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<title>Weber and the 'Protestant Ethic'</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

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(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

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passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

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Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:52:42" n="6789">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>

<language id="de">German</language>

<language id="la">Latin</language>



<person id="nf0090" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="f"><p>nf0090, main speaker, non-student, female</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

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<personGrp role="speakers" size="3"><p>number of speakers: 3</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">History</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG3</item>

<item n="module">Historiography</item>




<u who="nf0090"><kinesic desc="overhead projector is on showing transparency" iterated="n"/> okay i think we'd better get started <pause dur="1.0"/> i'm <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> and i'm just giving a lecture # <pause dur="0.4"/> today on <pause dur="0.2"/> Max Weber <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.7"/> The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism which is the text <pause dur="0.2"/> # for <pause dur="0.6"/> this seminar <pause dur="0.3"/> and i do just # for the <trunc>semin</trunc> the seminar that goes with with this lecture <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> i do just want to stress it is absolutely vital that you read this text <pause dur="0.7"/> if you read nothing else for this <pause dur="0.4"/> read this text <pause dur="0.5"/> a lot of the <pause dur="0.8"/> essays the additional reading that you have that you will find <pause dur="0.4"/> on Max Weber <pause dur="1.5"/> a lot of it is pretty impenetrable <pause dur="0.5"/> some of it is clear <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> the clearest thing you can read and the most # <pause dur="0.3"/> wonderful text you can read is just what he wrote himself <pause dur="0.3"/> on this so <pause dur="0.3"/> get the text <pause dur="0.5"/> and read it <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it's not that expensive if you can't get it from the library it's something you should <pause dur="0.3"/> have # in your your own library <pause dur="0.4"/> for <pause dur="0.5"/> time to come <pause dur="0.2"/> it is a great # # # # a great # text <pause dur="1.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> well <pause dur="0.2"/> i want to start off first of all by saying a little bit about the life of of Max Weber who was he who wrote <pause dur="0.5"/> The

Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism <pause dur="0.9"/> well Frank Parkin in his # <pause dur="0.3"/> little <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> survey for sociologists which is quite readable this is this with Giddens is # <pause dur="0.6"/> is a <pause dur="0.2"/> a fairly good summary if you <pause dur="0.7"/> # haven't read anything on on Weber before <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> he provides us with a <pause dur="0.4"/> very brief <pause dur="0.2"/> very brief and pretty irreverent portrait of Max Weber as a bourgeois scholar <pause dur="0.4"/> of <trunc>wilhemi</trunc> Wilhemine Germany <pause dur="0.6"/> with a Victorian <distinct lang="la">pater familias</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> # and <vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/> man who had lots of Oedipus complexes <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> he had melancholia and frustrated political ambitions <pause dur="0.6"/> and along the way <pause dur="0.8"/> we see out of this coming <trunc>enorm</trunc> vast enormous productive energies in # studies on the law religious systems political economy and authority systems <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> i want to fill out a little bit about this life # before discussing the text <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> and this tour de force The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism <pause dur="1.5"/> Weber was born in eighteen-sixty-four <pause dur="0.6"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> Erfurt <pause dur="0.2"/> a Hanseatic town <pause dur="0.5"/> this is quite important in his formation <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> one of the towns # in the the

<trunc>hansea</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>g</trunc> # in the Hanseatic League <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> one of the merchant towns a classic <trunc>m</trunc> early modern # <trunc>th</trunc> merchant towns of # <pause dur="0.5"/> # of Germany <pause dur="0.5"/> his father was a jurist and municipal councillor <pause dur="0.4"/> and he came from a family of linen merchants and textile manufacturers <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> we can see a lot of this text <pause dur="0.5"/> the what he's writing in this text <pause dur="0.3"/> being written <pause dur="0.4"/> in that context in response <pause dur="0.4"/> to # <pause dur="0.2"/> his own family background <pause dur="0.4"/> amongst # <pause dur="0.2"/> # his community background and his family background amongst this # these merchants <pause dur="0.9"/> he moved to Berlin <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.5"/> # his father that is the family <trunc>mo</trunc> moved to Berlin <pause dur="0.5"/> # which was soon to become <pause dur="0.2"/> the booming capital of Bismarck's Reich <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> # Weber's father was to become a <trunc>pro</trunc> prosperous politician <pause dur="0.6"/> he was a right wing liberal who used his home as a talking shop for local academics for businessmen <pause dur="0.4"/> artists and various other political bigwigs <pause dur="0.7"/> now in Parkin's # <pause dur="0.3"/> words <pause dur="0.3"/> Weber would have listened from an early <trunc>l</trunc> age to a lot of high-minded chatter and less than enlightened politics <pause dur="1.0"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> he also had a

mother <pause dur="0.3"/> not just a father we have to look at the role of mothers in # the formation of our intellectuals as well as <pause dur="0.4"/> the <trunc>f</trunc> the fathers <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and she was a cultured and liberal Protestant <pause dur="0.5"/> but a woman who had become an overburdened <pause dur="0.2"/> hausfrau <pause dur="0.9"/> she was religious and felt a vocation to charity and good works <pause dur="0.5"/> but these things were of no interest to her husband <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> certainly parental relations in the family home # were estranged <pause dur="0.4"/> it was clear that Weber senior was a martinet to his children and <pause dur="0.3"/> very # overbearing and autocratic # in his behaviour to his wife <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> what happens # with with Weber is that from his school days he drew away from the the piety of his mother and the philistinism of his father <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> decided that academic pursuits were going to be his his way in life and he went off to university in Heidelberg <pause dur="0.4"/> there he certainly played the # the role of the the student prince <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> engaging in all kinds of # fun and games as well as a a bit of work <pause dur="0.6"/> # but <pause dur="0.2"/> he later continued his

studies in Strasburg and Göttingen <pause dur="0.5"/> where he studied law <pause dur="1.0"/> he went he did his period of of military service <pause dur="1.0"/> and after his studies went on to take up <pause dur="0.2"/> service in the law courts in Berlin <pause dur="0.4"/> # where he worked on a PhD thesis # <pause dur="0.2"/> the first thesis he did his PhD <trunc>sis</trunc> thesis <pause dur="1.0"/> went back <pause dur="0.4"/> to his own origins he worked on the trading companies during the Middle Ages <pause dur="0.9"/> and # <pause dur="0.7"/> in eighteen-ninety he passed a second law exam <pause dur="0.3"/> and he did what the # followed the the common German practice which continues to this day <pause dur="0.3"/> of doing a second thesis <pause dur="0.5"/> the habilitatation <trunc>h</trunc> <distinct lang="de">habilitation</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> and with a treatise on the history of agrarian institutions <pause dur="0.7"/> and this was a sociology an economic and cultural analysis of ancient societies <pause dur="1.0"/> now finally this is a long period of study that he that he went through <pause dur="0.4"/> he then married # the grand niece of his father <pause dur="0.5"/> Marianne Schnitger <pause dur="0.5"/> and lived the life of a successful young scholar in <pause dur="0.2"/> Berlin where he became a professor <pause dur="0.5"/> of # economics # <pause dur="0.3"/> he # <pause dur="0.4"/> he was in Berlin as a as a as a young

