can Louis the Sixteenth adapt to a new type of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # political system <pause dur="0.4"/> in which <pause dur="0.2"/> he is not <pause dur="0.4"/> God's representative on Earth who everyone has to obey because he's allegedly absolute monarch <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # the only sort of representative of the of the French nation <pause dur="0.3"/> he has to work within a new political system which is totally new to him <pause dur="0.4"/> # totally foreign and different and difficult for him to accept <pause dur="0.2"/> that he is just one agent of the French nation <pause dur="0.4"/> he's called the King of the French now and the idea is that he is the <pause dur="0.4"/> the executive arm of

a of an elected assembly <pause dur="0.3"/> # the <pause dur="0.4"/> national assembly <pause dur="0.2"/> which has come into existence in seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> which he hasn't <pause dur="0.3"/> very little control of he can veto legislation a little but not very much frankly <pause dur="0.4"/> the sort of sovereignty <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the # within France has shifted from the body the person <pause dur="0.3"/> of the monarch <pause dur="0.3"/> to this national assembly this new national assembly <pause dur="0.3"/> and within that <trunc>sit</trunc> situation <pause dur="0.4"/> can Louis the Sixteenth cope <pause dur="0.3"/> can he <pause dur="0.3"/> can he sort of # deal with this new political <pause dur="0.2"/> # arrangement <pause dur="0.3"/> i've got # <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> sort of a few dates for you there to to look at i might mention some of these things as we <pause dur="0.3"/> # go through <pause dur="2.0"/> well can he <pause dur="0.6"/> can he cope <pause dur="0.4"/> no he can't cope <pause dur="0.4"/> # throughout seventeen-eighty-nine and ninety we find him endlessly vacillating wanting to <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of half accept things then <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of falling back on <pause dur="0.3"/> # when he's sort of pressed he's very very lukewarm about the revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> in a way that many people who

are enthusiastic <pause dur="0.2"/> revolutionaries <pause dur="0.3"/> find extremely difficult # to to take <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and their patience becomes increasingly <pause dur="0.2"/> tested <pause dur="0.7"/> now what are the things that Louis the Sixteenth finds difficult to accept well obviously the reduction in his own power that's a <pause dur="0.3"/> that's the first thing <pause dur="0.5"/> but i think also he finds <pause dur="0.3"/> two other areas of the new revolutionary <pause dur="0.3"/> situation the new political <pause dur="0.6"/> # system <pause dur="0.2"/> of post-seventeen-eighty-nine France <pause dur="0.3"/> very difficult to cope with <pause dur="0.5"/> first of all the reduction of the nobility's status the idea that the nobility <pause dur="0.3"/> who were you know <pause dur="0.2"/> the most powerful group of individuals within <pause dur="0.3"/> # France <pause dur="0.3"/> # they were <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> allegedly the second estate you know the ones who above the third estate above everyone else <pause dur="0.4"/> these too have to accept that they are normal citizens as well indeed in seventeen-ninety <pause dur="0.2"/> all titles are abolished <pause dur="0.3"/> # throughout France so you're not allowed to call yourself the Duke of this the Marquis of that or or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> you have to take

normal <trunc>li</trunc> normal names like everyone else <pause dur="0.3"/> and many of the privileges and rights which they have # <pause dur="0.5"/> had for literally <pause dur="0.4"/> more than a millennia in many # <pause dur="0.2"/> # cases are <pause dur="0.2"/> removed them <pause dur="0.3"/> removed from them one of the <pause dur="0.3"/> # things which <trunc>k</trunc> happens in seventeen-eighty-nine which makes this such an important powerful <pause dur="0.3"/> national movement <pause dur="0.3"/> is the peasants <pause dur="0.3"/> # rising in seventeen-eighty-nine following the # <pause dur="0.2"/> overthrow of the Bastille <pause dur="0.4"/> # which leads to the abolition of feudalism the abolition of many of the senorial and feudal rights <pause dur="0.3"/> which the nobility in particular although other social groups as well <pause dur="0.2"/> have maintained so the nobility is <pause dur="0.4"/> losing its rights losing its power losing its <pause dur="0.3"/> its sort of status within French society <pause dur="0.4"/> and putting a lot of pressure <pause dur="0.2"/> on the king <pause dur="0.3"/> # to stand by their <trunc>f</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> you know the king is a noble he's the first of all nobles the first of <trunc>ar</trunc> most aristocratic of all aristocrats if you like <pause dur="0.5"/> # he <pause dur="0.2"/> the nobility are putting pressure on him not to fall in with this new

revolutionary system but to stick <pause dur="0.3"/> by their rights <pause dur="1.0"/> one way in one thing which this <pause dur="0.2"/> which many of these nobles were starting to do in <trunc>sevente</trunc> well even in seventeen-eighty-nine but particularly in seventeen-ninety and ninety-one <pause dur="0.3"/> is to emigrate <pause dur="0.6"/> to get out of France they just say this is hopeless we're getting out you know <pause dur="0.3"/> # this is a sort of political system we don't like <pause dur="0.5"/> they emigrate and they <trunc>s</trunc> try and put pressure on the political leaders of other countries particularly in Germany <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # to <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> to build up <pause dur="0.2"/> an army <pause dur="0.5"/> on the French frontiers which will <pause dur="0.2"/> frighten the French out of their sort of revolutionary ways so the émigrés the emigrated <pause dur="0.3"/> nobles other groups as well but the nobles are the most important <pause dur="0.4"/> start <pause dur="0.4"/> talking <pause dur="0.2"/> conspiracy they start conspiring in some of the provinces but <pause dur="0.2"/> outside France they're trying to make <pause dur="0.4"/> # the overthrow of the new revolutionary government <pause dur="0.3"/> on the top of the agenda <pause dur="0.2"/> of most of the European rulers <pause dur="0.2"/> okay so already you've got a

