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<title>Introduction to Historiography</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




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<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">History</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG3</item>

<item n="module">Historiography</item>




<u who="nm0080"> <trunc>h</trunc> hi everyone <pause dur="0.8"/> welcome <pause dur="1.3"/> this is a <pause dur="0.2"/> part of my <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>s</trunc> you know my bid for stardom <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> in fact what's happening is that we're going to video <pause dur="0.4"/> # all the lectures on this course this term <pause dur="0.9"/> # and # <pause dur="0.5"/> send them out to Venice <pause dur="0.7"/> 'cause as you know the Venetianists are <pause dur="1.0"/> basically doing their # <pause dur="0.2"/> their Venice stuff while they're out in Venice but # <pause dur="0.5"/> if we send out this video this also allows them if they choose # to # <pause dur="0.6"/> # zap into what we're doing as well they then play catch up when they <pause dur="0.3"/> # arrive # arrive back <pause dur="0.6"/> so # <pause dur="0.9"/> you know obviously i've been making myself up for some # some hours # <pause dur="0.4"/> # beforehand and actually can i ask you this before while we're just sort of waiting for people <pause dur="0.4"/> i've just got specs for the first time <pause dur="0.5"/> # you know <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> it's great isn't it <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of senility advancing <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> and i've been really i've been practising in front of the mirror <trunc>f</trunc> on sort of spectacles technique <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and

i want your advice on who among my colleagues has the best <pause dur="0.2"/> technique with specs </u><u who="sm0081" trans="latching"> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> does he what is what is his style then </u><u who="sm0081" trans="latching"> oh it's on off on off off <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="sl" dur="3"/> </u><u who="nm0080" trans="overlap"> oh i'm not going to do him then <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> anyone else i could # <pause dur="0.5"/> anyone else i could </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf0082" trans="pause"> have you thought of a nice necklace <pause dur="0.9"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/> </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> yeah that's really senile isn't like he can't remember where he's put them all the time in fact i am probably going to end up with those i think actually that's <pause dur="0.2"/> anyone else know other styles where i should # <pause dur="0.3"/> aspire to <pause dur="2.0"/> okay well i'm just going to say this # to start to say <trunc>t</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>t</trunc> hello to people in Venice because # this is designed for you this video bit i'm going to be lecturing to this lot anyway <pause dur="0.3"/> and i'll speak to you when you all get back but # <pause dur="0.5"/> # if you can follow this then so much the better <pause dur="0.4"/> i this meeting really generally is just # <pause dur="0.2"/> a general introduction <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> introduce you to the idea of the course and

to talk you through <pause dur="0.3"/> # the <pause dur="0.3"/> organization <pause dur="0.3"/> and the sort of things we're going to be # # looking at <pause dur="0.5"/> and # i passed around the # <pause dur="0.4"/> historiography # <pause dur="0.3"/> course details <pause dur="1.3"/> this is a <pause dur="1.0"/> difficult course <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> you will find that <pause dur="1.1"/> it is <pause dur="0.2"/> new <pause dur="1.1"/> for most people doing history <pause dur="0.3"/> # courses <pause dur="0.7"/> you're used to doing history <pause dur="0.6"/> and you do it <pause dur="0.6"/> i guess <pause dur="0.2"/> largely unreflectively <pause dur="0.5"/> that is you just get on with the job <pause dur="0.2"/> you do <pause dur="0.4"/> you know you're set a <pause dur="0.4"/> set a question what are the causes of the # <pause dur="0.4"/> Russian Revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> you do your research you find out the key # facts i guess # you make a theory you <pause dur="0.2"/> put an argument together <pause dur="0.3"/> and you do it so you practice # history <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> what we're asking you to do in this course and as i say for many of you it will be relatively new <pause dur="0.4"/> is to reflect <pause dur="0.5"/> on what you're doing <pause dur="0.4"/> on reflect and think about the nature <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.4"/> the historical <pause dur="0.4"/> well what shall we call it shall we call it craft or shall we call it # <pause dur="0.7"/> # practice or procedures or or whatever i mean we should actually think about <pause dur="0.2"/> the words which we're using <pause dur="0.3"/> # when

talking about # <pause dur="0.3"/> # about history <pause dur="0.5"/> is history <pause dur="0.6"/> a science for example is it is it producing forms of knowledge which are in some ways cognate <pause dur="0.4"/> # to those of the social or maybe even the <pause dur="0.3"/> the the other <pause dur="0.3"/> # the physical <pause dur="0.3"/> # sciences <pause dur="0.4"/> or is it a <pause dur="0.5"/> is it closer to the # the humanities is it more a sort of is it <pause dur="0.8"/> sort of style of # argument which we would find in an English department or a literature department or a philosophy department <pause dur="0.2"/> i mean what is the character <pause dur="0.3"/> of historical knowledge <pause dur="0.3"/> and how do <pause dur="0.3"/> historians <pause dur="0.5"/> # well again a word we could think about how do they <pause dur="1.0"/> construct <pause dur="0.4"/> historical knowledge <pause dur="0.2"/> or how do they <pause dur="0.7"/> how do they form historical knowledge or how do they find <pause dur="0.3"/> historical knowledge each of these terms each of these terms <pause dur="0.3"/> will have <pause dur="0.7"/> implications for how <pause dur="0.4"/> we think about what we're doing but also <pause dur="0.4"/> we will argue <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in the course of the <pause dur="0.3"/> # seminar <pause dur="0.5"/> # over the year <pause dur="0.3"/> # <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> ways in which we actually think about but also <trunc>w</trunc> the ways in which we do <pause dur="0.3"/> # history <pause dur="0.3"/> # as well <pause dur="1.2"/> and as i say <pause dur="0.3"/> i think

that most of you will find it is new it is different <pause dur="0.2"/> and it is hard <pause dur="0.4"/> okay it is a different way of <pause dur="0.2"/> proceeding that we're <trunc>en</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> encouraging you to do <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> and if you find it hard <pause dur="0.4"/> you can be reassured that you will be in good company <pause dur="0.5"/> # especially in the early days because everyone finds this new everyone finds it difficult <pause dur="0.4"/> and the best advice i can give you is <pause dur="0.5"/> hang on in there <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> this is true i'm sure of other history courses as well <pause dur="0.3"/> # but it's particularly true of this because it you are doing something just a bit different # from what <pause dur="0.2"/> what the other types of history that that you've done so do hang on <pause dur="0.2"/> on <pause dur="0.2"/> hang on in there <pause dur="0.6"/> it will hopefully <pause dur="0.2"/> start to fall into place it will <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> start to # <pause dur="0.4"/> to gel if you like at some stage <pause dur="0.2"/> # over the year that might be just a week before the exams <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # if you're very lucky it may be a week after the <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>exams <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> who can tell <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> # but it it will it should # start happening we we've noticed this in the

questionnaires <pause dur="0.4"/> # at the end of the first term <pause dur="0.3"/> a good percentage of the <pause dur="0.2"/> of the of of you you lot are totally <trunc>mysti</trunc> i won't say totally mystified but semi-mystified <pause dur="0.4"/> and the occasional totally <trunc>mer</trunc> mystified we come across <pause dur="0.3"/> the others are sort of getting the hang of it then that's fine <pause dur="0.2"/> go at your own pace <pause dur="0.2"/> but do treat it seriously do take it seriously <pause dur="0.3"/> for those of you who <trunc>a</trunc> # most of you obviously are doing it as a single honours <pause dur="0.4"/> # subject it is a three hour exam <pause dur="0.3"/> you need to take it seriously that's one <pause dur="0.2"/> one-quarter of this year's work if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> of all your <pause dur="0.3"/> how many hours do you work in a week probably <pause dur="1.2"/> fifty-two fifty-three i guess <pause dur="0.7"/> thirty-two <pause dur="0.4"/> twenty <pause dur="0.2"/> well whatever it <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> # a quarter of it roughly <pause dur="0.2"/> devote to this # devote to this # <pause dur="0.8"/> course and one of the things i'd like you to do <pause dur="0.6"/> when <trunc>y</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> doing the rest of the history <pause dur="0.6"/> # that you're doing as special subjects and advanced <trunc>subje</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> # an advanced option <pause dur="0.5"/> is to think about the sorts of problems