scholar <pause dur="0.3"/> and then he went on to become a professor of of economics at Freiburg <pause dur="0.5"/> in eighteen-ninety-<pause dur="0.2"/>four <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # what we what he did in <trunc>frei</trunc> he had a huge workload in Freiburg and just seemed absolutely obsessed with work <pause dur="0.5"/> this # certainly became a very important <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>characteristic <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>of his life <pause dur="0.6"/> # he went on to take a chair at Heidelberg in eighteen-ninety-<pause dur="0.2"/>six <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> but <pause dur="0.7"/> in eighteen-ninety-seven <pause dur="0.7"/> he # and he'd oh as <pause dur="0.3"/> i'll just sort of say a little bit <pause dur="0.3"/> he # <pause dur="0.2"/> he when he the chair that he took in in Heidelberg replaced one of the <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # a <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> a man named Kniess who was one of the heads of the German Historical School <pause dur="0.3"/> so he was very much part of that # <pause dur="0.5"/> that # general historiographical tradition of the time the German Historical School a lot of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> # a lot of # <pause dur="0.4"/> people at the time writing histories with a great # <pause dur="0.2"/> economic and sociological sort of content to them <pause dur="0.6"/> and # <pause dur="0.9"/> but he has what happens then in eighteen-ninety-seven <pause dur="0.3"/> he has a crisis his father died <pause dur="0.6"/> # this is was the the onset of his his crisis his father died <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and he <trunc>d</trunc> just before his

father's death he'd had a huge <pause dur="0.4"/> quarrel with him a huge fight with him <pause dur="0.5"/> over # the way he was his # Weber's mother was being treated by his father <pause dur="0.7"/> and # <pause dur="1.3"/> he didn't see <trunc>ge</trunc> get to see his father <pause dur="0.3"/> before he died he'd had this big <trunc>f</trunc> big fight with him so felt terrible guilt and remorse after this <pause dur="0.7"/> and had a nervous breakdown <pause dur="2.0"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> and he suffered for the rest of his life from <pause dur="0.5"/> severe depression <pause dur="0.5"/> interspersed by <pause dur="0.2"/> manic work <pause dur="0.2"/> and periods of travel <pause dur="0.6"/> so that really was sort of marked his life from from that time onward we see <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> this # <pause dur="1.7"/> this this <vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.6"/> conflict with the father <pause dur="0.5"/> and then this period of <trunc>s</trunc> of # a nervous breakdown after after his father's death and # <pause dur="0.5"/> it affecting him for the rest of his life <pause dur="1.0"/> well in nineteen-o-two he returned to some duties he did some teaching <trunc>ad</trunc> and administration <pause dur="0.4"/> but he was mainly doing a lot of travelling <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> after this time <pause dur="0.4"/> and # he travelled <trunc>i</trunc> during this time and he travelled # through to Italy <pause dur="0.7"/> he hoped he would recuperate in Italy but he couldn't concentrate <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.6"/> he did

start to do some writing and in nineteen-o-four <pause dur="0.5"/> wrote <pause dur="0.3"/> the first chapter of The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.7"/> so he writes that that first chapter then <pause dur="0.3"/> but immediately after that <pause dur="0.3"/> he set off to the U-S <pause dur="0.8"/> and it was his <pause dur="0.2"/> it was you know this was # a really a big event for him <pause dur="0.2"/> it was his trip to his first trip to America <pause dur="0.7"/> and he went with # other leading figures German figures of the time <pause dur="0.4"/> Werner Sombart <pause dur="0.4"/> and # and Troeltsch <pause dur="0.6"/> but particularly Sombart who was someone i'll <pause dur="0.2"/> we we'll be mentioning him <trunc>la</trunc> after <pause dur="0.4"/> who that he he came to debate The Protestant Ethic # with <pause dur="0.6"/> now he was enthralled by # the United States by <pause dur="0.3"/> the pace of life in the big cities <pause dur="0.5"/> # he was bemused by the democratic customs of the natives there <pause dur="0.4"/> but found in in it absolutely exhilarating experience # <pause dur="0.6"/> # seeing it <pause dur="0.2"/> and he came to write about it quite a lot in the The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.6"/> he he wanted to enter sympathetically into the New World <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but wanted to retain his capacity for an informed judgement on the directions it was taking <pause dur="1.9"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> he was <pause dur="0.9"/> absolutely #

fascinated by the characteristics of American capitalism <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> impressed by the extent of the waste of human life in # this frenetic activity of money making # <pause dur="0.3"/> in in the U-S <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> in New York decided he would look for material that he could <pause dur="0.4"/> use to develop this the chapter that he'd started before he'd left <pause dur="0.4"/> and it started the The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.2"/> so that experience in America was also extreme was absolutely fundamental <pause dur="0.4"/> to what he came <pause dur="0.3"/> to write <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> after he returned to German # Germany he finished <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> finished the text <pause dur="1.1"/> then the Russian # the first <trunc>ru</trunc> Russian revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> was something that was <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> redirected his attention and his scholarly interest <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> this man of enormous # energies he <pause dur="0.4"/> he was also you know working flat out # <pause dur="0.3"/> well he had these these periods when he sort of went in for this sort of manic work <pause dur="0.3"/> and he <pause dur="0.5"/> managed to learn Russian in bed before getting up each morning <pause dur="0.2"/> imagine it <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # so that he could follow the Russian daily press and he wrote a piece on the nineteen-o-five revolution <pause dur="0.8"/>

so he's very much one of these # what we find # <pause dur="0.4"/> with # with <trunc>ver</trunc> Weber he's very much one of this generation of universal scholars <pause dur="0.3"/> that we find # in this period <pause dur="0.4"/> a lawyer <pause dur="0.2"/> an economist <pause dur="0.2"/> a historian a philosopher he ranged across these fields <pause dur="0.5"/> he was also well acquainted with the <pause dur="0.4"/> the <trunc>thi</trunc> the <trunc>liter</trunc> all the lot of literature on the theology of his day <pause dur="0.6"/> # he did an enormous quantity of work <pause dur="0.8"/> and # <pause dur="1.0"/> i have to say it was a rather different kind of setting than # we find in universities today <pause dur="0.5"/> there was a lot of research time <pause dur="0.4"/> available <pause dur="0.2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>to <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> then <pause dur="0.4"/> and there was no # pressure for rapid publication <pause dur="0.4"/> so he was <trunc>d</trunc> # ranging across these fields doing a huge amount of research and # learning a <pause dur="0.3"/> a huge amount over many fields <pause dur="0.4"/> but # in a rather different setting than # than we face in in in universities now <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> but this was something that certainly allowed him to range widely over the humanities <pause dur="0.8"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> we find him being transformed # <pause dur="0.3"/> the the whole world of the of the the German scholar the German # <pause dur="0.5"/> # the <pause dur="0.2"/> the German professor over that period