sort of sense of polarization there <pause dur="0.3"/> # coming up # very strongly <pause dur="0.4"/> so the king <pause dur="0.5"/> is worried about his own position he's worried about that of the nobility <pause dur="0.3"/> he's worried too and i think this cannot be underestimated <pause dur="0.7"/> or overestimated whichever <pause dur="0.4"/> word is right <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> the <trunc>n</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> clergy <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> religion <pause dur="1.1"/> now i didn't when i was talking about the Enlightenment <pause dur="0.7"/> i didn't say that much about # religion <pause dur="0.5"/> i emphasized <pause dur="0.3"/> the changes in # <pause dur="0.2"/> in ideas which the Enlightenment had brought about i emphasized how <pause dur="0.3"/> the ideas of the Enlightenment circular circulate <pause dur="0.3"/> among social groups and in settings and urban setting <pause dur="0.3"/> # in which they obviously are doing # doing very well <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.6"/> if one looked at the total picture of France <pause dur="0.2"/> # in seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.4"/> one would <pause dur="0.4"/> probably say that most <pause dur="0.2"/> of the population <pause dur="0.2"/> are still Catholics <pause dur="0.3"/> and many of them are intensely <pause dur="0.3"/> # Catholic <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/> when the revolution <trunc>fixt</trunc> it first comes out <pause dur="0.3"/> # first occurs many people <pause dur="0.2"/> don't see a problem with that <pause dur="0.2"/> they don't see that # a revolution need

necessarily be anticlerical <pause dur="0.3"/> in fact the <distinct lang="fr">fête de la fédération</distinct> which i mentioned to you which is this sort of celebration of harmony and unity <pause dur="0.4"/> in # seventeen-ninety <pause dur="0.2"/> is in fact celebrated by a Te Deum there is actually a an altar at the centre of this enormous sort of amphitheatre <pause dur="0.2"/> where someone # you know <pause dur="0.2"/> celebrates # a Mass and # <pause dur="0.2"/> so in other words religion is part of the new sort of revolutionary # <pause dur="0.3"/> # sort of culture <pause dur="0.8"/> but it doesn't last like that for very long <pause dur="0.7"/> if you remember <pause dur="0.2"/> the reason why the state is having a revolution at all in seventeen-eighty-nine is because of its financial problems <pause dur="0.3"/> it's facing bankruptcy <pause dur="0.4"/> and one of the first things that the revolutionary assembly <pause dur="0.2"/> does in seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.4"/> is try and seek a way out of that <pause dur="0.4"/> by <pause dur="0.5"/> nationalizing church property <pause dur="0.3"/> church owns probably between six and ten per cent of the total cultivable land <pause dur="0.3"/> # within France between six and ten per cent <pause dur="0.2"/> so straightaway as soon as you've

nationalized that <pause dur="0.4"/> you're basically you're going to be all right financially that's a lot of money coming in <pause dur="0.4"/> in return for that nationalization of land <pause dur="0.3"/> the church says <pause dur="0.4"/> we will <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> reorganize the church <pause dur="0.4"/> now <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> it reorganizes the church along <pause dur="0.3"/> lines which you'd expect because as i say the influence of the Enlightenment is very clear <pause dur="0.2"/> which are rational <pause dur="0.5"/> # straightforward <pause dur="0.4"/> administratively very clear-cut <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.9"/> many people within the church accept that <pause dur="0.5"/> they accept that the revolution the revolutionary <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> has the right to <pause dur="0.3"/> impose a new structure <pause dur="0.3"/> on the French church <pause dur="0.9"/> many however <pause dur="0.5"/> do not <pause dur="1.6"/> what happens in seventeen-ninety seventeen-ninety-one the so-called Civil Constitution of the Clergy which is voted through a new constitution for the clergy as well which will be written into the in the # <pause dur="0.2"/> # political constitution as well <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> so there'll be salaries for priests there'll only be one bishop <pause dur="0.2"/> in every department <pause dur="0.3"/> # most monastic orders lose their property and <pause dur="0.3"/> the monks and

nuns are grouped together <pause dur="0.2"/> there won't be any sort of perpetual vows 'cause this is <pause dur="0.2"/> it's alleged to be against <pause dur="0.3"/> individual freedom and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.8"/> a lot of the clergy say yes this is a good system this will allow us to work within it <pause dur="0.3"/> but many people are extremely unhappy about that <pause dur="0.5"/> of course many people lose within the clergy the <trunc>a</trunc> the old bishops <pause dur="0.3"/> the people who have been monks and nuns the cathedral chapters <pause dur="0.2"/> all of these people earned a lot of wealth within the <pause dur="0.3"/> within the Ancien Régime are going to lose that <pause dur="0.2"/> they're going to be opposed to it <pause dur="0.5"/> many of the high <unclear>kind of</unclear> one should also say most in fact i would say go so far to say make a generalization <pause dur="0.2"/> all <pause dur="0.3"/> of the high <pause dur="0.3"/> # clergy is <pause dur="0.2"/> noble <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact it's usually very noble indeed very aristocratic the highest positions within the church <pause dur="0.4"/> are almost monopolized by a small set of very aristocratic families <pause dur="0.3"/> they're the people who <pause dur="0.2"/> because they're nobles are against the revolution these <trunc>al</trunc> <trunc>co</trunc> <trunc>al</trunc> people also have a reason

'cause they're religious <pause dur="0.3"/> to be against the # revolution <pause dur="1.4"/> what happens in seventeen-ninety-one and ninety-two is that <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> the national assembly realizing that France is divided on this <pause dur="0.3"/> imposes an oath <pause dur="0.3"/> of loyalty to the new civil constitution <pause dur="0.6"/> if you vote for it <pause dur="0.3"/> fine you know you can stay within the church you can become a priest # you can become a bishop you you know you <pause dur="0.3"/> everything will work well for you you are like a state <pause dur="0.2"/> civil servant <pause dur="0.3"/> for religion <pause dur="0.8"/> if you don't however if you don't vote for it <pause dur="0.3"/> # then <pause dur="0.3"/> basically <pause dur="0.3"/> you're out <pause dur="0.3"/> you <trunc>wha</trunc> you haven't got the right to any position within the church you lose your salary you lose any <pause dur="0.3"/> any sort of rights to a pension <pause dur="1.6"/> late seventeen-ninety there is an oath <pause dur="0.5"/> the clergy splits <pause dur="0.4"/> down the middle <pause dur="0.3"/> roughly half # vote for the <pause dur="0.2"/> constitution civil constitution half against <pause dur="0.5"/> interestingly you know is that just the clergy <pause dur="0.2"/> which it takes <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the clergy who are half for half against <pause dur="0.5"/> very interesting work been done in recent years by an American