that we're bringing up here in this course and to feed them into <pause dur="0.3"/> what <pause dur="0.2"/> # you're also doing in that other course <pause dur="0.5"/> # those other courses what <pause dur="0.2"/> one frequently finds in # i'm sure this isn't just true of history students is that they regard <pause dur="0.4"/> each topic as sort of like hermetically sealed one from one from the next <pause dur="0.6"/> well this is a topic which covers the whole of what you've done <pause dur="0.2"/> this <trunc>y</trunc> or you will have done this year and probably all of what you've done since the since the beginning <pause dur="0.3"/> # of your coming here and <trunc>b</trunc> probably back to A-level <pause dur="0.2"/> as well <pause dur="0.4"/> and i want you to <pause dur="0.5"/> the sort of enquiringness # the sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> i don't know if that's a word the sort of enquiring <pause dur="0.3"/> mentality that we're <trunc>en</trunc> going to encourage you <pause dur="0.3"/> # to adopt when looking at <pause dur="0.3"/> the writers and the authors which <pause dur="0.3"/> we're looking at on the course <pause dur="0.6"/> try and feed those back into <pause dur="0.2"/> # your other # courses <pause dur="0.2"/> and you will also find and this is this will be particularly helpful <pause dur="0.4"/> for both sides of the fence if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> # that <pause dur="0.3"/> the arrows go the

other way as well that you <pause dur="0.3"/> do better at this course through <pause dur="0.2"/> employing that sort of more critical <pause dur="0.3"/> # approach to your your your reading and your writing <pause dur="0.3"/> when you're actually you know doing those other <pause dur="0.2"/> # topics <pause dur="0.3"/> so we're asking you to <pause dur="0.5"/> i mean the the # <pause dur="0.7"/> example i give <pause dur="0.3"/> sometimes to to sort of <trunc>s</trunc> illustrate # <pause dur="0.4"/> # what i'm talking about is <pause dur="0.3"/> we go to the theatre don't we and we <pause dur="0.7"/> get engaged in the drama <pause dur="0.2"/> on there you know on on the stage you know and i don't know what is Julius Caesar so we all <vocal desc="gasp" iterated="n"/> you know horror or Romeo and Juliet we're all sobbing or whatever so we get involved <pause dur="0.3"/> but then we what we could do as well and we sometimes do # but we don't enjoy doing it that much for more than a bit 'cause we we get so impassioned about what's going on on the stage <pause dur="0.4"/> we can stand back and look at stagecraft <pause dur="0.3"/> so we can look and say actually Maggie Smith she's a bloody good actress or we can look at <pause dur="0.9"/> the setting <pause dur="0.7"/> we could actually notice that # the

spear carriers <pause dur="0.3"/> are also the # <pause dur="0.2"/> harlots in the brothel scene or or whatever you know things <pause dur="0.3"/> things move around <pause dur="0.2"/> # you see the stage carriers come in and # you know <trunc>k</trunc> <trunc>s</trunc> carrying in the # <pause dur="0.4"/> # the furniture and whatever you willingly suspend belief don't you <pause dur="0.3"/> but you don't have to <pause dur="0.4"/> you can actually look at that and think about that as well so what i'm asking you to do <pause dur="0.5"/> # not just on this course with the authors we look at <pause dur="1.1"/> this this course <pause dur="0.6"/> essentially because that's what the course is about but try it with other courses to do that stepping back <pause dur="0.3"/> and say <pause dur="0.4"/> i know what you're saying to a <trunc>ab</trunc> about an author i can see what the angle is <pause dur="0.5"/> and i see <pause dur="0.2"/> how you're sort of setting it up <pause dur="0.9"/> okay you can observe the the this the the historical craft <pause dur="0.4"/> as a craft <pause dur="0.3"/> and not just <pause dur="0.5"/> go along with <pause dur="0.2"/> the argument not just go along with the <pause dur="0.4"/> the angle <pause dur="0.3"/> # of vision which is being provided to you by the # historian </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> you're getting you're okay you get the idea so far what i'm saying so far <pause dur="0.2"/> i know a lot

of sceptical faces but # think about that # <pause dur="0.3"/> theatre one i tell another one is when have you ever watched ballroom dancing <pause dur="1.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/> wow <pause dur="0.6"/> sort of # disbelief i've never seen an experience like an electric current through there you know as if we'd watch ballroom dancing but it is quite a good thing to watch actually for this particular reason because <pause dur="0.4"/> you see this wonderful movement <pause dur="0.4"/> and then if you're there you <trunc>k</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> the other thing you can do is listen <pause dur="0.3"/> and you hear all this feet scraping along the floor so you've got all this wonderful sort of romance i won't actually do it here for you but <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # you're getting the idea <pause dur="0.4"/> but the other thing is to step back and look at what's actually going on if you like what what's what what's the sort of infrastructure what's the <pause dur="0.4"/> # yes you're i can see you're thinking this is very funny me doing this dancing <pause dur="0.3"/> # but it is a good example <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> that's the

sort of thing # # a critical distance away from your material if you like that's what we're encouraging you to do <pause dur="0.3"/> and we think this is important <pause dur="0.3"/> for all historians that's why we ask all single honours historians to do it as a compulsory course <pause dur="0.4"/> we think we can send you out on into the world as great historians <pause dur="0.3"/> but most of you aren't actually going to do history you're going to do other things you're going to become great bank managers <pause dur="0.3"/> or # or or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> we think you should have thought about what you've been doing at university not just to have done it but to actually have a sort of more reflexive view on # a more a more sort of introspective but reflexive view <pause dur="0.4"/> # on what the nature of the activity in which you have <pause dur="0.4"/> gained your brilliant degrees <pause dur="0.3"/> # in at the end of your # three years <pause dur="0.4"/> okay so that's my sort of general <pause dur="0.9"/> general take on it # watch out then for craft <pause dur="0.2"/> okay think about what you're doing in terms of <pause dur="0.2"/> skills <pause dur="0.2"/> think about it in

terms of <pause dur="0.5"/> not <pause dur="0.2"/> you know oh this seems a really interesting plot or as interesting argument which is being <pause dur="0.2"/> offered by this historian <pause dur="0.4"/> # # as a cause of the Russian Revolution or whatever but think of it how is he setting up that <pause dur="0.3"/> he or she setting up that <pause dur="0.4"/> argument <pause dur="1.3"/> another angle <pause dur="0.2"/> i would # say <pause dur="0.4"/> and i think this is a crucial one look at the <pause dur="0.2"/> language and above all look at the metaphors which people are using <pause dur="0.3"/> # in historical argument <pause dur="0.5"/> are they talking i mean you know like a wave of this or a wave of that <pause dur="0.4"/> or <pause dur="0.6"/> the facts speak for themselves or <pause dur="0.2"/> the facts seem to add up <pause dur="0.3"/> to the following conclusion <pause dur="0.2"/> if we look and this is something i'll come back to and others will come back to again and again <pause dur="0.3"/> just the sort of metaphors with which we talk about historical knowledge can be very <pause dur="0.2"/> significant can be very revealing <pause dur="0.3"/> about the way in which we think about <pause dur="0.3"/> # the <trunc>practi</trunc> # # about the # the past and what we do <pause dur="0.3"/> as # historians <pause dur="1.9"/> so it's a <trunc>v</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> it's a sort of workshop course this <pause dur="0.3"/> # we are <pause dur="0.3"/>