was being transformed from <pause dur="0.5"/> # a petty bourgeois <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of character harried by money into an upper class academician <pause dur="0.4"/> with a large house and the facilities to establish an international salon culture <pause dur="0.5"/> so he's moved certainly moved into that that world by this time <pause dur="1.0"/> he was also # Weber was also one of the # the last of the political <pause dur="0.2"/> professors <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> he made <pause dur="0.9"/> contributions # <pause dur="1.0"/> # detached contributions to science and # and <trunc>a</trunc> also acted as a as a political <trunc>f</trunc> figure in the intellectual vanguard of the middle classes <pause dur="0.5"/> # at the time <pause dur="0.4"/> but he was much less successful than he would like to have been he was a sort of <pause dur="1.0"/> he he tried to have a political career <pause dur="0.3"/> almost did it <pause dur="0.2"/> but didn't <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> he # at the age of fifty-four <pause dur="0.3"/> he allowed his name to go forward as a candidate for the German Democratic Party <pause dur="0.2"/> but didn't bother to canvass thought that <pause dur="0.5"/> people should just know who he was and # <pause dur="0.3"/> and and vote for him <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> he thought he expected he would be he would be adopted as the party candidate but was passed over for a local non-entity and he was very

deeply hurt <pause dur="0.2"/> by this <pause dur="0.3"/> so at the end of the day <pause dur="0.3"/> this was a man who was better about writing about the mechanics of power <pause dur="0.4"/> than dealing in its practicalities <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.7"/> so # <pause dur="0.2"/> he he <trunc>w</trunc> <trunc>de</trunc> was very disappointed and he actually he ended up dying shortly after this at the age of fifty-six <pause dur="0.5"/> but gosh he was just fifty-six and the <pause dur="0.5"/> volume of the his his scholarly output by this time was absolutely amazing <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but this <trunc>inde</trunc> and indeed <kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> this was one of the shortest # <pause dur="0.6"/> tracts that he he he ever wrote <pause dur="0.3"/> it was a short and inspired piece of writing <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> it represented Weber's early turning to broader cultural themes and one of <pause dur="0.5"/> # it was very much one of the early pieces he wrote after <pause dur="0.3"/> his breakdown <pause dur="3.2"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> as i said before it was written in two parts over the period nineteen-o-four to five # <pause dur="0.2"/> interspersed by <kinesic desc="indicates point on transparency" iterated="n"/> this <trunc>t</trunc> # trip to America <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="3.0"/> now <pause dur="0.9"/> just to say # something on the context <pause dur="0.3"/> in which it was written <pause dur="0.5"/> i just want to # to set that out first of all <pause dur="0.4"/> Weber's often <pause dur="0.2"/> thought about as a theorist who championed <pause dur="0.7"/> the cause of the independent role of <pause dur="0.2"/> #

ideas and social life but he also had strong <trunc>materias</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> materialist leanings <pause dur="0.4"/> so we can sort of # debate that that issue <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> there's a lot of misunderstandings of The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> really taken from <pause dur="0.2"/> Baudelairizing <pause dur="0.2"/> the thesis creating a kind of Baudelairized thesis that Calvinism was the principal cause of capitalism <pause dur="0.7"/> of ideas leading # to the to the economic system <pause dur="0.4"/> # but this is not # <pause dur="0.4"/> this is not <pause dur="0.3"/> how we should characterize # the argument in this text <pause dur="0.4"/> first of all <pause dur="0.3"/> we have to see <pause dur="0.3"/> that there was a very important <pause dur="0.3"/> social and political context for this essay <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> i <trunc>d</trunc> i want to to to come to <pause dur="0.4"/> the characteristics of of of that context <pause dur="0.4"/> it was written in the context of a contemporary debate <pause dur="0.3"/> in Germany <pause dur="0.2"/> on the differences between <pause dur="0.5"/> Protestants and Catholics <pause dur="1.2"/> and the impact of this <pause dur="0.3"/> on <pause dur="0.4"/> social structure <pause dur="0.3"/> and social status <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the broader background to that <pause dur="0.5"/> goes <pause dur="0.4"/> back to the context of the Kulturkampf <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> Prussia <pause dur="0.4"/> that period which Bismarck had launched of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # discrimination against the Catholics <pause dur="1.9"/> so

this turns of course a lot of the the civil service the # the state sort of denies this <pause dur="0.3"/> but what it turns into is an academic <pause dur="0.3"/> # aspects of it turning into an academic debate <pause dur="0.3"/> on the positions of Catholics <pause dur="0.3"/> # in the society <pause dur="0.6"/> and and the the # the the Catholic # Protestant <pause dur="0.3"/> division <pause dur="0.6"/> the other # <pause dur="0.5"/> # context i want to draw attention to <pause dur="0.4"/> # in this is the whole approach that that Weber took <pause dur="0.4"/> in writing # writing this this essay <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a very simple <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> simple # <trunc>si</trunc> simple approach a sort of simple # formulation <pause dur="0.3"/> of the question # <pause dur="1.3"/> he combined what he managed to do was to combine a sensitivity to <pause dur="0.4"/> diverse structural meanings # <pause dur="0.3"/> in this <pause dur="0.3"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> an <trunc>insi</trunc> an insistence on <pause dur="0.3"/> an <trunc>abs</trunc> a fundamental causal role <pause dur="0.6"/> for # <pause dur="0.4"/> material factors in influencing the course of history <pause dur="1.6"/> he drew on elements of Marx but he was not <pause dur="0.2"/> definitely not a a Marxist never accepted # Marxism <pause dur="0.3"/> rejected its politics <pause dur="0.2"/> but he certainly did draw on elements of Marx <pause dur="0.9"/> the essay was also as i <pause dur="0.3"/> i <pause dur="0.2"/> it it presents a sort of fairly simple formulation because it was highly focused <pause dur="0.3"/> he wanted to make a very