historian called Timothy Tackett <pause dur="0.3"/> T-A-C-K-E-double-T <pause dur="0.9"/> and what he argues i think it's a convincing argument if you read the book <pause dur="0.4"/> is that <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> that oath which you know obviously it's the clergy that take <pause dur="0.3"/> fact that's like a sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> popularity poll on the revolution by the whole of the French nation <pause dur="0.4"/> because the people who are voting you know for it for the oath the clergy <pause dur="0.4"/> are under pressure <pause dur="0.2"/> from their parishioners or from the people in their <pause dur="0.2"/> # neighbourhood to vote one way or another <pause dur="0.4"/> in other words <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> complexion <pause dur="0.3"/> of # the <pause dur="0.2"/> the sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> religious the the geography if you like of voting for <pause dur="0.3"/> and voting against is is mapped over <pause dur="0.2"/> a sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>s</trunc> a regional geography of <pause dur="0.6"/> pro-church and anti-church <pause dur="0.2"/> feeling <pause dur="0.9"/> and this <pause dur="0.6"/> in France at least and i think this is not just France but <pause dur="0.2"/> you know France is very very clear <pause dur="0.2"/> this vote of seventeen-ninety-one <pause dur="0.3"/> divides France for the rest of the seventeen-nineties <pause dur="0.2"/> and indeed to a very considerable extent <pause dur="0.2"/> for the next two centuries <pause dur="0.6"/> if you

look <pause dur="0.2"/> for example at <pause dur="0.3"/> who votes right and who votes left <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.5"/> it's not so clear actually it must be said in the nineteen-eighties and nineteen-nineties but if you look in nineteen-<pause dur="0.2"/>seventies <pause dur="0.3"/> look at you know the voting pattern who's you know like in England <pause dur="0.4"/> north of England normally votes # <pause dur="0.3"/> # Labour the south <pause dur="0.2"/> well you know i know it's been different since # Blair but you know that's usually the sort of what we expect <pause dur="0.6"/> in France <pause dur="0.4"/> you look at the map <pause dur="0.2"/> and you see that the <trunc>righ</trunc> the places which vote right <pause dur="0.3"/> and are therefore tend to be pro-supporting <pause dur="0.2"/> # supportive of the church <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> places like <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> Brittany in particular <pause dur="0.2"/> in the west the Massif Central <pause dur="0.2"/> these are very precisely the areas which voted against the civil constitution <pause dur="0.3"/> in seventeen-ninety so in other words <pause dur="0.4"/> religion <pause dur="0.2"/> has broken apart has has <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>crea</trunc> created a massive fissure <pause dur="0.2"/> within the <trunc>rev</trunc> new revolutionary nation <pause dur="0.3"/> which had been established in # seventeen-ninety <pause dur="0.3"/> the clergy therefore had to live this

paradox <pause dur="0.5"/> # seventeen-eighty-nine had seemed to open up # a new a new era to them <pause dur="0.3"/> they had to accept that <pause dur="0.3"/> # half of them at least are not finding this something they want to go along with <trunc>fro</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> the the the the the unity of seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.2"/> is breaking apart <pause dur="2.5"/> in seventeen-ninety-one <pause dur="0.3"/> as you'll see <pause dur="1.1"/> the situation sort of looks as if it's coming to a head <pause dur="0.4"/> when Louis the Sixteenth the king <pause dur="0.3"/> leaves <pause dur="0.2"/> Paris secretly <pause dur="0.4"/> clandestinely where <pause dur="0.2"/> he feels he's being held prisoner <pause dur="0.3"/> and makes a run for the border <pause dur="0.3"/> makes a run for the frontier where all these émigré <pause dur="0.2"/> # armies are <pause dur="1.0"/> he's fortunately caught <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> before he gets there <pause dur="1.9"/> he's brought back to Paris <pause dur="0.3"/> many people would say at that stage <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.3"/> let's get rid for him <pause dur="0.2"/> for heaven's sake you know the man's obviously against the revolution <pause dur="0.2"/> he's actually creating more trouble than he's worth let's get rid of him <pause dur="1.5"/> this <pause dur="0.2"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> the exact <pause dur="0.2"/> opposite of what in fact happened <pause dur="0.7"/> okay because this gives # <pause dur="0.4"/> the revolutionary national assembly a

chance if you like to blackmail Louis the Sixteenth into accepting the new constitution <pause dur="0.4"/> # which they are going to pass in seventeen-ninety-one <pause dur="1.0"/> creating a constitutional # monarchy <pause dur="0.9"/> why don't they get rid of him <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> well because i think <pause dur="0.2"/> very largely <pause dur="0.8"/> you've got the pressure from the émigrés the pressure from # the the clergy as well <pause dur="0.5"/> the other grouping i think in this period we would say isn't <pause dur="0.3"/> which is living the paradox of the revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> the lower classes and in particular the most politically conscious of those <pause dur="0.3"/> the people in the towns the urban consumers <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> who are <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> they're often called in fact <pause dur="0.4"/> and you'll get used to this term the <distinct lang="fr">sans-culottes</distinct> <pause dur="0.7"/> this does not mean that they didn't wear trousers by the way those who # have # # <pause dur="0.5"/> sort of O-level # G-C-S-E # French <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> sans-culottes this means without <pause dur="0.2"/> knee breeches the knee breeches is the sign of # <pause dur="0.4"/> gentility it shows you're sort of a gent <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> if you don't if you wear the straight trousers of the

workman that means you're a worker <pause dur="0.3"/> okay so <pause dur="0.9"/> it's # <pause dur="0.8"/> it's not always the case but # you know that's that's the idea okay so the <distinct lang="fr">sans-culottes</distinct> are the politically <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> active group of the urban <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> working and labouring classes <pause dur="0.5"/> a lot of artisans a lot of shopkeepers as well <pause dur="0.4"/> generally speaking <pause dur="0.6"/> not those who are <pause dur="0.2"/> have benefited most from the revolution 'cause this is the paradox for for many of these <pause dur="0.5"/> the revolution has seemed to open up this era of equality <pause dur="0.4"/> equality before the law <pause dur="0.3"/> but that equality <pause dur="0.2"/> does not make many people's lives better <pause dur="2.0"/> in fact the economy is going through very considerable problems from seventeen-ninety seventeen-ninety-one <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>e</trunc> economy which has done well over the <trunc>an</trunc> the the Ancien Régime over the eighteenth century as i have argued <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> the disruption caused by the revolution is causing very severe problems <pause dur="0.2"/> prices are going up <pause dur="0.3"/> price of bread is going up <pause dur="0.3"/> # there's a lot of layoff with # of employment there's a lot of trade disruption