encouraging you <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> # engage in <pause dur="0.7"/> not just history and history <pause dur="0.2"/> and writing of history essays but thinking about that practice as well <pause dur="0.5"/> and it's one in which # you will have a lecture <pause dur="0.3"/> every week <pause dur="0.3"/> # and i'll talk i'll run you through that <pause dur="0.3"/> but you'll have a regular <pause dur="0.3"/> fortnightly # seminar and the seminar things sheet should have gone round please fill them in <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> in which you'll sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> try and come to terms with <pause dur="0.3"/> get to grips with <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of stumble hopelessly around in the ideas of whatever again metaphor you want to use <pause dur="0.4"/> # some of these historians some of these historical debates which we've chosen to be which we think are particularly <pause dur="0.2"/> helpful and illustrative # of some of the problems which historians <pause dur="0.3"/> # # face <pause dur="0.8"/> # the seminar i always say this you know the # about seminars but i think it's always true <pause dur="0.4"/> # if you want to be brilliant in a seminar no one's going to stop you in fact we would love that you to all be brilliant all the times and most of you of course <trunc>al</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/>

always are brilliant at all times <pause dur="0.4"/> but essentially the <trunc>work</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> the seminar is a workshop <pause dur="0.3"/> where you try and get things straight where you just work collectively together to get things straight in your mind <pause dur="0.5"/> if you <trunc>th</trunc> walk out of the # room at the end of the # <pause dur="0.3"/> hour and a half thinking <pause dur="0.7"/> well what is empiricism <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>exactly <pause dur="0.3"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> or # <pause dur="0.5"/> # what does he mean by # sort of pragmatic or <pause dur="0.3"/> some of these this # sort of glossary of terms with which i imagine you'll soon become familiar <pause dur="0.4"/> then the workshop will have failed <trunc>th</trunc> failed for you the point is this is where you try and get things straight in your own mind and i think <pause dur="0.4"/> just working at a very simple level just trying to sort of get hold of terms what is meant by ideas <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> don't worry about looking or feeling foolish in these seminars because we're all used to that and we all know each other <pause dur="0.4"/> after three years anyway <pause dur="0.3"/> # by <pause dur="0.2"/> being foolish or acting foolish and asking what seem to be foolish questions <pause dur="0.8"/> # that's actually the beginning of

wisdom and it's good <pause dur="0.2"/> # we you know some of the best questions the most problematic ones are the ones which seem simple but actually scratch them <pause dur="0.3"/> and they're rather difficult so can i just encourage you <pause dur="0.3"/> as i say to hang on in there <pause dur="0.3"/> and don't be <pause dur="0.5"/> put off by what might seem at times your own ignorance or your own inability to grasp because we know it is more difficult <pause dur="0.2"/> we find it more difficult as well incidentally i should say <pause dur="0.4"/> # as historians we prefer to just get on with things rather than actually think about what we're doing <pause dur="0.3"/> so we have to struggle # as well so we're all struggling together <pause dur="0.3"/> # in these workshops <pause dur="0.2"/> # and # let's keep that sort of atmosphere <pause dur="0.3"/> # going <pause dur="1.3"/> way in which we've done it well it's familiar to you i'm sure from all the other types of courses which you've followed <pause dur="0.3"/> we basically say <pause dur="0.6"/> there are readings each week <pause dur="0.2"/> and everyone does <pause dur="0.5"/> those readings and we use those readings as the basis for discussion <pause dur="0.4"/> now some seminar leaders may ask may assign

particular presenters <pause dur="0.4"/> others just <pause dur="0.2"/> you know say well you'll all read this and you'll all come with some ideas and i'm going to ask you about # those ideas <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> i think you've got to do that work you you know it's particularly important in this <pause dur="0.4"/> course which is difficult anyway you it's <pause dur="0.2"/> just don't free ride i don't think a seminar can take a free ride <pause dur="0.3"/> # with someone who says i <pause dur="0.3"/> you know i don't think i've done the reading this week and # <pause dur="0.3"/> it was too difficult so i gave up on page two or something like that that just won't do <pause dur="0.4"/> even if you even if it's a struggle do struggle do <pause dur="0.2"/> come along <pause dur="0.2"/> do contribute and do do # <pause dur="0.3"/> share in <pause dur="0.2"/> # everything <pause dur="0.2"/> # and make sure those readings are done we've put <pause dur="0.5"/> we've made sure <pause dur="0.2"/> that # there are multiple copies of i think everything that's crucial to the seminar readings <pause dur="0.3"/> # in # the <trunc>s</trunc> the student reserve # collection <pause dur="0.3"/> in many cases the relevant books are in the <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # bookshop as well as in multiple form in the <pause dur="0.3"/> # library <pause dur="0.3"/> so you should be okay if you do

have a problem with getting hold of anything <pause dur="0.3"/> well go and see your seminar tutor and talk to him and # him or her well actually it is all him i think <pause dur="0.4"/> # and # <pause dur="0.4"/> # wangle it out of # # out of them <pause dur="1.0"/> we think that you will find it useful <pause dur="0.5"/> # to buy a couple of books <pause dur="0.6"/> # the one which in fact <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> # <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> of spectacles fame <pause dur="0.2"/> is going to be # <pause dur="0.4"/> talking about next <pause dur="0.4"/> next # week is a <pause dur="0.2"/> book which some of you may have looked at before at school or maybe even since <pause dur="0.4"/> which is E H Carr's <pause dur="0.3"/> book <pause dur="0.2"/> # What is History <pause dur="0.3"/> and we recommend if you did <pause dur="0.3"/> look at it at school that # i don't know which edition you used but the newest edition which came out a couple of years is the best 'cause it has a very <pause dur="0.3"/> it has good introduction and # sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> # # textual material # with it <pause dur="0.3"/> that's available as well E H Carr <pause dur="0.4"/> the first lecture the <trunc>f</trunc> # we'll <pause dur="0.8"/> talk about that and it will talk about you know <pause dur="0.4"/> # the way in which Carr approached this problem still very influential book that actually <pause dur="0.3"/> # thirty-four years

on <pause dur="0.3"/> # and it's a just a good entrée into <trunc>s</trunc> the range of issues or some of the issues that we're going to be looking at over over the year <pause dur="0.8"/> the other one which i think i would recommend to you <pause dur="0.3"/> at this stage would be Richard Evans' that's R J Evans' book In Defence of History <pause dur="0.3"/> and that was written very deliberately <pause dur="0.2"/> actually <pause dur="0.3"/> # as a <pause dur="0.9"/> E H Carr for the late nineteen-nineties <pause dur="0.2"/> in fact if you look at it i mean he talks a bit about this but if you look at it you and compare it with Carr you will <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>see that <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> very often he is almost literally <pause dur="0.4"/> you know this is a section which Carr has done in this particular way this is the way it looks in the nineteen-nineties so those two books work very well together <pause dur="0.4"/> and Richard Evans' book has had a big success it has been undoubtedly it's a it's a big seller <pause dur="0.4"/> # it is # obviously doing the job which E H Carr <pause dur="0.3"/> for many people anyway doing the <trunc>c</trunc> job of introducing people to <pause dur="0.3"/> these sorts of problems <pause dur="0.3"/> # which E H Carr did for the last <pause dur="0.5"/> generation or

two <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> and so we reckon that you should get hold of that as well and you should <pause dur="0.3"/> you know dip into it and start reading it and hopefully <pause dur="0.2"/> it will become increasingly relevant as you go through <pause dur="0.3"/> # through the year by the end we would hope everyone <pause dur="0.3"/> will have read Carr and # # Evans and have a view on them actually a view on the two of them <pause dur="0.2"/> and what they represent and their angle of vision and we may well disagree with both of them i hope sincerely hope you do <pause dur="0.3"/> # 'cause i do <pause dur="0.4"/> # but on most things about the books anyway but they're <trunc>g</trunc> they're they're they are very good introductions i think <pause dur="0.3"/> # to the to the # course and we recommend that you get hold of these and buy them second-hand <trunc>c</trunc> copy or or or whatever </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> okay i'm i'm sort of going through the # <trunc>f</trunc> # the first sheet here just talking about seminars and seminar readings the lectures are in here it's a pretty awful room i'm afraid we are going to have them <pause dur="0.3"/> # the video <pause dur="0.3"/> # thing is going to be # every