clear and focused <pause dur="0.3"/> explanation of what he was putting <pause dur="0.3"/> forward <pause dur="0.3"/> he rejected <pause dur="0.4"/> # a multidimensional analysis of the whole problem <trunc>betw</trunc> of religion and society <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> focused on the economic sector <pause dur="0.5"/> was the <trunc>eco</trunc> he <trunc>w</trunc> he focused right down <pause dur="0.2"/> into the the economic sector <pause dur="0.3"/> and the rise of what he called a rational capitalism <pause dur="2.2"/> so he was <pause dur="0.7"/> interested in two things a rational capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> its religious preconditions <pause dur="0.5"/> now the other interesting thing about <pause dur="0.3"/> the religious preconditions that he looks at <pause dur="0.3"/> he doesn't look at all religious preconditions <pause dur="0.4"/> by any means <pause dur="0.9"/> he <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>foc</trunc> he doesn't even look at Germans and Lutherans <pause dur="0.3"/> instead he focuses in <pause dur="0.4"/> on <pause dur="0.5"/> Anglo-Saxons <pause dur="0.5"/> he talks about Americans a lot here as well <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the Calvinist world <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> he centres his argument on on those aspects <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> he was looking <pause dur="0.3"/> to find <pause dur="0.4"/> in this <pause dur="0.3"/> much more focused # approach <pause dur="0.8"/> to to find the guiding principles of conduct <pause dur="0.5"/> and the value system governing patterns of behaviour <pause dur="0.8"/> that's really what he's trying to do <pause dur="0.3"/> now let's turn to his

argument <pause dur="0.5"/> which you will find by reading the text <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> very clearly set out <pause dur="0.4"/> first of all he tells us he wants to tell us about capitalism <pause dur="0.5"/> and you'll find on your handout <pause dur="0.7"/> my spelling isn't very good so you'd better correct # <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> perhaps some kind of <pause dur="0.8"/> slip there <pause dur="0.2"/> but # <pause dur="0.5"/> not mens but means <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> now if we turn to his argument he he tells us first what he # <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> what he <pause dur="0.2"/> he wants to single out in his definitions of capitalism <pause dur="0.8"/> what The Protestant Ethic starts with # The Protestant Ethic starts with is a very fairly broad and <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>e</trunc> very contestable if you read these you will find these very contestable but # <pause dur="0.5"/> # contrasts he wants to set out contrasts <pause dur="0.3"/> between the development of the West and the East <pause dur="1.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> we get <pause dur="1.1"/> the West the the East and the West # set out <pause dur="0.3"/> as different systems <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> he looks at rational systems in the West he sees <trunc>s</trunc> argues there are more rational systems developed in the West <pause dur="0.5"/> # in music in architecture in perspective <pause dur="0.6"/> # that there's trained officials of the state <pause dur="0.4"/> that the state # <pause dur="0.7"/> # itself has sort of a rational structure with a written constitutional constitution <pause dur="0.6"/>

rationally ordained law and an administration bound to rules or laws <pause dur="0.7"/> capitalism was not then identified <pause dur="0.2"/> with greed <pause dur="0.2"/> for gain <pause dur="0.9"/> but identified with the pursuit of profit <pause dur="1.6"/> an ever renewed profit <pause dur="0.3"/> by means of continuous <pause dur="0.4"/> rational <pause dur="0.3"/> capitalistic enterprise <pause dur="1.0"/> so that's what he he sees as as the central # the central point <pause dur="0.3"/> in in capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> it was that pursuit of profit <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> and ever renewed profit <pause dur="0.5"/> and that pursued by rational capitalistic enterprise <pause dur="1.9"/> now he argues certainly <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>ca</trunc> # calculation was carried on in India <pause dur="0.8"/> where the decimal system was invented <pause dur="1.1"/> but <pause dur="0.7"/> that decimal system was only really made use of by developing capitalism in the West he argues <pause dur="0.4"/> # in India it led to no <pause dur="0.3"/> modern bookkeeping <pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and he cites other examples like China <pause dur="0.6"/> where we see <pause dur="0.2"/> origins of # mathematics and mechanics <trunc>t</trunc> # <pause dur="0.9"/> but # <pause dur="1.6"/> the <pause dur="0.5"/> again the technical utilization of this knowledge # <pause dur="0.3"/> was not taken up <pause dur="0.2"/> in the way that it was in in the West <pause dur="0.8"/> so we have that East-West comparison set out <trunc>a</trunc> at the beginning <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="2.4"/> so <pause dur="0.8"/> #

finally <pause dur="0.2"/> just to to recap <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> capitalist action <pause dur="0.4"/> as we see in the West involved regular pursuit of profit <pause dur="0.2"/> through economic exchange <pause dur="2.7"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> Weber also goes into different types of capitalism <pause dur="1.2"/> okay he's got # <pause dur="1.1"/> the the the different types of capitalism <pause dur="0.4"/> he he <pause dur="0.3"/> enquires into <pause dur="1.1"/> these were set out as <pause dur="0.2"/> booty capitalism <pause dur="0.2"/> that is the robber barons <pause dur="1.9"/> pariah capitalism <pause dur="1.5"/> now this is a kind of commercial activity <pause dur="0.6"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> he identified with forms of money lending <pause dur="0.5"/> and again <pause dur="0.5"/> sets this discusses this in terms of Jewish enterprise <pause dur="0.6"/> now this led to a lot of debate over the the text later on <pause dur="0.3"/> # especially the # debate that he has with Sombart <pause dur="0.4"/> who takes this further and argues that # <pause dur="0.5"/> we can see sort of origins of capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> being tied up with <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the # enterprise of the Jews <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> but <pause dur="1.2"/> i think it's a very interesting # area i won't be able to go into it in any depth today but it's something that # you may want to pursue in your seminars and # <pause dur="0.3"/> and your essays <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> that was an a a <trunc>fair</trunc> a central part of the some of the critique of

the work the # what he had to say about this <pause dur="0.3"/> area <pause dur="0.3"/> he identified as # <pause dur="0.3"/> i'll put it down here <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on transparency" iterated="y" dur="7"/> pariah capitalism <pause dur="6.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.5"/> # partly Weber didn't think that this kind of capitalism was central to the whole process <pause dur="0.4"/> because of the # <pause dur="0.8"/> partly because the Jews were excluded from the core of economic life <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> this was a capitalism that opered operated on the fringes of of # the society <pause dur="0.8"/> so # <pause dur="0.3"/> he doesn't # he doesn't pursue that # <pause dur="0.2"/> as as he might have <pause dur="0.9"/> now he also # set out traditional capitalism <pause dur="2.0"/> that's large scale <pause dur="0.2"/> lending # large scale undertakings in all civilizations <pause dur="0.2"/> which were set up for specific ends <pause dur="2.2"/> and then finally rational capitalism <pause dur="0.9"/> economic activity <pause dur="0.3"/> geared to a regular market <pause dur="0.2"/> the use of bookkeeping <pause dur="0.3"/> systematic pursuit of profit <pause dur="0.6"/> this is the kind of capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> that he's specifically interested in <pause dur="0.4"/> and only in the West do we see <pause dur="0.2"/> he argues this kind of capitalistic activity <pause dur="0.3"/> becoming associated with the rational organization of formally free labour a disciplined