a lot of industrial disruption as well <pause dur="0.4"/> and so a lot of the as i say politically conscious # <trunc>work</trunc> labouring classes <pause dur="0.3"/> are saying well look this is a revolution that's supposed to be <trunc>equali</trunc> about equality where where is the equality for us <pause dur="0.8"/> and these people blame <pause dur="0.6"/> the elite they blame the old elite they <pause dur="0.2"/> they blame the King <pause dur="0.3"/> they blame the nobility they blame the clergy <pause dur="0.2"/> for not producing not delivering the goods if you like on the equality and the liberty <pause dur="0.2"/> # which they've been # # promised <pause dur="0.9"/> and when the King comes back from Varennes <pause dur="0.6"/> very precisely <pause dur="0.3"/> there are massive <pause dur="0.3"/> a massive growth within Paris #<pause dur="0.4"/> of popular <pause dur="0.4"/> antiroyalism <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>anti</trunc> there's real antimonarchism coming out lot of people in other words are saying <pause dur="0.3"/> which they never said in seventeen-eighty-nine they're saying let's have a republic <pause dur="0.3"/> you know the King is hopeless you know <pause dur="1.6"/> deputies in the national assembly are therefore caught in this very sort of odd <pause dur="0.2"/> position whereby <pause dur="0.2"/> they want the King because they need the King's <pause dur="0.3"/>

support for the revolution so that <pause dur="0.2"/> they can fight against the émigrés the <trunc>e</trunc> and the nobles and the clergy who are wanting a return to the Ancien Régime <pause dur="0.7"/> they <pause dur="0.2"/> want the King so that they can prevent the lower classes <pause dur="0.4"/> getting too powerful <pause dur="0.3"/> getting above their station perhaps wanting a republic a more democratic system <pause dur="0.3"/> than the one that which they have introduced <pause dur="0.3"/> in seventeen-eighty-nine so in the summer of seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> so sorry of # seventeen-ninety-one <pause dur="0.2"/> you in fact <pause dur="0.2"/> find the King <pause dur="0.2"/> despite the flight from Varennes <pause dur="0.2"/> actually comes back into the national assembly <pause dur="0.2"/> and there's sort of agreement between the national assembly and the King <pause dur="0.3"/> let us have <pause dur="0.3"/> a # a new constitution a new constitutional monarchy <pause dur="0.6"/> a new constitution is elected a new assembly is elected seventeen-ninety-one <pause dur="0.2"/> seems to be again <pause dur="0.2"/> the possibility of a new <pause dur="0.2"/> beginning <pause dur="0.5"/> all those <pause dur="0.2"/> paradoxes after that <pause dur="0.3"/> will not go away </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/><u who="nm0079" trans="pause"><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="8"/> war <pause dur="0.5"/> and revolution <pause dur="2.4"/> some <pause dur="0.3"/> you know sort

of question that comes up on # on the # exam papers occasionally war and revolution and <trunc>re</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> revolutionized the revolution is this true <pause dur="0.4"/> well i think it is true and why <pause dur="0.5"/> well <pause dur="0.4"/> that's what i'm going to explain <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> we've got a situation there when you've got a increased polarization <pause dur="0.9"/> of # <trunc>f</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> the French political system <pause dur="0.4"/> by by the time you're going into seventeen-ninety-one <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> you've got <pause dur="0.5"/> a counter-revolution <pause dur="0.2"/> quite clearly developing <pause dur="0.6"/> # you've got a <pause dur="0.5"/> a <trunc>r</trunc> a strong revolutionary group but not the sort of <trunc>harm</trunc> harmonious community that you seem to be <pause dur="0.4"/> introducing in seventeen-#-#-eighty-nine <pause dur="1.9"/> and you've got a king <pause dur="0.4"/> # a pivotal figure who is the symbol <pause dur="0.3"/> to the counter-revolutionaries let's give the King back all his power from seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's also a symbol a contested symbol as well <pause dur="0.2"/> for the revolutionaries 'cause they say well you know he's the man who's accepted <pause dur="0.3"/> the revolution <pause dur="0.9"/> the King continues to vacillate on the one hand supporting seeming to give

support to the counter-revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> then <pause dur="0.2"/> finally under pressure <pause dur="0.2"/> agreeing to # to # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # support the revolution <pause dur="0.6"/> in the new <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> assembly <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> a group <pause dur="0.6"/> who were called <pause dur="0.4"/> very often called # by historians the Girondins 'cause they come from the department of the Gironde from many of them round Bordeaux <pause dur="0.5"/> start arguing start arguing that maybe given the situation what <pause dur="0.2"/> France really needs to create <pause dur="0.2"/> a new unity or to refine that unity of seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.6"/> is warfare <pause dur="0.6"/> to attack the Europe which seems to be so counter-revolutionary to wipe out those émigrés on the frontiers <pause dur="0.3"/> who seem to be so # <pause dur="0.4"/> # so contentious and so opposed to the revolution <pause dur="0.5"/> and to reunite the nation <pause dur="0.3"/> # behind # the war <pause dur="0.2"/> a war for revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> and moreover <pause dur="0.2"/> it will make the position of the King <pause dur="0.2"/> utterly clear <pause dur="0.6"/> there will be no longer the chance of sitting on the fence when you're at war <pause dur="0.4"/> # you basically have to be for the war or against it <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="1.6"/> they drift to war they go to war in # from <pause dur="0.4"/>

April seventeen-ninety-two <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> they're at <pause dur="0.4"/> war <trunc>a</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> against most of <pause dur="0.6"/> Germany <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>ger</trunc> most of Germany <pause dur="0.5"/> # most of the rest of Europe comes in down to early # seventeen-#-ninety-three <pause dur="1.2"/> what happens <pause dur="0.4"/> well the King has to choose <pause dur="0.3"/> but he doesn't <pause dur="0.5"/> he doesn't choose he again continues to vacillate <pause dur="0.2"/> at a time when it frankly is impossible to vacillate <pause dur="0.4"/> and what happens on the tenth of August # seventeen-ninety-two <pause dur="0.4"/> # is that there is a popular insurrection on these politically <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of active # groups with # the sans-culottes within Paris reinforced by many people who were pouring through Paris so they can go and fight on the <pause dur="0.3"/> # front <pause dur="0.4"/> attack the Tuileries Palace <pause dur="0.3"/> # pull him out of there <trunc>s</trunc> send him to prison <pause dur="0.3"/> and # the national assembly has to accept the fact <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.5"/> you know you need a new constitution <pause dur="0.4"/> which is a republican constitution <pause dur="0.4"/> which is more <pause dur="0.5"/> democratic <pause dur="0.3"/> than the # constitution so far <pause dur="0.3"/> # # which gives those sans-culottes some sort of stake in the nation <pause dur="0.3"/> # and which can <trunc>re</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/>