week in the first # term <trunc>bu</trunc> and normally lectures are at twelve not one <pause dur="0.2"/> okay it's just this this <trunc>w</trunc> this week for various # <pause dur="0.3"/> start of term reasons i've had to hold it at this time <pause dur="1.5"/> # assignments or essays <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> three over the year <pause dur="0.3"/> # do more if you like # we're not stopping you <pause dur="0.2"/> # it might be helpful <pause dur="0.3"/> it's up to you i'm sure your tutors will mark anything that you # you write <pause dur="0.5"/> # and we've <trunc>sugges</trunc> we've got a list of essay titles at the back of the # list as you # can see <pause dur="0.9"/> # and you will also find under each of the headings # <pause dur="0.9"/> some other questions which you may use as # # as a # # questions <pause dur="0.4"/> we would encourage you to think of that list of questions as not exhaustive <pause dur="0.5"/> i mean again if you're getting into # the the subject # you will have other <pause dur="0.4"/> angles and other things you want to <trunc>e</trunc> explore <pause dur="0.3"/> and we would encourage that i mean do i think it would be advisable to chat over any question you're <pause dur="0.2"/> inventing with your # <pause dur="0.3"/> seminar tutor just to check there's no # big <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of hidden

trap in there you hadn't spotted <pause dur="0.3"/> but generally you know <pause dur="0.2"/> that's fine you know but these are guidelines by all means use # any that you <pause dur="0.4"/> # like <pause dur="0.3"/> the seminar tutor will give you the deadline so it's up to them how they organize it and obviously you can talk to them about how it fits in with your work and i'm sure you will do <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> none of them are assessed essays though this isn't a course on which there is any assessment <pause dur="0.2"/> at all it is down to <pause dur="0.3"/> the wire <pause dur="0.3"/> # down to the three hour <pause dur="0.3"/> # exam which you've probably all forgotten about no you haven't you just did it a few months ago didn't you many of you but # <pause dur="0.4"/> # some of you are back from # from abroad but # <pause dur="0.4"/> # it is a three hour exam <pause dur="1.6"/> and the way in which it's framed is # there is a section A and section B you do three questions i should say as again is fairly standard isn't it <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but you must do one question from either section A or section B and the section A <pause dur="0.3"/> questions are <pause dur="0.3"/> related to the seminar topics i mean there will be

essentially one on each seminar topic <pause dur="0.3"/> # more or less <pause dur="0.5"/> but the # section B will be general <pause dur="0.2"/> generic <pause dur="0.4"/> very broad <pause dur="0.2"/> # # # <pause dur="0.2"/> titles essay essay titles <pause dur="0.5"/> # essay questions <pause dur="0.4"/> of the sort that we think you should have been thinking about and trying to come to terms with <pause dur="0.3"/> # over the course of the year <pause dur="0.3"/> so again this is the sort of thing we're encouraging you to read through these texts <pause dur="0.3"/> and think beyond them <pause dur="0.3"/> and to think beyond them <pause dur="0.3"/> so that when you get to that final stage <pause dur="0.3"/> # you <trunc>th</trunc> you can have a view and that view will be yours <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> whether history is a <pause dur="1.0"/> an art or a science or whether <pause dur="0.8"/> post-modernism does have anything to offer the # historian <pause dur="0.3"/> # as well as what you think of Robert Darnton or E P Thompson or Karl Marx <pause dur="0.3"/> # or whatever so <pause dur="0.6"/> this is why we think you know something like the the <trunc>st</trunc> # the Carr and the and the and the Evans will be helpful for you for you because you'll be able to sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of graft those into your <trunc>wor</trunc> work <pause dur="0.3"/> over the course of the # <pause dur="0.3"/> # year <pause dur="1.9"/> i'm going to now

switch to just going through a sort of # overview of the # course # the <trunc>cour</trunc> course contents but is there anything on the organizational side which anyone would like to bring up at the # at the moment <pause dur="0.5"/> as i say there are you should all <trunc>t</trunc> all have the thing which <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> sent round the <pause dur="0.7"/> <trunc>da</trunc> you know times that you can make # you can leave those when you go out has everyone got <pause dur="0.3"/> got one of those <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" iterated="n" n="ss"/> yeah <trunc>hi</trunc> where are the spares <pause dur="0.6"/> # are there spares of that around <pause dur="0.3"/> # <trunc>c</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> could you get <pause dur="0.2"/> get them over there <kinesic desc="indicates member of audience" iterated="n"/> please # <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="12.0"/><event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n" n="ss"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> any other points anyone like to # <pause dur="0.6"/> bring up <pause dur="0.2"/> these will be fixed in the next day and the and the times will go and times and everything will go up in the next day or so <pause dur="0.4"/> so look on the # noticeboard third year noticeboard </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf0083" trans="pause"> # </u><u who="nm0080" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> </u><u who="sf0083" trans="overlap"> i don't know <pause dur="0.2"/> we don't know any of our lecture <trunc>ti</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> of the lecture times or anything yet so <pause dur="0.2"/> there's </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> the you won't have a lecture in history at this time </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf0083" trans="pause"> no no no i mean <pause dur="0.4"/> we i can't

decide when <pause dur="0.2"/> which seminars to <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/><pause dur="0.3"/> and rather have a look </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> okay do your do your best and # if there if there is a snag then come back and we'll we'll sort it out <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.6"/> yes okay now i take the <pause dur="0.3"/> point yeah <pause dur="2.3"/> but you haven't got # many many hours this year so so you know it should be all right <pause dur="1.4"/> you got <pause dur="0.4"/> endless free time <pause dur="1.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> any any other points questions anyone like to bring up 'cause then i'll i'll switch to <pause dur="0.5"/> looking at the <pause dur="1.1"/> what's in there <pause dur="1.0"/> what's in the course what are the contents of the # course what are we going to be covering <pause dur="0.2"/> over the # year <pause dur="2.4"/> i think there is a sort of very very very <pause dur="0.3"/> broad <pause dur="0.5"/> and general sort of <pause dur="0.7"/> chronology going through this and that we're starting in the middle of the nineteenth century and we are looking <pause dur="0.3"/> at a <trunc>r</trunc> in a roughly progressive way at a number of people <pause dur="0.2"/> for at least some of the time <pause dur="0.3"/> but by the end by the second half of the <pause dur="0.5"/> # second term we're clearly into themes which may link back to some of the sort of history if you like but are more

theoretical <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's if you like a historical <pause dur="0.6"/> # sort of thread through some of what we're saying <pause dur="0.2"/> # in other words history has evolved over time has changed over time <pause dur="0.5"/> # but there is also an accumulative # factor <pause dur="0.3"/> # a theoretical factor as well which will come out as more important in the <pause dur="0.3"/> # in the # second half but it will be there in the first as well <pause dur="1.0"/> as you can see i've put under my # first # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <trunc>fir</trunc> <trunc>ma</trunc> # the first lecture why study historiography and the <trunc>a</trunc> answers i've given you are as you know are because <pause dur="0.5"/> # we think it's important obviously that's the most important but # we think it's important because <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it is <pause dur="0.3"/> good for historians to think about what they're doing <pause dur="0.2"/> and also if they do that we argue <pause dur="0.5"/> that you can become better historians <pause dur="0.4"/> and that's obviously what we're doing we're trying to train good historians the best historians <pause dur="0.3"/> # that we can and we think you're going to be <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # better for doing this course better historians for doing this course <pause dur="0.5"/> next