labour force </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nf0090" trans="pause"> another <pause dur="0.5"/> # <vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.3"/> he he <trunc>s</trunc> he goes into this in a little more detail on the <pause dur="0.3"/> the different types of socio-economic <trunc>pac</trunc> factors <trunc>distin</trunc> distinguishing the European experience from India and China <pause dur="0.3"/> so we get # more detail then <pause dur="0.3"/> provided on India and China <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> what <pause dur="0.2"/> he sees coming out in the West is in contrast to his perception of the East <pause dur="0.4"/> is a separation of productive enterprise from the household <pause dur="0.4"/> in in the West <pause dur="0.7"/> the development of the western city <pause dur="0.7"/> another characteristic <pause dur="0.9"/> and # <pause dur="0.6"/> a rational <pause dur="0.3"/> practice of juridical # well # the the rationalization of juridical practice <pause dur="4.2"/> the development of a nation state <pause dur="0.2"/> administered by bureaucratic officials and finally double entry bookkeeping <pause dur="0.4"/> double entry bookkeeping always plays a big # <pause dur="0.4"/> big part in these conceptions of of the West <pause dur="1.9"/> okay <pause dur="2.9"/> and so out of this <pause dur="0.2"/> we get # <pause dur="0.6"/> a characterization of what becomes an ideal type <pause dur="1.0"/> this was a <pause dur="0.4"/> very <pause dur="0.8"/> important for Weber <pause dur="1.0"/> the definition of these various ideal types <pause dur="1.4"/> so this kind of rational capitalism that he's

described with all these various # characteristics i've set out <pause dur="0.4"/> # this became his ideal type <pause dur="0.6"/> and it was also associated with a specific character <pause dur="0.9"/> the culture <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> the entrepreneur <pause dur="4.0"/> now where does he find this culture of the entrepreneur <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> now the examples he draws our attention to <pause dur="0.3"/> are American examples he takes us <pause dur="0.5"/> back <pause dur="0.3"/> to # <pause dur="0.4"/> Ben Franklin <pause dur="0.4"/> and the philosophy of American capitalism <pause dur="0.9"/> all of these these aphorisms that are so famous # <pause dur="0.3"/> in Ben Franklin <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>remember <pause dur="0.3"/> time is money <pause dur="0.2"/> he that can earn ten shillings a day by his labour and goes abroad or sits idle one half that day <pause dur="0.5"/> though he spends but sixpence during his diversion or idleness ought not to reckon <pause dur="0.4"/> that the only expense <pause dur="0.3"/> he has really spent or rather thrown away five shillings besides <pause dur="0.8"/> remember credit is money <pause dur="0.2"/> if a man lets his money lie in my hands after it is due <pause dur="0.3"/> he gives me the interest <pause dur="0.2"/> or as much as i can make of it during that time <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> this amounts to a considerable <trunc>s</trunc> # sum where a man has <pause dur="0.2"/> good and large credit and makes good use of it <pause dur="2.6"/>

money can beket beget money</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> i'm just i'm just # <pause dur="1.0"/> <reading>and its offspring can <trunc>ge</trunc> beget more and so on</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/> and he goes on to say that # <pause dur="0.9"/> <reading>the most trifling actions that affect a man's credit are to be regarded <pause dur="0.3"/> the sound of your hammer at five in the morning <pause dur="0.2"/> or at eight at night heard by a creditor makes him easy six months longer</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> boy now you know it <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>but if he sees you at the billiard table <pause dur="0.6"/> or hears your voice at a tavern <pause dur="0.3"/> when you should be at work he sends for his money the next day demands it <pause dur="0.2"/> before he can receive it in a lump</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> so these are the sorts of # <pause dur="0.4"/> the aphorisms that became that he he identifies with with American capitalism <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> sees as as an aspect of that culture of the entrepreneur that he wants to draw into this analysis <pause dur="0.4"/> and so we get him moving on <pause dur="0.3"/> to where does this come from <pause dur="0.3"/> and moving on to this concept of the calling <pause dur="0.9"/> # so we move here into religion <pause dur="0.4"/> the calling and <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>ca</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> Calvinism <pause dur="2.1"/> and <pause dur="1.6"/> Weber <pause dur="1.1"/> in <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>a</trunc> as he did before in trying to define capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> in <trunc>con</trunc> and looking at a comparative # <pause dur="0.5"/> analysis

of East and West does so also <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> # religion <pause dur="0.3"/> he looks at a comparison of religions <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.3"/> argues that the behaviour of his Protestant <trunc>en</trunc> entrepreneurs differs from that of entrepreneurs under all other world religions <pause dur="1.4"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> so this this <trunc>t</trunc> # <kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> this book then became a fragment in a study of world religions that he embarked on # # later <pause dur="0.4"/> # where he studied Judaism Hinduism Buddhism and Confucianism <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> he said of Hinduism <pause dur="0.3"/> that it was otherly # <reading>otherworldly <pause dur="0.5"/> directed towards escaping the encumbrances of the material world <pause dur="0.4"/> rather than rational mastery of that world</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="2.3"/> he wrote about <pause dur="0.3"/> certainly wrote about the period when Hinduism became systematized and trade and manufacture reached its peak in India <pause dur="0.5"/> i mean we cannot deny that the great merchants of the # <pause dur="0.6"/> # of the world <pause dur="0.2"/> during from the # the or across the early modern period into the eighteenth century before they were pushed aside especially by the British <pause dur="0.4"/> # the great merchants of the south # <pause dur="0.6"/> the South # China Seas the # the

whole of the Indian Ocean area <pause dur="0.3"/> that whole area between the Mediterranean and China <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> were that whole area was dominated by Indian merchants <pause dur="0.2"/> trading across this <trunc>va</trunc> vast area <pause dur="0.4"/> so certainly it didn't # mean that the Indians were not not good <trunc>a</trunc> good at this <pause dur="0.5"/> but he argued the affect of Hinduism <pause dur="0.3"/> and the caste system inhibited economic development compared <pause dur="0.3"/> to the West <pause dur="0.9"/> in China <pause dur="0.4"/> he noted high # levels of evolution <pause dur="1.5"/> but with Confucianism <pause dur="0.5"/> this was one it was one that had # <pause dur="0.2"/> lacked the activism <pause dur="0.2"/> of Calvinism <pause dur="2.6"/> now he comes into probably his greatest problems with Judaism <pause dur="1.0"/> which <pause dur="0.4"/> did # <pause dur="0.8"/> # certainly introduce the tradition of ethical prophesy <pause dur="0.6"/> # involved the propagation of a divine mission <pause dur="1.0"/> but again <pause dur="0.3"/> # it lacked the active missionary zeal of ethical prophesy that we find # <pause dur="0.3"/> in # in Calvinism <pause dur="2.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> now but but what he goes # he goes on from those world religions to set out then a <pause dur="0.3"/> divide between <pause dur="0.5"/> Calvinism <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>cath</trunc> Catholicism <pause dur="1.3"/> so we get to Christianity <pause dur="0.4"/> Christianity is the one that's going to do it <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> it has to be Calvinist