<trunc>re</trunc> # <pause dur="0.2"/> reunite in a patriotic manner behind <pause dur="0.3"/> the revolutionary assembly which will then go on and <pause dur="0.3"/> # win the # win the war <pause dur="0.6"/> so in other words what you had is a second revolution <pause dur="0.2"/> in some ways <pause dur="0.5"/> # at the time they looked back to say seventeen-eighty-nine saying <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah seventeen-eighty-nine was the revolution of liberty that's when we got our freedom <pause dur="0.2"/> if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> seventeen-ninety-two <pause dur="0.2"/> is the revolution of equality <pause dur="0.4"/> where we <trunc>s</trunc> we took <trunc>s</trunc> liberty but we also <pause dur="0.2"/> decided that equality was essential and we got rid of the King <pause dur="0.3"/> and we tried to establish a republic <pause dur="0.3"/> # # without # # a sort of <trunc>som</trunc> someone standing over <pause dur="0.3"/> # # us and sort of telling us what to do or thinking they ought to return to the <pause dur="0.3"/> old regime <pause dur="0.3"/> # or whatever <pause dur="1.7"/> just as <pause dur="0.2"/> war has # <pause dur="0.5"/> just as the revolution has become so polarized in other words so the war will make that polarization much <pause dur="0.2"/> deeper <pause dur="0.5"/> and moreover <pause dur="0.3"/> make that polarization separated with groups one from another <pause dur="0.2"/> by a line <pause dur="0.2"/> a line of blood <pause dur="0.2"/> a line of dead bodies a line of

corpses <pause dur="0.4"/> # because war <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>counterac</trunc> war produces <pause dur="0.4"/> a <pause dur="0.4"/> # increasing level of violence <pause dur="0.2"/> within revolution and counter-revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> which makes it very difficult to to <pause dur="0.3"/> to go back to <trunc>tho</trunc> <trunc>o</trunc> those old days of # harmony <pause dur="0.3"/> so for example in # following the # overthrow over the King <pause dur="0.4"/> in # # <pause dur="0.4"/> # August <pause dur="1.3"/> lots of the people are going off to the front war's going terribly badly the # German <pause dur="0.2"/> troops Prussian troops Austrian troops are not very far away from Paris it looks like they're kind of come and slaughter everyone <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> many of the sans-culottes many of the people come up through Paris going out to the front <pause dur="0.3"/> # decide that if they're going to go out they don't want <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>perison</trunc> the prisoners within the Paris prison <pause dur="0.5"/> breaking out of prison where they're allegedly various prison plots and slaughtering all their wives and children so <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact the so-called September massacres <pause dur="0.3"/> horrible horrible moment <pause dur="0.4"/> # groups of sans-culottes go from prison to prison <pause dur="0.5"/> basically massacring prisoners

in vast numbers <pause dur="0.3"/> innocent people <pause dur="0.7"/> whole pile of prostitutes who were there they just <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> they need they need blood <pause dur="0.6"/> the revolution becomes <pause dur="0.7"/> # a revolution of blood-drinkers <distinct lang="fr">buveurs de sang</distinct> this is the way it looks from the revolution this is the way it looks <pause dur="0.3"/> to English people at the <pause dur="0.2"/> at this time as well <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> they go out these people they attack <pause dur="0.2"/> # the the German troops they drive the German troops back <pause dur="0.2"/> but from this moment on <pause dur="0.3"/> the revolution has got that <pause dur="0.8"/> that sort of polarized that sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> paradoxical thing on the one one hand <pause dur="0.3"/> it has been a revolution about liberty and <trunc>s</trunc> allegedly equality <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's a revolution too about killing people <pause dur="0.4"/> killing people <pause dur="0.2"/> in prison who are not <pause dur="0.2"/> who are not <trunc>ba</trunc> basically guilty of anything <pause dur="0.2"/> apart from the fact that they're not enthusiastic supporters of the <pause dur="0.4"/> # revolution and that <pause dur="0.3"/> that line of blood if you like which is created from seventeen-ninety-two onwards <pause dur="0.2"/> actually causes this sort of polarization to <pause dur="0.2"/> to continue

and be durable <pause dur="0.3"/> # throughout the revolution and # and beyond <pause dur="2.0"/> many of the Girondins <pause dur="1.8"/> felt <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> war would be <pause dur="0.2"/> successful <pause dur="0.5"/> war would be successful <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> but for a single country to take on the united forces of # Europe is frankly too much and the war goes actually <pause dur="0.3"/> by seventeen-ninety-three <pause dur="0.2"/> extremely badly <pause dur="0.5"/> it's not just at the front you're also getting internal counter-<pause dur="0.3"/>revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> # within # France in <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> western France in particular <pause dur="0.6"/> in the department of the Vendée <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> there is a sort of full scale popular royalist uprising a peasant revolt if you like and what caused that well it was precisely the war because <pause dur="0.4"/> the revolutionaries go in there and they try and <pause dur="0.2"/> recruit <pause dur="0.2"/> they try and conscript local people <pause dur="0.2"/> to go off to the front <pause dur="0.3"/> # they revolt <pause dur="0.2"/> that is the trigger if you like of a whole sort of area <pause dur="0.2"/> becoming <pause dur="0.4"/> massively <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>a</trunc> counter-revolutionary in the name of church and king <pause dur="0.6"/> and there are other areas like that in the

middle of seventeen-ninety-three it looks literally as if France is going to fall apart <pause dur="0.3"/> the whole of France is going to fall apart <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> armies are sort of pouring in over every # front # the British navy is blockading all the ports <pause dur="0.2"/> it is probably one of the most serious occasions in <pause dur="0.2"/> # French # history for just # survival <pause dur="0.9"/> survive <pause dur="0.4"/> they do <pause dur="0.4"/> they survive through war they survive through <pause dur="0.2"/> terror let's take war first <pause dur="0.9"/> Ancien Régime armies okay now <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> very very # <pause dur="1.7"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> you've got a <pause dur="4.3"/> incredibly <pause dur="0.2"/> simplistic sort of Ladybird guidebook <pause dur="0.6"/> guide to # <pause dur="0.6"/> conduct of war coming up <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> under the in the eighteenth century armies <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="16"/> fight against each other in lines <pause dur="0.6"/> they're all in # <pause dur="0.2"/> lines like this <pause dur="0.4"/> and they <pause dur="0.3"/> march across through <pause dur="0.2"/> lines are always very long 'cause if you don't then obviously it's rather <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> vulnerable to # sort of flanking attack so you have to lengthen