week as i say <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> is offering you <pause dur="0.4"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> is going in and offering you # with the E H Carr <pause dur="0.4"/> a <pause dur="0.5"/> sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> an introduction to the range of concerns which have been central to the to to to to the course and to <pause dur="0.2"/> and to and to the discipline generally <pause dur="0.3"/> # over <pause dur="0.3"/> # the last couple of decades through this book of E H Carr <pause dur="0.6"/> then we're going to plunge you back as i say into the # early # nineteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> to look at the work of and this'll be interesting actually if i could just do this <pause dur="0.6"/> how many of what percentage of you have ever heard of this guy <pause dur="0.2"/> Ranke von Ranke <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" iterated="n" n="ss"/> one <pause dur="0.5"/> okay so we're down to two <pause dur="0.2"/> three so we're down to less than five per cent <pause dur="0.7"/> fine <pause dur="0.2"/> so you so going to be a sort of voyage of discovery for everyone isn't it that week <pause dur="0.3"/> who is this guy well <pause dur="0.3"/> he is seen as he's often sort of you know the sort of phrase which people use the father <pause dur="0.3"/> of modern empirical history <pause dur="0.4"/> he is the guy who says that the historian's task or does he because that's one one of the things we'll be

looking at <pause dur="0.4"/> the historian's task is to find those facts find those things which really happened <pause dur="0.2"/> so that you can create <pause dur="0.5"/> # a sense of what things really were like <pause dur="0.2"/> # in the past from those from those sort of facts which you discover about the past so you don't <pause dur="0.6"/> you don't sort of import your own ideas you find how things actually were in the past and # <pause dur="0.4"/> by accumulation of facts found in archives <pause dur="0.2"/> and Ranke is that's one of the things that's also important about him <pause dur="0.4"/> he sort of # <pause dur="0.3"/> locates his <pause dur="0.7"/> his facts if you like within the archive of governments <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's an interesting point where are facts what are facts this is something James will look at # next week # but but you know Ranke in some ways is the <pause dur="0.5"/> sort of paradigmatic figure the sort of prototype of the historian who says <pause dur="0.7"/> to answer a historical <pause dur="0.4"/> question let's find out the facts first <pause dur="0.2"/> don't need to you know think about too much just find the facts and then the <pause dur="0.2"/> the answers will <pause dur="0.2"/> become apparent <pause dur="0.4"/> if

you like <pause dur="0.5"/> that is the way in which Ranke is often presented we will argue # <pause dur="0.3"/> i think most of us # <pause dur="0.3"/> when you actually look at him when you actually scratch the surface there are all sorts of other very interesting and quite <pause dur="0.3"/> contradictory things happening in Ranke <pause dur="0.3"/> but we reckon that <trunc>y</trunc> you know to come to terms with some of the debates going on about facts <pause dur="0.4"/> and facts versus theory <pause dur="0.2"/> and all the rest of it you've got to know <pause dur="0.2"/> and you've got to have read <pause dur="0.3"/> # von Ranke and so there's a good starting point <pause dur="0.4"/> # we think for this <pause dur="0.3"/> # for this course </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> we then look at obviously one of the the other giants the intellectual giants of nineteeneth century who has been <pause dur="0.4"/> tremendously influential i think you know <pause dur="0.6"/> let let's say ten years ago <pause dur="0.2"/> i would say <pause dur="0.2"/> if you looked at the historical <pause dur="0.4"/> # at the practice of history worldwide <pause dur="0.4"/> practice of history worldwide in nineteen-ninety <trunc>n</trunc> just <trunc>s</trunc> call it nineteen-eighty-nine i think <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the most influential the most widely practised # form of history

would be Marxist history <pause dur="0.4"/> that was mainly of course because there was a whole solid block of countries which were solidly <pause dur="0.4"/> # # Marxist and so history was seen through a Marxist prism but even in <pause dur="0.5"/> # the non-Marxist West Marxism has been tremendously influential <pause dur="0.4"/> # on the practice of of history and has influenced a great many of us <pause dur="0.4"/> # for example in our generation and # <pause dur="0.5"/> why am i talking about our generation it's their generation i'm the youngster of course in the department but # <pause dur="0.3"/> # within the i'm joking <pause dur="0.3"/> # just in case you hadn't spotted <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # influenced us in <trunc>tre</trunc> tremendously important ways now of course in the nineteen-nineties that looks very very different <pause dur="0.3"/> very different indeed so <pause dur="0.3"/> is there anything in Marxism and the practice of Marxist history if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> which is <pause dur="0.9"/> recuperable <pause dur="0.2"/> if you like for the practice of # of history in the late # twentieth century we'll also think it's important to describe what Marx said and you know the influence the

way in which # <pause dur="0.2"/> historians have used him that will be part of the story but we will also be encouraging you to think about <pause dur="0.2"/> the value of Marxism as a <pause dur="0.2"/> as a body of <trunc>d</trunc> of of theory <pause dur="0.3"/> if you like which is it helpful <pause dur="0.3"/> is it not helpful how can we use it can we <pause dur="0.5"/> can we is it roadworthy if you like or has it been consigned to the dustbin <pause dur="0.3"/> of history with all those <pause dur="0.2"/> Marxist regimes <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # worldwide <pause dur="0.2"/> as well so Marx we think you've got to come to terms with Marx if you're a historian <pause dur="0.3"/> even if things <trunc>ha</trunc> the world has changed and changed quite a lot <pause dur="0.4"/> # since nineteen-eighty-nine <pause dur="1.0"/> you've also got to come to terms we argue and that's why we think we've # we've we've got it next with with Weber because in some ways <pause dur="0.4"/> Weber is the other intellectual giant of the <trunc>ni</trunc> late # nineteenth century who's in constant dialogue with <pause dur="0.4"/> with Marx <pause dur="0.3"/> over <pause dur="0.2"/> what causes history what what what are the sort of causative factors <pause dur="0.3"/> # in history Marx i'm i won't be i'm sure telling you anything <pause dur="0.4"/> # new 'cause

you'll remember this from basic one days if you haven't forgotten <pause dur="0.4"/> # basically argues that it's the sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> it's the economic infrastructure within society which really <pause dur="0.3"/> is the sort of fundamental cause of <pause dur="0.3"/> of historical phenomena <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the class <pause dur="0.2"/> struggle is the motor of history <pause dur="0.3"/> if you want to know how why and how things change <pause dur="0.3"/> you look for the <pause dur="0.3"/> the economic base <pause dur="0.3"/> to particular <pause dur="0.3"/> # social <pause dur="0.3"/> bodies or social <trunc>formor</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>for</trunc> formations or phenomena <pause dur="0.3"/> # or whatever so this emphasis on the material <pause dur="0.4"/> the economic <pause dur="0.7"/> # <trunc>th</trunc> # <pause dur="0.5"/> Weber # <pause dur="0.4"/> in dialogue with Marx because in some respects they're they are very similar <pause dur="0.4"/> but the text which we've chosen <trunc>th</trunc> it's probably Weber's most famous The Protestant # <pause dur="0.4"/> # # Ethic # where he argues that <pause dur="1.2"/> you can't explain the <trunc>refor</trunc> something like the Reformation without <pause dur="0.2"/> resort to and thinking about <pause dur="0.4"/> values within society in other words it's not enough to always assume that that <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> that that ideas and policies and politics and # theories and what i