Christianity <pause dur="0.7"/> and he notices there a sharp contrast between Catholic and Protestant attitudes and draws some broad generalizations from this <pause dur="0.6"/> he argues <pause dur="0.4"/> that the Reformation <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the the Reformation <pause dur="1.7"/> <reading>brought not the elimination of the church's control over everyday life <pause dur="0.4"/> but the substitution of a new form of control</reading> <pause dur="1.2"/> he argued that <pause dur="0.8"/> <reading>the Catholic Church was relatively lax in these controls and have # previously <pause dur="0.4"/> and # many of them were scarcely <pause dur="0.2"/> perceptible <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> Calvinism <pause dur="0.5"/> penetrated to all departments of private and public <pause dur="0.2"/> public life <pause dur="1.2"/> infinitely burdensome <pause dur="0.4"/> earnestly enforced</reading> <pause dur="1.2"/> was # would be today he he argues it would be for us <trunc>t</trunc> us today # # <reading>an absolutely unbearable form of ecclesiastical control</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> so this was <trunc>som</trunc> something that had become the strongest of of the fates <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/> Catholicism in addition <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>was associated with magic and superstition <pause dur="0.9"/> the cycle of sin repentance <pause dur="0.2"/> atonement release <pause dur="0.7"/> followed by renewed sin <pause dur="0.3"/> and mediated by a priest</reading> <pause dur="2.0"/> this was his # very much his his image of # <pause dur="0.2"/> of of Catholicism <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> i have recently found it

fascinating to see the way that this contrast between Protestantism <pause dur="0.3"/> and capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> was played out in another contemporary <pause dur="0.3"/> and highly influential text <pause dur="0.6"/> Thomas Mann's Buddenbrooks <pause dur="0.4"/> so i just want to say something about this <pause dur="0.4"/> Thomas Mann <pause dur="0.2"/> like <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # like # Weber <pause dur="0.5"/> was born <pause dur="0.3"/> into <pause dur="0.3"/> a Hanseatic town <pause dur="0.2"/> was born in in # <pause dur="0.6"/> in Lübeck from a line of # prosperous and influential merchants <pause dur="0.8"/> he was one of these sons who did not follow his # the path into # <pause dur="0.5"/> # becoming a <trunc>s</trunc> a merchant in turn <pause dur="0.4"/> the story that he describes in Buddenbrooks <pause dur="0.4"/> is in <pause dur="0.2"/> some ways # <pause dur="0.3"/> not actually his own story but it follows that # <pause dur="0.5"/> there there is <trunc>ver</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> echoes of that right # right through the book <pause dur="0.5"/> but he has an absolute fascinating # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> penetration <pause dur="0.3"/> in the book of <pause dur="0.3"/> mercantile society and bourgeois family life in these north German <pause dur="0.3"/> Protestant towns <pause dur="0.5"/> there's a wonderful character in the <trunc>bo</trunc> the <trunc>b</trunc> central character of the book i i indeed is a woman # the one of the sisters in the family <pause dur="0.6"/> Antoni <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>an</trunc> <trunc>ant</trunc> or Antonia she would she would have been and she's called Toni <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> she goes off to Munich at one point and describes her

impressions of the Catholics <pause dur="0.4"/><shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> this is # really # <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> really <trunc>fa</trunc> she she describes Munich she says <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>yes one has a <trunc>g</trunc> has to get used to a great deal it is a real foreign country <pause dur="0.4"/> the strange currency and the difficulty of understanding the common people <pause dur="0.5"/> i speak too fast to them and they seem to talk gibberish to me <pause dur="0.5"/> and then the Catholicism <pause dur="0.3"/> i hate it as you know i have no respect for it</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> as she goes on to <trunc>dis</trunc> # writes a very amusing letter home about her encounter with # <pause dur="0.3"/> an archbishop or a <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>pri</trunc> # a high level priest <pause dur="0.4"/> who # <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>gave me an ogling look out of the window like a lieutenant of the guard</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.4"/> # this is # your your # your <trunc>protes</trunc> she says to her mother <reading>your Protestant # missionaries <pause dur="0.4"/> are certainly nothing compared to this rakish old prince of the church</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> # so there's this whole this is sort of echoes right right through this this # <pause dur="0.3"/> this <trunc>c</trunc> # conflict between <pause dur="0.4"/> # the the Protestants and the Catholics <pause dur="0.4"/> and later Thomas Buddenbrook <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> who the is the the eldest son in his family and carries on # <pause dur="0.3"/> the family firm <pause dur="0.4"/> # this family merchant firm <pause dur="0.4"/> he has # # <pause dur="0.2"/>

premonitions of his own downfall <pause dur="0.4"/> and that <pause dur="0.2"/> of the family firm and i this think it's very striking the way he writes this <pause dur="0.4"/> and i want to also tell you this was published first in nineteen-o-two <pause dur="0.5"/> before The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.3"/> was published <pause dur="0.3"/> so this is the kind of thing that is around at the time that # <pause dur="0.5"/> that # that # the The Protestant Ethic was being written <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> he talks about being in a sort of <trunc>de</trunc> depressed mood he says <reading>it may pass <pause dur="0.7"/> but just now i feel older than i am i have business cares <pause dur="0.6"/> at the director's meeting of the Büchen railway yesterday Council Hegenstorm simply talked me down refuted my <trunc>connecs</trunc> contentions <pause dur="0.4"/> nearly made me appear ridiculous <pause dur="0.5"/> i feel that could not have happened to me before it was as though something had begun to slip <pause dur="0.5"/> as though i hadn't the firm grip <pause dur="0.2"/> i had on events <pause dur="0.7"/> what is success <pause dur="1.1"/> it is an inner an indescribable force <pause dur="0.4"/> resourcefulness power of vision a consciousness that i am by my mere existence <pause dur="0.3"/> exerting pressure on the movement of life

above me <pause dur="1.1"/> it is my belief in the adaptability of life to my own ends <pause dur="0.4"/> fortune and success lie with ourselves <pause dur="0.4"/> we must hold them firmly <pause dur="0.2"/> deep within us <pause dur="0.4"/> for as soon as something begins to slip <pause dur="0.3"/> to relax to get tired within us <pause dur="0.3"/> then everything without <pause dur="0.3"/> us will <trunc>reb</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> # rebel <pause dur="0.3"/> and struggle <pause dur="0.3"/> to withdraw from our influence <pause dur="0.8"/> one thing follows another blow after blow and the man is finished <pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and i have often thought of a Turkish proverb <pause dur="0.2"/> which says when the house is finished <pause dur="0.3"/> death come <pause dur="0.4"/> it doesn't need to be death <pause dur="0.2"/> but the decline the falling off the beginning of the end</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> he carries this on but it's an extraordinary statement <pause dur="0.3"/> of this # <pause dur="0.9"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>imp</trunc> # the importance ascribed to this inner force within ourselves <pause dur="0.5"/> which becomes in Weber's terms the the calling <pause dur="0.6"/> well let's # <pause dur="0.2"/> let's look at the calling <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> now the notion of the calling was introduced by the Reformation <pause dur="0.7"/> and projected religious behaviour into the day to day world <pause dur="1.5"/> it was a moral responsibility the moral responsibility of the Protestant <pause dur="0.5"/>