the lines as much as possible so you can't be sort of like # surrounded <pause dur="0.6"/> # they're all incredibly well trained so one <pause dur="0.3"/> line sort of shoots you know then they sort of go to the back to reload second line comes through volley fire all the rest of it like that <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> i don't know if you've ever seen a film like this all those red coats marching along you know firing <pause dur="0.2"/> that's it <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="1.6"/> revolution <pause dur="0.2"/> most of the officer corps emigrates <pause dur="0.2"/> in France they just can't <pause dur="0.2"/> do it you can't train a load of peasants who are enthusiastic <pause dur="0.5"/> # to # <pause dur="0.2"/> to to fight like that you need <pause dur="0.2"/> years of training so that you can fight under that sort of discipline <pause dur="0.3"/> don't know if you've ever been in the Boy Scouts or the <pause dur="0.3"/> C-C-F or whatever you know you where you sort of like walk in a line across broken country <pause dur="0.7"/> the girls here have been have you <pause dur="0.4"/> # it's very difficult to do <pause dur="0.2"/> it's very difficult to do you need training okay <pause dur="0.9"/> most of that training has gone <pause dur="0.6"/> France is facing the <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>armies <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>of Ancien Régime

Europe who have this training <pause dur="0.4"/> how do they actually <pause dur="0.4"/> manage to <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of just hold up against those armies <pause dur="0.3"/> well <pause dur="0.3"/> the way they do that is that they use the single thing that they've got well the two things they've got going for them <pause dur="0.3"/> one is <pause dur="0.3"/> numbers <pause dur="0.4"/> people are enthusiastic about the revolution they actually want to win <pause dur="0.4"/> they want to beat the army and they want to go home <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> and secondly besides # # numbers <pause dur="1.2"/> they have <pause dur="0.7"/> obviously <pause dur="0.2"/> enthusiasm <pause dur="0.6"/> so numbers and enthusiasm <pause dur="0.3"/> is the way in which <pause dur="0.5"/> the revolutionary <pause dur="0.3"/> # armies <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> conquer <pause dur="1.3"/> instead of coming in this sort of linear way they basically <pause dur="0.3"/> form if you like again okay it's incredibly simplistic and in fact any military historian <pause dur="0.3"/> # in <pause dur="0.5"/> in here please <pause dur="0.4"/> put something over your ears but <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> as i say it's just a simplified very <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> very much <pause dur="0.7"/> running <pause dur="0.4"/> at the enemy <pause dur="0.3"/> firing as they go <pause dur="0.4"/> basically <pause dur="0.4"/> frightening the shit out of the # <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> the enemy by these wild men who come <pause dur="0.2"/> come who come

enthusiastically towards you <pause dur="0.3"/> shooting off as they go <pause dur="0.5"/> and <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> punching a hole <pause dur="0.3"/> through these # these lines by just sort of sheer force of numbers okay <pause dur="0.4"/> that's the way that the revolution is <trunc>witne</trunc> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Marshal # sorry not Marshal # General # <pause dur="0.3"/> # Hoche <pause dur="0.2"/> says H-O-C-H-E he says what have we got we've got <pause dur="0.2"/> fire <pause dur="0.3"/> steel and patriotism <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> enthusiasm <pause dur="0.4"/> fire <pause dur="0.3"/> steel okay close in close in the <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> puncture that hole destroy wipe out the # <pause dur="0.2"/> the sort of linear <pause dur="0.3"/> perfection of the of the Ancien

Régime armies and and conquer and that's what they do they're very successful as we see when # we're talking about Napoleon <pause dur="0.3"/> that's his type of fighting # <pause dur="0.2"/> # as well so <pause dur="0.2"/> as well as and arguing as well as revolutionizing # <pause dur="0.4"/> as # as long as as well as the war revolutionizing the revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> we would also say that the revolution revolutionized warfare <pause dur="0.4"/> # that the <pause dur="0.2"/> the way in which warfare was fought war was fought <pause dur="0.2"/> is changed like this it's sort of like a mass army <pause dur="0.2"/> in other words and <pause dur="0.3"/> is precisely and this is something we'll talk about later in the term the <trunc>up</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> in August of # <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> of seventeen-ninety-three the <distinct lang="fr">levée en masse</distinct> is declared by the national assembly that is every person <pause dur="0.3"/> in the whole of the # <pause dur="0.3"/> # republic has the duty to <pause dur="0.2"/> support the # the war effort in some ways <pause dur="0.3"/> old men should sort of collect <pause dur="0.2"/> # saltpetre to be made into gunpowder <pause dur="0.2"/> women should sort of knit socks for the people at the front and men have the right and the duty <pause dur="0.2"/> if they're called on to go

and fight for the front so this is <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> first inkling of this idea of mass warfare which is obviously such an important thing in the nineteenth and particularly <pause dur="0.3"/> # the twentieth # <pause dur="0.2"/> # century <pause dur="1.6"/> so around that <pause dur="0.6"/> patriotism how do you get people to <pause dur="0.5"/> how do you mobilize that enthusiasm obviously the revolution has brought much in seventeen-ninety-three <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> how in <trunc>seven</trunc> in seventeen-eighty-nine how in seventeen-ninety-three do you make people want to go out and you know even kill themselves on the battlefield for # <pause dur="0.2"/> an entity France which probably didn't mean very much to them <pause dur="0.2"/> # before seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.6"/> well there are two arms to the strategy <pause dur="0.5"/> # of within France of <pause dur="0.2"/> mobilizing the nation in this way i've sort of given some of the <pause dur="0.3"/> # things here <pause dur="0.4"/> # very <trunc>si</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> very <pause dur="0.5"/> simplistically i would say <pause dur="0.4"/> radical social policies <pause dur="0.5"/> and terror <pause dur="0.5"/> okay let's start with radical social policies 'cause they are often forgotten <pause dur="0.4"/> # because people have a view of the terror