<trunc>ever</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> are the sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # reflection <pause dur="0.7"/> of something which is going on in the base of society <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> ideas themselves have their own dynamic have their own substance which can also <pause dur="0.3"/> # # affect the way in which things # <pause dur="0.3"/> things change now in some ways that's not <trunc>s</trunc> actually as we'll argue or we'll think about i think <pause dur="0.4"/> so very far from some # some versions of Marxism <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> again if you want to know about how <trunc>prac</trunc> history has been practised in the twentieth century and it to a certain extent still is practised <pause dur="0.3"/> then we have to think about Weber and we have to know a bit and we have to have read a bit <pause dur="0.3"/> of Weber and we think that's why that's # that's particularly # <pause dur="0.3"/> important <pause dur="1.5"/> we shift # after Weber to look at one of the <trunc>earl</trunc> the great practitioners of <pause dur="0.4"/> # medieval history <pause dur="0.3"/> # French historian Marc Bloch <pause dur="0.5"/> # and <pause dur="0.2"/> the way in which we do that is through the <pause dur="0.5"/> historical periodical the Annales <pause dur="0.4"/> which he and # another man called Lucien Febvre <pause dur="0.5"/> founded in nineteen-twenty-nine which

again i would say you know <trunc>w</trunc> you know very broad generalization obviously <pause dur="0.5"/> but is probably the most important # historical journal <pause dur="0.6"/> in # twentieth century you can quote me on that but <pause dur="0.3"/> everyone would say i was wrong but i think it's # i think it's not far wrong it is enormously influential <pause dur="0.4"/> it's # <pause dur="3.0"/> in some ways <pause dur="1.1"/> # the argument that i'll make when looking at the Annales <pause dur="0.3"/> is say is to is to <trunc>s</trunc> is to suggest that # <pause dur="0.5"/> what <pause dur="0.3"/> Bloch and Lucien Febvre and those who sort of come round the banner <pause dur="0.3"/> of the Annales style of history <pause dur="0.4"/> in the nineties-thirties forties fifties and throughout 'cause it's still going <pause dur="0.7"/> are historians who say <pause dur="0.3"/> the type of Rankean history the type of Rankean history <pause dur="0.4"/> which has <pause dur="0.2"/> which dominates the <pause dur="0.3"/> the # historical establishment because <pause dur="0.2"/> by the time they're writing there are <pause dur="0.4"/> universities which have <pause dur="0.2"/> history departments that's something actually which is <pause dur="0.2"/> really quite interesting actually and <trunc>f</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> # is part of the sort of professional <pause dur="0.4"/> # the the the

development of the profession as well as a <pause dur="0.3"/> # # as a discipline <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> that type of department is obsessed with small scale <pause dur="0.3"/> eurocentric political governmental history and what the Annales are trying to do <pause dur="0.3"/> is to break open that type of very hermetic sort of empirical history <pause dur="0.5"/> # and suggest that what we need to understand the past <pause dur="0.3"/> is to think about <pause dur="0.4"/> economics sociology psychology to have if you like a <pause dur="0.4"/> a a broad <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of flowing together of different disciplines where history actually benefits from <pause dur="0.3"/> learns from <pause dur="0.3"/> and actually can sort of change its own practice <pause dur="0.2"/> as a result of what's going on <pause dur="0.2"/> in other <pause dur="0.2"/> # disciplines <pause dur="0.3"/> okay i take the example of <pause dur="0.3"/> Marc Bloch but we also look at Fernand Braudel <pause dur="0.3"/> whose greatest book <pause dur="0.2"/> without any question of a doubt is <pause dur="0.3"/> called The Mediterranean <pause dur="0.3"/> and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip the Second <pause dur="0.4"/> and the principal actor <pause dur="0.3"/> in that the principal agent the <trunc>princ</trunc> principal actor <pause dur="0.3"/> # in that drama massive two volume drama which he <pause dur="0.2"/> which unfolds

in that book is <pause dur="0.5"/> not a king not Philip the Second he's just an afterword in many ways <pause dur="0.3"/> it is a sea <pause dur="0.4"/> it is the Mediterranean <pause dur="0.2"/> so how do we think about that geography <pause dur="0.2"/> and history in other words <trunc>so</trunc> in sort of close <pause dur="0.2"/> confluence in <trunc>c</trunc> close sort of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # mutual and reciprocal <pause dur="0.3"/> # influence <pause dur="0.4"/> so a different type of history a <trunc>m</trunc> history more opened out onto <pause dur="0.2"/> new objects new approaches <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> more friendly towards <pause dur="0.2"/> # the other <pause dur="0.2"/> # disciplines and trying to learn from them and # and to alter practice <pause dur="0.3"/> # as well <pause dur="2.0"/> we then <pause dur="0.4"/> by the end of the <trunc>thi</trunc> of that <trunc>f</trunc> this first term <pause dur="1.0"/> we sort of shift gear again <pause dur="0.5"/> and look at <pause dur="0.5"/> and this is a particular <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> thing but # it's a <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> thing which <pause dur="0.4"/> we're privileged to it's a <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/><gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> thing <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>actually <pause dur="0.3"/> because we look at the work of E P Thompson who was professor of history here in the early days of # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # of of of <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> University <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> his work The Making of the English Working Class and let's actually try that let's # anyone <trunc>tha</trunc> <trunc>tha</trunc> <trunc>tha</trunc> <trunc>h</trunc> who's heard of <pause dur="0.2"/> E P Thompson <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" iterated="n" n="ss"/>

yeah good okay right <trunc>wh</trunc> # in what context have you heard of him <pause dur="1.4"/> anyone <pause dur="0.2"/> just heard his name <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.9"/> people <trunc>ba</trunc> in the department banging on about him <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>or # <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> more than that <pause dur="2.3"/> which <trunc>w</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> which course have you heard that on <pause dur="0.3"/> heard him </u><u who="sf0084" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> social and economic <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nm0080" trans="overlap"> right <pause dur="0.3"/> right <pause dur="0.3"/> within History department who's <pause dur="0.8"/> any courses <pause dur="0.8"/> no <pause dur="0.6"/> just heard of him okay that's fine <pause dur="0.7"/> # i'd say his book # Making of the English Working Class <pause dur="0.4"/> probably the most read history book in British universities history departments <pause dur="0.4"/> in the # nineteen-seventies it was <pause dur="0.3"/> sensational incredibly important <pause dur="0.7"/> we look at actually a later work of his # Whigs and Hunters but what we're <pause dur="0.3"/> looking at and trying to explore with you is not just <pause dur="0.5"/> a moment <pause dur="0.2"/> a moment in historical <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the development of the historical <trunc>d</trunc> <trunc>b</trunc> discipline over the last thirty or forty years <pause dur="0.4"/> # but also a type of history <pause dur="0.2"/> which we think <pause dur="0.4"/> you want to think about and interrogate <pause dur="0.4"/> and that is a history which is politically

engaged <pause dur="0.5"/> Thompson <pause dur="0.3"/> makes no <pause dur="0.9"/> bones he makes no disguise of the fact that he is <pause dur="0.3"/> he claims to be a Marxist but certainly <pause dur="0.3"/> a socialist as well and tries to write a socialist <pause dur="0.3"/> history <pause dur="0.4"/> now how does that chime in with how does that <pause dur="0.4"/> # work itself out <pause dur="0.4"/> # in terms of a discipline which many of whose practitioners claim to be objective <pause dur="0.4"/> and to be able to <pause dur="0.3"/> be value neutral <pause dur="0.4"/> # if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> # in terms of what they're what they're doing </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.2"/> this i'm sure is something which you've come across already in many of the <pause dur="0.4"/> many of the # essay questions which you've looked at you've thought about <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.4"/> the nature of the historian and his or her political sympathies and how these might affect <pause dur="0.3"/> # the views the approaches the conclusions <pause dur="0.3"/> of those historians so we <trunc>wo</trunc> we think this is a very good <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # sort of case study for you to come to terms with and think about this question of <pause dur="0.6"/> objectivity and political engagement and how this affects the nature <pause dur="0.3"/> of the historical enterprise and <pause dur="0.2"/> and the

character of historical knowledge <pause dur="0.3"/> # as well <pause dur="2.7"/> one of the things which i think is particularly striking about E P Thompson <pause dur="0.3"/> is # the # <pause dur="1.1"/> he's a Marxist but <pause dur="0.3"/> gives much more attention to <pause dur="0.2"/> the cultural <pause dur="0.4"/> # dimension <pause dur="0.2"/> than than # many other Marxists who in some ways some forms of <trunc>me</trunc> Marxism are essentially <pause dur="0.3"/> economic reductionism everything is explained in terms of the base <pause dur="0.6"/> # or the the infrastructure <pause dur="1.0"/> Thompson is one of those who says yes the cultural does matter <pause dur="0.2"/> we have to think about class struggle class struggle's still important <pause dur="0.3"/> # the material world is still important but <pause dur="0.7"/> culture and ideas do have their own sort of # impetus # which we need to understand <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # as well <pause dur="0.7"/> and we go on from the Thompson <pause dur="0.2"/> # # seminar to look at <pause dur="0.5"/> # what i've called here the new cultural # history <pause dur="0.4"/> which is a history which <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.9"/> i if <trunc>w</trunc> if one's thinking a moment i guess one's thinking the seventies and particularly the eighties <pause dur="0.5"/> # where <pause dur="1.2"/> suddenly <pause dur="0.3"/> the sorts of history which <trunc>beco</trunc> which