which was <pause dur="0.2"/> accumulative responsibility <pause dur="0.2"/> it was not a cycle <pause dur="0.3"/> as in the Catholic conception of <trunc>s</trunc> of sin repentance <pause dur="0.4"/> forgiveness <pause dur="1.2"/> the idea of the calling was present in Luther's doctrines <pause dur="0.3"/> it was more developed by the Puritan sects of in Calvinism Methodism <pause dur="0.6"/> Pietism and Baptism <pause dur="1.3"/> # it was most focused <trunc>i</trunc> in Calvinism <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="1.9"/> and it became obligatory under this # this <trunc>syste</trunc> this idea of the calling to regard oneself as chosen <pause dur="1.9"/> <reading>a lack of certainty <pause dur="1.4"/> was indicative <trunc>in</trunc> of insufficient faith <pause dur="0.5"/> performance of good works in worldly activity was accepted as a medium whereby surety could be demonstrated</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> so success in a calling came to <trunc>regar</trunc> <trunc>re</trunc> be regarded as a sign of being one of the elect <pause dur="0.7"/> it's very much that that <pause dur="0.2"/> religious conception <pause dur="0.5"/> the accumulation of wealth was sanctioned it was okay <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> as long as it was combined with sober <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> a sober industrious career and not with the expenditure on luxury <pause dur="2.6"/> so Calvinism <pause dur="0.2"/> # Weber <pause dur="0.3"/> # believed had the dynamism to supply the moral energy the drive of capitalist

entrepreneurs <pause dur="4.2"/> now Weber found much to admire in Calvinism for its effectiveness <pause dur="0.7"/> but he also found it deeply <pause dur="0.2"/> problematic <pause dur="0.4"/> so let's look at about at how he he writes about it </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nf0090" trans="pause"> he he looks at <pause dur="0.2"/> predestination <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="1.2"/> shows that <pause dur="0.3"/> there were no magical means of attaining the grace of God <pause dur="0.2"/> for those to whom God had decided to deny it <pause dur="0.3"/> and you didn't know whether you were going to fall into that category <pause dur="0.6"/> there were the harsh very harsh doctrines of absolute <trunc>trans</trunc> transcendentality of God <pause dur="0.5"/> and the corruption of everything pertaining to the <trunc>c</trunc> to the flesh <pause dur="0.8"/> an inner isolation of the individual <pause dur="1.8"/> # so he <trunc>f</trunc> <trunc>s</trunc> you <trunc>f</trunc> see in this the the reason for the negative attitude of Puritanism to sensuous and emotional elements in culture and religion <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="4.3"/> <reading>and the God of Calvinism demanded of believers not single good works but a life of good works combined with a unified system <pause dur="0.3"/> a consistent method of conduct as a whole</reading> <pause dur="1.8"/> now for the Catholics by contrast there was absolution <pause dur="0.3"/> a cycle of sin repentance atonement <pause dur="0.5"/> release <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/>

what <trunc>f</trunc> happens with Calvinism is the idea of the necessity of proving one's faith in worldly activity <pause dur="1.8"/> now if we turn to # <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> turn <pause dur="0.4"/> # just got another <pause dur="4.0"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> turn further to look at # asceticism <pause dur="0.3"/> which is an aspect of of # Calvinism <pause dur="2.2"/> now Weber pursues these themes of the relentless the all pervasive character of Calvinism <pause dur="0.7"/> # he talks about <reading>the waste of time being the first and deadliest sin <pause dur="1.3"/> human life <pause dur="0.2"/> infinitely short and precious <pause dur="1.1"/> # it's very precious to make <trunc>w</trunc> sure of one's own election <pause dur="1.0"/> a loss of time would be caused through sociability idle talk luxury <pause dur="0.9"/> in the Puritan view <pause dur="0.3"/> we see the providential character of the the play of private economic interest taking on a new emphasis</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> the <trunc>p</trunc> and there's this sort of the whole # providentialism of of the the system <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="2.2"/> the <reading>the providential purpose of the division of labour was to be known by its fruits</reading> <pause dur="0.9"/> and again the asceticism <pause dur="0.6"/> is very # # an ascetic # <pause dur="0.3"/> # discipline <pause dur="0.6"/> something that is # <pause dur="1.5"/> # <reading>an enemy to # hostility to sport to recreation to spontaneous

pleasure <pause dur="2.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> all of these things would lead away from <pause dur="0.4"/> # work <pause dur="0.5"/> towards # the calling</reading> <pause dur="4.8"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and again <pause dur="0.3"/> if you look at # some of the the further literature on this he he finds in the <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the fine <trunc>h</trunc> <trunc>a</trunc> fine arts a hatred of anything that smacked of superstition so critique of the theatre not no participation in the theatre <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> it's very interesting that in # <pause dur="0.2"/> Thomas Mann's Buddenbrooks the second son who <pause dur="0.2"/> goes off the rails <pause dur="0.4"/> is always going off to the theatre <pause dur="0.9"/> it's # <pause dur="0.7"/> he's # <pause dur="0.2"/> that's # <pause dur="0.4"/> the the sort of negative # side of # <pause dur="0.5"/> # # the # the the very negative attitudes towards of of Calvinism to # <pause dur="0.4"/> to this <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> now <pause dur="0.7"/> # if we look at the one of the things that that comes up here is what about the idea of possessions <pause dur="2.1"/> # <pause dur="1.6"/> it allowed this this whole ethos allowed for the accumulation of possessions <pause dur="0.6"/> but if you look to the idea of a man's duty to his possessions <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> with Calvinism he suborts <trunc>him</trunc> <trunc>bo</trunc> subordinates himself as the obedient steward <pause dur="1.0"/> a steward of these possessions a steward <pause dur="0.4"/> # or an acquisitive # <trunc>o</trunc> of an acquisitive machine it was <pause dur="0.3"/> the greater the