which is almost entirely <pause dur="0.3"/> # negative <pause dur="0.4"/> but if you were writing the history of the welfare state <pause dur="0.3"/> you would make a big detour <pause dur="0.2"/> # into this period because it's precisely in this period that <pause dur="0.2"/> the French legislative <trunc>asse</trunc> the French # national convention <pause dur="0.2"/> and particularly <kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> this guy particularly Robespierre <pause dur="0.2"/> argued that in order to <pause dur="0.2"/> give people something <pause dur="0.3"/> to fight for you've got to give them something you've got to introduce <pause dur="0.4"/> the maximum in other words a ceiling on prices so grain and bread is at an affordable price <pause dur="0.3"/> you've got to introduce a whole welfare package for <pause dur="0.3"/> # families of # # of soldiers <pause dur="0.2"/> for the aged for the infirm <pause dur="0.5"/> whole sort of set of new hospitals and all the rest of it a whole sort of set of welfare provision <pause dur="0.4"/> # within this # period <pause dur="0.5"/> # so that people have something to fight for <pause dur="2.3"/> and if they're not <pause dur="0.2"/> if they're not enthusiastic <pause dur="0.3"/> if they're not keen then you have to frighten them <pause dur="0.3"/> into being keen as well that's the other side you <trunc>a</trunc> the terror side <pause dur="0.3"/> is that you use

violence the violence of the revolutionary state <pause dur="0.4"/> # against <pause dur="0.2"/> the enemies of the republic <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> both without and within so you've got the <trunc>e</trunc> the the idea of <pause dur="0.3"/> of this <trunc>su</trunc> sort of new national <pause dur="0.4"/> # this new nation fighting against the # <pause dur="0.3"/> # the the the the forces of counter-revolutionary Europe <pause dur="0.2"/> but within you've got also a set of <pause dur="0.2"/> terroristic policies <pause dur="0.4"/> meant to <pause dur="0.4"/> keep the enemies of the revolution quiet and even <pause dur="0.4"/> # in its more horrible <trunc>e</trunc> # exemplifications to liquidate them <pause dur="0.3"/> so you have a revolutionary tribunal a special court where anyone accused of a <pause dur="0.2"/> a counter-revolutionary offence will go and this becomes tighter and tighter <pause dur="0.2"/> and more defined basically anyone can go <pause dur="0.2"/> # and have their head chopped off by the by the summer of seventeen-ninety-four <pause dur="0.3"/> you have a committee of public safety a war cabinet but also a sort of terror cabinet <pause dur="0.3"/> in which the Robespierre faction the person <pause dur="0.2"/> Robespierre as i say who gets this sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> this strategy of # <pause dur="0.3"/> war on the frontiers but # <trunc>so</trunc>

radical social policy give the people something to fight for <pause dur="0.2"/> let them rally around the flag of the republic <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> # Robespierre dominates the committee of public safety you've got <pause dur="0.3"/> # the maximum the law of suspects # sort of very <trunc>m</trunc> very vague definition of counter-revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> and you've got these <distinct lang="fr">représentants en mission</distinct> deputies elected to the national assembly going <pause dur="0.2"/> into the provinces <pause dur="0.4"/> and using violence against anyone who seems to be counter-revolutionary <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean some of the famous ones people like Carrier in Nantes where he sort of puts whole piles of <pause dur="0.3"/> priests and counter-revolutionaries on boats floats them out into the middle of the <pause dur="0.2"/> River Loire and then pulls the plugs and so thousands of people die <pause dur="0.3"/> or Lyon or indeed in in the Vendée where people where basically in certain <pause dur="0.4"/> you've got a sort of free fire zone essentially in many parts of of # <pause dur="0.2"/> # Brittany and in some of the other areas of counter-revolution <pause dur="0.3"/> where if you see anyone <pause dur="0.3"/> with a rifle in your hand <pause dur="0.3"/> in their hands

you shoot them if you're a a revolutionary soldier <pause dur="0.3"/> and you go through a policy of <trunc>s</trunc> of burning <pause dur="0.2"/> houses down killing <pause dur="0.2"/> # civil populations and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.3"/> that horrible side of the revolution <pause dur="0.2"/> horrible side of the revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> which is however <pause dur="0.3"/> effective <pause dur="2.4"/> the Marseillaise <pause dur="0.3"/> is created the the French # national anthem is created precisely at this time in in August <unclear>i think by</unclear> seventeen-ninety-two <pause dur="0.6"/> # don't know if you've ever listened to the words of the Marseillaise or or translated them <pause dur="0.3"/> it's all about blood flowing through # <pause dur="0.2"/> # through furrows and things like that it is a <trunc>v</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> it's a marching song a militaristic song <pause dur="0.4"/> # the idea's that French republic is an army a nation with rights <pause dur="0.4"/> the citizen is a rights bearing individual <pause dur="0.2"/> but he's also an arms bearing <trunc>cit</trunc> # <trunc>cit</trunc> citizen he bears arms <pause dur="0.2"/> to defend <pause dur="0.3"/> # the <trunc>r</trunc> the # republic <pause dur="0.5"/> and this policy is successful because by seventeen-ninety-four <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> # what's happening is that <pause dur="0.4"/> i should have put the third heading <pause dur="0.5"/> # as well <pause dur="4.4"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/>

what's happening by seventeen # <trunc>ni</trunc> ninety-four is that the <pause dur="0.4"/> counter-revolutionary armies are being driven back France there aren't any more sort of troops or anything on French soil in fact the French are pushing them into their own # <pause dur="0.2"/> into Europe as we'll see when talking about this # <pause dur="0.3"/> # next week <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="2.5"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> to a certain extent the terror has its justification <pause dur="0.9"/> you know this is a horrible way a a horrible logic if you like the terror has its justification and that it's successful <pause dur="0.2"/> it defends France against it it allows the <pause dur="0.3"/> it allows France to stay geographically united even though socially and politically it's very <pause dur="0.4"/> # divided <pause dur="1.9"/> and by the middle of seventeen-ninety-four you've got a <pause dur="0.5"/> a choice <pause dur="0.3"/> it's open to you really if you're within # # France if you're as long as you're keeping your head down if you're a counter-revolutionary obviously but if you're a revolutionary you have two choices <pause dur="0.5"/> one of them is to say well terror <pause dur="0.4"/> you know we don't like what's <pause dur="0.2"/> gone on in the terror but

it has been successful at least so let's go back to <pause dur="0.2"/> you know what it was before let's go back and <pause dur="0.3"/> to sort of seventeen-ninety-two or seventeen-ninety <pause dur="0.3"/> or something let's <pause dur="0.3"/> dismantle <pause dur="0.3"/> all this # sort of stuff all this sort of apparatus <pause dur="0.3"/> of terror this apparatus of # <pause dur="0.2"/> # strong centralized government which has been set up by the war emergency <pause dur="1.5"/> and yet <pause dur="0.3"/> there is that group and yet there is another group <pause dur="0.4"/> # Robespierre is perhaps the most prominent and certainly the most articulate of them <pause dur="0.3"/> who say no <pause dur="1.0"/> no turning back this is the time <pause dur="0.2"/> to create a new republic that new man which we talked about in <trunc>seventeen-eighty-na</trunc> nine <pause dur="0.3"/> may have been a new man of <pause dur="0.3"/> the age of liberty what we need is a new man <pause dur="0.3"/> of the age of <pause dur="0.2"/> equality <pause dur="0.4"/> even though in other words the war is being won and the the the sort of rationalization for terror is no longer there <pause dur="0.2"/> let's take things <pause dur="0.2"/> # further <pause dur="0.3"/> what is very interesting and i i think it's also one of the reasons why this <pause dur="0.3"/> paradox about the revolutionary <trunc>le</trunc> legacy is