are hottest which are most people are interested in <trunc>t</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> that most people want to read <pause dur="0.4"/> are not so much the social history of the sort of <pause dur="0.7"/> Thompson Hobsbawm <pause dur="0.4"/> # generation <pause dur="0.2"/> or whatever <pause dur="0.2"/> but new versions of cultural history which are thinking of culture not as a <pause dur="0.4"/> a sort of you know ensemble of precious artefacts you know great # <pause dur="0.4"/> # great pianos i have known or you know great <pause dur="0.3"/> pictures or Canalettos or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> they're thinking about culture in essentially an anthropological <pause dur="0.3"/> sense okay and in fact it is an anthropologically informed history <pause dur="0.3"/> that we try and understand the past in other words <pause dur="0.3"/> using the sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> tools <pause dur="0.6"/> in the anthropologist's # <pause dur="0.4"/> # toolbox <pause dur="0.5"/> and the <pause dur="0.2"/> the case study which we look at <pause dur="0.3"/> # there <pause dur="0.3"/> and we ask you to read about is a <trunc>v</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> # a <pause dur="0.4"/> brilliant essay actually <pause dur="0.2"/> a really wonderful # little essay <pause dur="0.4"/> # by Robert Darnton which is called The Great <trunc>ket</trunc> Cat Massacre <pause dur="0.5"/> where he starts from <pause dur="0.4"/> # this <pause dur="0.4"/> event which happens we happen to have a <trunc>r</trunc> record of it in # Paris in the about <pause dur="0.3"/> about

seventeen-thirties seventeen-forties <pause dur="0.6"/> where <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>apprenti</trunc> there's this whole story but basically the the centre of it that <pause dur="0.4"/> apprentices in this <trunc>wor</trunc> # sort of # workshop <pause dur="0.6"/> all <trunc>b</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> get together and they kill enormous amount amounts of cats <pause dur="0.2"/> and have an enormous bonfire of cats <pause dur="0.3"/> and they think this is probably the funniest thing that's ever happened in their lives that's what they say when they're talking about it <pause dur="0.8"/> so what Darnton says and this is an anthropological take if you like an angle he says well <pause dur="0.5"/> why <pause dur="0.3"/> what's the joke <pause dur="0.4"/> how you know we in the we find it rather difficult to i hope we do anyway to # <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>understand # <pause dur="0.4"/><shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> the joke <pause dur="0.3"/> in you know massacring poor little innocent pussies you know but <pause dur="1.0"/> what is going on here what does what <trunc>h</trunc> how can that be a door <pause dur="0.4"/> # sorry a <trunc>w</trunc> a key which will open a <pause dur="0.7"/> oh God i'm <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>getting my metaphors hopeless here oh dear <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> but basically how can we go from that to understand something about the way in which that society thinks <pause dur="0.6"/> and reacts <pause dur="0.3"/> to

itself to the natural world to ideas about <pause dur="0.2"/> what what <pause dur="0.3"/> are cats for <pause dur="0.5"/> # why why cats why not dogs why not rats for <trunc>hea</trunc> what what's so funny about <pause dur="0.3"/> cats <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> he's he's <pause dur="0.4"/> taking if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> something which is <pause dur="0.3"/> unfamiliar he's defamiliarizing the past but in a way <pause dur="0.2"/> which will help us to understand and to sympathize and empathize with it so i think it's a very good example <pause dur="0.4"/> of as i say a sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> the cultural turn or it's sometimes called <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the new type of cultural history which is evolving in the seventies # and eighties <pause dur="1.4"/> how many of you have heard of Darnton <pause dur="1.0"/> no one <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" iterated="n" n="ss"/> yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> a few four or five yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> how about the the next chap we're looking at Michel Foucault <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" iterated="n" n="ss"/> yeah so it's about # <trunc>t</trunc> twenty per cent what about Edward Said <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" iterated="n" n="ss"/> yeah a bit smaller maybe # mm less than ten per cent well these again are <pause dur="0.4"/> critical figures i would say of the eighties <pause dur="0.5"/> neither is a historian <pause dur="0.4"/> # Foucault is a philosopher by training but who does history <pause dur="0.5"/> Said is a literary <pause dur="0.2"/> # # <trunc>ek</trunc>

expert specialist <pause dur="0.3"/> who does history as well <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> basically what they are looking at and i think what makes them so influential and important # in the # <pause dur="0.3"/> way in which history has been <trunc>wr</trunc> <trunc>wr</trunc> written because they are both incredibly influential # in the eighties and into # the nineties <pause dur="0.4"/> is that they <pause dur="0.2"/> worry about <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> concern themselves about <pause dur="0.3"/> questions of power <pause dur="0.7"/> power <pause dur="0.5"/> power is at the sort of heart of both <pause dur="0.3"/> Foucault <pause dur="0.3"/> and Said's <pause dur="0.2"/> # work if we looked at for example some of the social history something like Thompson <pause dur="0.6"/> he's interested obviously in power but for him the crucial thing is what's going on out there in the world in you know the class struggle out in society <pause dur="0.5"/> # with <trunc>fouc</trunc> both Foucault and Said they're much more interested in how <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> power operates as a mechanism and is <pause dur="0.6"/> controlling of individuals how it sort of # <pause dur="0.5"/> # sets the agenda if you like for social activity and social # change <pause dur="0.7"/> what Foucault does and # you you'll all read and be rather well it's a rather

sickening course this actually come to think of it 'cause we've got a cat massacre <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and then the following week of course we do # <pause dur="0.4"/> following # seminar is on # <pause dur="0.5"/> # Foucault's Discipline and Punish and the opening chapter the introductory chapter there <pause dur="0.3"/> some of you may i've <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> talked about this to some of you i'm sure <pause dur="0.3"/> before is this incredible scenario where he <trunc>s</trunc> talks about the <pause dur="0.7"/> way in which <pause dur="0.2"/> Damiens who's a would-be assassin who tried to assassinate Louis the Fifteenth in seventeen-fifty-seven <pause dur="0.4"/> how he's actually <pause dur="0.4"/> executed <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's you know sort of hanging and drawing and then they <pause dur="0.2"/> chop bits off and then they attach horses <pause dur="0.4"/> to each of the <pause dur="0.2"/> limbs and they sort of whip the horses so he'll sort of be <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> spread all over the place and then the <pause dur="0.4"/> his limbs won't come out so the axe man has to go with a it's utterly revolting <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> and then in the same chapter he switches to the <pause dur="0.7"/> regime of

imprisonment which he says comes in particularly with the French Revolution but which is one <pause dur="0.2"/> which he says is new <pause dur="0.2"/> where basically <pause dur="0.7"/> he describes <pause dur="0.4"/> prisoners' life in a <pause dur="0.2"/> in a in a jail <pause dur="0.5"/> from the seventeen-nineties <pause dur="0.4"/> this sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> bureaucratic neutral <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>colourf</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> colourless <pause dur="0.9"/> utterly dehumanizing sort of regime <pause dur="0.3"/> # which exists # then and it's <pause dur="0.2"/> round those two moments <pause dur="0.5"/> that # <pause dur="0.3"/> Foucault so seventeen-fifty-seven horrible sort of <pause dur="0.6"/> violence # as <trunc>ax</trunc> you know as punishment <pause dur="0.2"/> as opposed to <pause dur="0.2"/> not violence just <pause dur="0.6"/> loss of liberty and this sort of control of the individual <pause dur="1.2"/> around those two moments that <pause dur="0.3"/> Foucault constructs the story of power and how power changes and how power operates <pause dur="0.3"/> differentially between the two periods <pause dur="0.3"/> in a way <pause dur="0.2"/> after reading the prison you think <pause dur="0.7"/> God those days of Damiens that must have been the good old days you know it was great in those days sort of nostalgic for this type of thing <pause dur="0.2"/> it is a very very interesting very chilling <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of # discussion