possessions <pause dur="0.6"/> he had <pause dur="0.4"/> the heavier the feeling of <pause dur="0.2"/> # responsibility for them <pause dur="3.0"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> so we see this sort of increase attempt to increase the glory of God and so increasing these possessions by <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>re</trunc> # restless effort <pause dur="1.3"/> # but <pause dur="0.2"/> worldly <trunc>pr</trunc> # Protestant # <pause dur="0.2"/> asceticism acted against the spontaneous enjoyment <pause dur="0.2"/> of # <pause dur="0.3"/> possessions <pause dur="1.0"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> the possessions that were there they were not to be luxuries <pause dur="0.5"/> restricted consumption <trunc>o</trunc> of luxuries <pause dur="2.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="2.4"/> now Weber's Calvinist <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> at the end of the day <pause dur="0.8"/> couldn't bring himself <pause dur="0.3"/> to accept the presumption of salvation <pause dur="1.1"/> and so no matter how hard he worked <pause dur="0.6"/> how # <pause dur="1.6"/> how <trunc>f</trunc> # <trunc>fa</trunc> great his accumulation of wealth was <pause dur="0.3"/> how successful a businessman he was <pause dur="0.4"/> how important a member of the business community or a <trunc>s</trunc> political community he was <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> he suffered the anguish <pause dur="0.5"/> that only rational world activity <pause dur="0.2"/> can mollify <pause dur="0.4"/> and # <pause dur="0.4"/> would have <trunc>t</trunc> had no # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # no sense that <pause dur="0.5"/> he <trunc>w</trunc> had succeeded in becoming # <trunc>t</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> becoming one of the elect # <pause dur="0.2"/> succeeded <trunc>i</trunc> in reaching God <pause dur="0.9"/> and so <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> # we have <pause dur="1.0"/> material goods <pause dur="0.7"/> then <trunc>cr</trunc> gaining <pause dur="0.4"/> an increasing

an <sic corr="inexorable">inecexorable</sic> power <pause dur="0.2"/> over the lives of men <pause dur="0.9"/> and this is where Weber the text seems to be leading <pause dur="0.3"/> in a very i mean it's very interesting direction for the text sort of just at this juncture <pause dur="0.4"/> because it looks <pause dur="0.3"/> as you're reading this text <pause dur="0.3"/> that Weber <pause dur="0.5"/> is # <pause dur="0.5"/> praising <pause dur="0.3"/> this great <trunc>cal</trunc> you know this great entrepreneurial figure with this sort of # the sense of the calling <pause dur="0.5"/> the # <pause dur="0.4"/> this <pause dur="0.6"/> Calvinist # <pause dur="0.3"/> impetus to work <pause dur="0.6"/> but he shows <pause dur="0.3"/> here <pause dur="0.7"/> just how much power <pause dur="0.5"/> these <trunc>possess</trunc> the material possessions the the success in economic life starts to take over <pause dur="0.4"/> his whole entire # self <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> so <trunc>victoriou</trunc> victorious capitalism he argues rests on mechanical foundations <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.6"/> this is where i just want to # <pause dur="0.6"/> read you <trunc>thi</trunc> this passage because this is where the whole thing <pause dur="0.4"/> it's just you got to get to the end and you got to read the whole thing and get to the end <pause dur="0.4"/> 'cause <pause dur="0.7"/> he starts to talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> # the iron cage of capitalism <pause dur="0.4"/> that's where it all ends up <pause dur="0.5"/> where # <pause dur="0.6"/> everything is # we have this sort of being entirely

controlled by this effort to work <pause dur="0.3"/> effort to to reach God through through this this kind of material success <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and the possessions actually taking a total grip <pause dur="0.3"/> on on <trunc>hi</trunc> # his soul <pause dur="0.5"/> and he says # <pause dur="0.7"/> he says here <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="3.9"/> <reading>since <trunc>ascetic</trunc> # asceticism <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.9"/> undertook to remodel the world and work out its ideals in the world <pause dur="0.5"/> # material goods have gained an increasing and finally an <trunc>ec</trunc> inexorable power over the lives of men <pause dur="0.4"/> as at no previous period of history</reading> <pause dur="1.6"/> # he goes back <pause dur="0.3"/> in a in a previous <trunc>paras</trunc> he <trunc>t</trunc> he talks about <pause dur="0.4"/> the the early # some of the earlier # <pause dur="0.3"/> writers on this Baxter writing <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>that the care for external goods should only lie in the soldiers of the saint like a light cloak which can be thrown aside at any moment</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> but Weber says <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>but fate decreed the cloak should become an iron cage <pause dur="1.6"/> today the spirit of <trunc>re</trunc> religious asceticism where there finally who knows has escaped from the cage <pause dur="0.3"/> but victorious capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> since it rests on mechanical foundations <pause dur="0.3"/> needs its support no longer <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="2.0"/> the rosy blush of its laughing air the Enlightenment

seems to be irretrievably fading and the idea of duty and one's <trunc>cal</trunc> calling <pause dur="0.4"/> prowls about in our lives like the <trunc>dos</trunc> ghost of dead religious beliefs <pause dur="0.9"/> # where the fulfilment of the calling cannot directly be related to the highest spiritual and cultural values <pause dur="0.5"/> or when on the other hand it need not be felt <pause dur="0.2"/> simply as economic compulsion <pause dur="0.3"/> the individual abandons the attempt <pause dur="0.2"/> to justify it</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> and so does it without knowing <pause dur="0.3"/> why <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's where he ends up <pause dur="0.3"/> in the text <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>who will live in this cage in the future <pause dur="2.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> specialists without spirits sensualists without heart <pause dur="0.5"/> this nullity imagines it has attained a level of civilization never before achieved</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/> so that's where he he gets us to <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> you can ask <pause dur="0.2"/> to what extent was this an endorsement of the The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.3"/> or its ultimate critique <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> now we # <pause dur="0.5"/> have # <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a <trunc>n</trunc> a whole # series of <trunc>are</trunc> areas in which we could take this text <pause dur="0.4"/> there's a number of issues that arose immediately the # <pause dur="0.5"/> The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.2"/> was set up <pause dur="0.3"/> there were a lot of critiques <pause dur="0.3"/>

made of it by a whole series of # <pause dur="0.3"/> writers <pause dur="0.2"/> in inside and outside Germany at the time <pause dur="0.4"/> it has become <pause dur="0.3"/> a subject of intense debate about its meaning and about # <pause dur="0.5"/> the areas where Weber went wrong et cetera <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> these covered <pause dur="0.3"/> a whole series of # of topics such as his <pause dur="0.5"/> # definition of # different <trunc>relid</trunc> # what what he said <trunc>wha</trunc> what he said characterized various religions <pause dur="0.4"/> # his characterizations of the differences between eastern and western <pause dur="0.4"/> # countries <pause dur="0.4"/> # his differences that he set out <pause dur="0.3"/> between Calvinism and # Catholicism <pause dur="0.4"/> what he had to say about Judaism <pause dur="0.5"/> these are a whole series of issues where there <pause dur="0.3"/> was a lot of # dispute and debate <pause dur="0.3"/> and # <pause dur="1.4"/> you will find <pause dur="0.3"/> that discussion <pause dur="0.5"/> carried on at length in the articles about The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.3"/> that that are on your reading list <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="3.1"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> though # <pause dur="2.0"/> okay <pause dur="1.7"/> i i think that that's # i <trunc>th</trunc> i'll just # take it to there i think you will see the disputes ranging over these <trunc>the</trunc> these areas and take them up in your text <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> and <trunc>y</trunc> and in your seminar <pause dur="0.7"/> okay # <pause dur="0.3"/> so i'll stop there