so powerful <pause dur="0.2"/> and yet so difficult for us in the <trunc>ni</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> in the twentieth and nineteenth and twentieth century <pause dur="0.4"/> # is that <pause dur="0.2"/> where Robespierre gets his ideas from <pause dur="0.5"/> where this idea of a purification of the nation <pause dur="0.4"/> # of more radical social legislation more equality within the <pause dur="0.2"/> # within the system <pause dur="0.4"/> is very precisely <pause dur="0.2"/> from <pause dur="0.6"/> the Enlightenment <pause dur="0.7"/> the Enlightenment <pause dur="0.3"/> i've argued has created the sort of conditions the social conditions <pause dur="0.3"/> and the ideology <pause dur="0.2"/> that the discourses which make seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> # possible <pause dur="0.3"/> what historians get very agitated about very divided about <pause dur="0.3"/> # very upset about sometimes <pause dur="0.3"/> is that the the the ideology and the discourses of Enlightenment <pause dur="0.3"/> have also seemed to prove the <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>pr</trunc> provide the justification <pause dur="0.4"/> # behind <pause dur="0.2"/> the reign of terror <pause dur="0.4"/> the idea that <pause dur="0.3"/> a new republic of virtue <pause dur="0.2"/> that's what Robespierre is always talking about virtue <pause dur="0.4"/> # that one can get a new <trunc>civ</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> # a new civic system of equality <pause dur="0.2"/> where everyone basically has a sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> direct and equal relationship

to each other <pause dur="0.2"/> and in which the state sits over # # # above them <pause dur="0.4"/> and so <pause dur="0.4"/> # we have a situation where Robespierre is sticking up and his supporters on the Committee of Public Safety <pause dur="0.2"/> you know the these <pause dur="0.3"/> the storm centre the the the sort of brain centre <pause dur="0.3"/> of the terror <pause dur="0.6"/> and much of the rest of the the political nation are thinking well surely this is the time to draw back this is not the time <pause dur="0.3"/> to to to go on <pause dur="0.6"/> but such is the terror that there is not by late by the spring of seventeen-ninety-four the sort of freedom of opinion freedom of speech which you've had in seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.5"/> people are frightened <pause dur="0.3"/> that's this is why you know there are a lot of those ideas about the terror <pause dur="0.2"/> being a sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> protototalitarian system you know <pause dur="0.4"/> that that sort of fear <pause dur="0.3"/> in which people never know whether there's going to be a knock on the door <pause dur="0.2"/> they're frightened of the meaning of words where you know you can use the word <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>s</trunc> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # # subject instead of citizen and you'll be seen to be a counter-revolutionary

in which you can say <pause dur="0.3"/> i quite liked the Louis the Sixteenth and you'll end up before the revolutionary tribunal <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> opinion opinion is no longer free <pause dur="0.3"/> so how do you get rid how do you change it <pause dur="0.8"/> you have to get rid of Robespierre this is what many of the people who got rid of him later say <pause dur="0.2"/> they say <pause dur="0.6"/> we couldn't do anything you had to kill him <pause dur="0.2"/> there was no way out Robespierre has to go the symbol of this new idea of <pause dur="0.3"/> of of revolutionary virtue has to be executed <pause dur="0.3"/> there is a coup d'état <pause dur="0.3"/> # on the <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>n</trunc> ninth of Thermidor under the new calendar the twenty-seventh of July seventeen-ninety-four <pause dur="0.3"/> where he he <trunc>h</trunc> he is <pause dur="0.5"/> captured <pause dur="0.3"/> he and they are all executed a gang of them are executed <pause dur="0.2"/> # the next day <pause dur="0.2"/> the the people who've been the driving force the van if you like of the movement for social regeneration and political regeneration <pause dur="0.3"/> social welfare policies <pause dur="0.3"/> but also terror <pause dur="0.4"/> but also terror <pause dur="0.3"/> so you know very much the two sides <pause dur="0.3"/> are removed and one can <pause dur="0.2"/> if you like <pause dur="0.5"/> the revolutionaries who get get the sense of going back so that they can get go forward they've got over the political crisis <pause dur="0.3"/> they've got over <pause dur="0.2"/> # the social divisions if you like of seventeen # ninety-three

to four they've fought back the the armies <pause dur="0.4"/> seventeen-ninety-five they can sort of <pause dur="0.5"/> move forward without Robespierre without the option <pause dur="0.2"/> of a terroristic policy <pause dur="0.2"/> hopefully at least <pause dur="0.2"/> and create <pause dur="0.2"/> # # a new political system in which those virtues of seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> and seventeen-ninety-one those liberal <pause dur="0.2"/> # equalities those <trunc>lib</trunc> liberal and free <pause dur="0.3"/> # free virtues of of <trunc>seventeen-eight</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> eighty-nine to ninety-one <pause dur="0.2"/> # will be dominant and not the virtue <pause dur="0.2"/> # not the liberty not the equality <pause dur="0.2"/> # as it's been interpreted <pause dur="0.3"/> # under Robespierre <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> the very vocabulary <pause dur="0.4"/> in which we think in which revolutionaries in seventeen-ninety <trunc>f</trunc> nineties think about these things <pause dur="0.3"/> but in which we <pause dur="0.4"/> into the late <trunc>s</trunc> # late twentieth century <pause dur="0.2"/> are still thinking <pause dur="0.3"/> # about the # <pause dur="0.2"/> about # politics <pause dur="0.3"/> what does freedom mean what does equality mean <pause dur="0.3"/> how do these two things actually mesh <pause dur="0.2"/> in any political # system <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> these things have become in that sort of short laboratory like period # <pause dur="0.2"/> of of just four or five years <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> up into the open <pause dur="0.2"/> up into discussion they've become the thing <trunc>fa</trunc> the framework within which <pause dur="0.3"/> # we all try and live <pause dur="0.3"/> okay have a nice weekend