you don't have to go along with all the arguments <pause dur="0.3"/> # but this concentration on power i think is enormously important <pause dur="0.4"/> with Said <pause dur="0.5"/> # the emphasis i think would be on <pause dur="0.4"/> and this is one of the reasons we're particularly interested in it not just the way in which power operates <pause dur="0.3"/> within <pause dur="0.5"/> within the sort of # advanced <trunc>p</trunc> political systems of the West but within # # an imperial context <pause dur="0.4"/> Said's book Orientalism is about the way in which power <pause dur="0.2"/> and discourses of <pause dur="0.5"/> # languages about <pause dur="0.3"/> # about what the Orient is can be very determining and very sort of powerful <pause dur="0.3"/> # in restricting # political and social and whatever options i'm sorry i'm rushing through that a bit but don't worry <pause dur="2.0"/> the next seminar we look at another angle which i think has been enormously influential in the last # <trunc>f</trunc> couple of decades and that is women's history and the history of gender again this won't be new to you i'm sure you've all done it in some of your courses <pause dur="0.6"/> is the name Joan Scott who's the person we <pause dur="0.4"/>

# looking at particularly is is she <trunc>n</trunc> is her name known to you <pause dur="1.0"/> no <pause dur="0.3"/> that's okay <pause dur="0.2"/> God you we've got a lot of stuff to cover # i can see that's that's good so it'll all be new it'll be exciting <pause dur="0.3"/> and innovatory for you all <pause dur="0.4"/> # </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0080" trans="pause"> history <pause dur="0.2"/> the argument goes <unclear>circa</unclear> nineteen-seventy <pause dur="0.4"/> has been about men <pause dur="0.5"/> women are hidden from history <pause dur="0.3"/> how can that be <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> is this because of the historical profession nearly all of them are men <pause dur="0.5"/> # or is it because <pause dur="0.2"/> it's more difficult to do the history of women which actually it is <pause dur="0.4"/> # or is it <trunc>bec</trunc> is there a political agenda <pause dur="0.2"/> going on there and one <trunc>o</trunc> and # and <pause dur="0.2"/> one it was a very <trunc>i</trunc> political act i would say <pause dur="0.3"/> of early feminist historians <pause dur="0.3"/> # to really sort of force the history of women into the <pause dur="0.4"/> into <trunc>u</trunc> <trunc>u</trunc> under the spotlight of the historical profession # # # <pause dur="0.3"/> as a whole and that was actually <trunc>r</trunc> there was a lot of resistance to that <pause dur="0.3"/> # but generally i would say that's more or less # <pause dur="0.2"/> # happened now but <pause dur="0.8"/> what it means how you can write a history of women <pause dur="0.6"/> or do

you just <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of like do a history of men do a history of women surely <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is the important sort of shift that we'll be looking at as well <pause dur="0.4"/> surely what we should be doing is not just doing the history of men and then the history of women <pause dur="0.3"/> but surely we should be doing the history of gender <pause dur="0.6"/> in other words we need a more processual or relational <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of # history which takes into account not just <pause dur="0.3"/> the experiences of one segment of <trunc>hist</trunc> # of # humanity whether masculine or feminine <pause dur="0.4"/> but which # actually is concerned with <pause dur="0.3"/> and focuses on the relationships and the way in which that is # # constructed so that again <pause dur="0.4"/> this question of women and gender <pause dur="1.8"/> in the final <pause dur="0.2"/> # thing we'll be looking at post-modernism <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> i haven't gone on about this much <pause dur="0.2"/> # today <pause dur="0.4"/> # but you'll see if you read # Richard Evans' if you get # involved in Richard Evans' book on In Defence of History <pause dur="0.8"/> post-modernism is not just # <pause dur="0.6"/> a <pause dur="0.4"/> species of # architecture or # cultural life or popular

culture or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> it's also having a an impact on the way in which history is # <pause dur="0.4"/> # # written <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>a</trunc> and what and debates on what the role of <pause dur="0.4"/> theory <pause dur="0.3"/> and # <pause dur="1.1"/> # ideas is <pause dur="0.3"/> # on the on the practice of # <pause dur="0.3"/> of history <pause dur="0.4"/> i would say if you're interested in this # <pause dur="0.5"/> # to start with # if you want to <pause dur="0.8"/> sort of get a flavour of what the post-modern <trunc>d</trunc> most post-modernist debate on history is <pause dur="0.4"/> you could do worse than look at some of the writings of Keith Jenkin which again we've recommended # # on the book list and which i think you'll find <pause dur="0.4"/> # very helpful 'cause in some ways he is the most vocal <pause dur="0.3"/> of those who say <pause dur="0.3"/> the type of history which we've been doing <trunc>s</trunc> so far it's not just that it's been <pause dur="0.5"/> you know all about men and not women or <trunc>j</trunc> all about the upper class rather than the lower class or all about Europe rather than the rest of the world <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> it is that the very that the historian has sort of set himself up or sometimes herself up <pause dur="0.3"/> as someone who's somehow distant <pause dur="0.4"/> above over and above the

historical <pause dur="0.2"/> facts whatever those are <pause dur="0.3"/> which are <pause dur="0.3"/> actually below them which they can assemble and accumulate and form their theories <pause dur="0.3"/> what they are arguing is that that is a ridiculous description of what actually is going on that in fact the historian <pause dur="0.4"/> brings into the practice of history their own values their own ideas <pause dur="0.2"/> and these are sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> bouncing around in those of the <pause dur="0.2"/> # period in which they're <pause dur="0.2"/> # they're living in other words there is a politics in history <pause dur="0.2"/> however much historians may think <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> they're wanting to be neutral and value free and objective and all the rest of it there is a politics <pause dur="0.3"/> floating around which we have to grasp because if we don't grasp we'll be <pause dur="0.2"/> easily fooled <pause dur="0.3"/> # by it and i think that's a very interesting sort of debate that's going on <pause dur="0.4"/> in history <pause dur="0.4"/> as historians in the late nineteen-nineties the turn of the <trunc>ce</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> of the <trunc>ce</trunc> of the millennium <pause dur="0.4"/> i would say we are living in interesting times <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the debate is very interestingly

poised on what historical knowledge is <pause dur="0.3"/> # and the <pause dur="0.3"/> the role of # <pause dur="0.4"/> after a a a number of decades in which there's been a questioning of historical method but generally a broad consensus <pause dur="0.2"/> about the way in which the practice of history works <pause dur="0.4"/> there is a sort of whole <pause dur="0.2"/> angle a whole raft of arguments coming in from the post-modernist camp <pause dur="0.4"/> which are putting a very big question mark <pause dur="0.3"/> against the nature <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> of historical <pause dur="0.2"/> knowledge and indeed the whole character <pause dur="0.3"/> of the historical enterprise and that's something <pause dur="0.4"/> which as i say you can plunge into straight away if you choose but <pause dur="0.3"/> you <trunc>wi</trunc> we will be back on that terrain <pause dur="0.3"/> at some stage <pause dur="0.2"/> # over the # <pause dur="0.2"/> # over the course <pause dur="0.5"/> so i get that <trunc>s</trunc> look of sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> sublime bafflement which i'm very familiar <trunc>w</trunc> <trunc>o</trunc> on this course with # # # at the start <pause dur="0.3"/> but it will <pause dur="0.2"/> recede i will see <pause dur="0.3"/> # other glances as times goes on <pause dur="0.3"/> if you got any questions # individually just pop down the front and <trunc>m</trunc> make sure <pause dur="0.2"/> please you leave at the back on the back desk there <pause dur="0.4"/> # your timetables <pause dur="0.3"/> thanks very much