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<title>Weber and the 'Protestant Ethic'</title></titleStmt>

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The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

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(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

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<u who="nf0090"><kinesic desc="overhead projector is on showing transparency" iterated="n"/> okay i think we'd better get started <pause dur="1.0"/> i'm <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> and i'm just giving a lecture # <pause dur="0.4"/> today on <pause dur="0.2"/> Max Weber <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.7"/> The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism which is the text <pause dur="0.2"/> # for <pause dur="0.6"/> this seminar <pause dur="0.3"/> and i do just # for the <trunc>semin</trunc> the seminar that goes with with this lecture <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> i do just want to stress it is absolutely vital that you read this text <pause dur="0.7"/> if you read nothing else for this <pause dur="0.4"/> read this text <pause dur="0.5"/> a lot of the <pause dur="0.8"/> essays the additional reading that you have that you will find <pause dur="0.4"/> on Max Weber <pause dur="1.5"/> a lot of it is pretty impenetrable <pause dur="0.5"/> some of it is clear <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> the clearest thing you can read and the most # <pause dur="0.3"/> wonderful text you can read is just what he wrote himself <pause dur="0.3"/> on this so <pause dur="0.3"/> get the text <pause dur="0.5"/> and read it <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it's not that expensive if you can't get it from the library it's something you should <pause dur="0.3"/> have # in your your own library <pause dur="0.4"/> for <pause dur="0.5"/> time to come <pause dur="0.2"/> it is a great # # # # a great # text <pause dur="1.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> well <pause dur="0.2"/> i want to start off first of all by saying a little bit about the life of of Max Weber who was he who wrote <pause dur="0.5"/> The

Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism <pause dur="0.9"/> well Frank Parkin in his # <pause dur="0.3"/> little <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> survey for sociologists which is quite readable this is this with Giddens is # <pause dur="0.6"/> is a <pause dur="0.2"/> a fairly good summary if you <pause dur="0.7"/> # haven't read anything on on Weber before <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> he provides us with a <pause dur="0.4"/> very brief <pause dur="0.2"/> very brief and pretty irreverent portrait of Max Weber as a bourgeois scholar <pause dur="0.4"/> of <trunc>wilhemi</trunc> Wilhemine Germany <pause dur="0.6"/> with a Victorian <distinct lang="la">pater familias</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> # and <vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/> man who had lots of Oedipus complexes <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> that <pause dur="0.4"/> he had melancholia and frustrated political ambitions <pause dur="0.6"/> and along the way <pause dur="0.8"/> we see out of this coming <trunc>enorm</trunc> vast enormous productive energies in # studies on the law religious systems political economy and authority systems <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> i want to fill out a little bit about this life # before discussing the text <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> and this tour de force The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism <pause dur="1.5"/> Weber was born in eighteen-sixty-four <pause dur="0.6"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> Erfurt <pause dur="0.2"/> a Hanseatic town <pause dur="0.5"/> this is quite important in his formation <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> one of the towns # in the the

<trunc>hansea</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>g</trunc> # in the Hanseatic League <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> one of the merchant towns a classic <trunc>m</trunc> early modern # <trunc>th</trunc> merchant towns of # <pause dur="0.5"/> # of Germany <pause dur="0.5"/> his father was a jurist and municipal councillor <pause dur="0.4"/> and he came from a family of linen merchants and textile manufacturers <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> we can see a lot of this text <pause dur="0.5"/> the what he's writing in this text <pause dur="0.3"/> being written <pause dur="0.4"/> in that context in response <pause dur="0.4"/> to # <pause dur="0.2"/> his own family background <pause dur="0.4"/> amongst # <pause dur="0.2"/> # his community background and his family background amongst this # these merchants <pause dur="0.9"/> he moved to Berlin <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.5"/> # his father that is the family <trunc>mo</trunc> moved to Berlin <pause dur="0.5"/> # which was soon to become <pause dur="0.2"/> the booming capital of Bismarck's Reich <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> # Weber's father was to become a <trunc>pro</trunc> prosperous politician <pause dur="0.6"/> he was a right wing liberal who used his home as a talking shop for local academics for businessmen <pause dur="0.4"/> artists and various other political bigwigs <pause dur="0.7"/> now in Parkin's # <pause dur="0.3"/> words <pause dur="0.3"/> Weber would have listened from an early <trunc>l</trunc> age to a lot of high-minded chatter and less than enlightened politics <pause dur="1.0"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> he also had a

mother <pause dur="0.3"/> not just a father we have to look at the role of mothers in # the formation of our intellectuals as well as <pause dur="0.4"/> the <trunc>f</trunc> the fathers <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and she was a cultured and liberal Protestant <pause dur="0.5"/> but a woman who had become an overburdened <pause dur="0.2"/> hausfrau <pause dur="0.9"/> she was religious and felt a vocation to charity and good works <pause dur="0.5"/> but these things were of no interest to her husband <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> certainly parental relations in the family home # were estranged <pause dur="0.4"/> it was clear that Weber senior was a martinet to his children and <pause dur="0.3"/> very # overbearing and autocratic # in his behaviour to his wife <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> what happens # with with Weber is that from his school days he drew away from the the piety of his mother and the philistinism of his father <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> decided that academic pursuits were going to be his his way in life and he went off to university in Heidelberg <pause dur="0.4"/> there he certainly played the # the role of the the student prince <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> engaging in all kinds of # fun and games as well as a a bit of work <pause dur="0.6"/> # but <pause dur="0.2"/> he later continued his

studies in Strasburg and Göttingen <pause dur="0.5"/> where he studied law <pause dur="1.0"/> he went he did his period of of military service <pause dur="1.0"/> and after his studies went on to take up <pause dur="0.2"/> service in the law courts in Berlin <pause dur="0.4"/> # where he worked on a PhD thesis # <pause dur="0.2"/> the first thesis he did his PhD <trunc>sis</trunc> thesis <pause dur="1.0"/> went back <pause dur="0.4"/> to his own origins he worked on the trading companies during the Middle Ages <pause dur="0.9"/> and # <pause dur="0.7"/> in eighteen-ninety he passed a second law exam <pause dur="0.3"/> and he did what the # followed the the common German practice which continues to this day <pause dur="0.3"/> of doing a second thesis <pause dur="0.5"/> the habilitatation <trunc>h</trunc> <distinct lang="de">habilitation</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> and with a treatise on the history of agrarian institutions <pause dur="0.7"/> and this was a sociology an economic and cultural analysis of ancient societies <pause dur="1.0"/> now finally this is a long period of study that he that he went through <pause dur="0.4"/> he then married # the grand niece of his father <pause dur="0.5"/> Marianne Schnitger <pause dur="0.5"/> and lived the life of a successful young scholar in <pause dur="0.2"/> Berlin where he became a professor <pause dur="0.5"/> of # economics # <pause dur="0.3"/> he # <pause dur="0.4"/> he was in Berlin as a as a as a young

scholar <pause dur="0.3"/> and then he went on to become a professor of of economics at Freiburg <pause dur="0.5"/> in eighteen-ninety-<pause dur="0.2"/>four <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # what we what he did in <trunc>frei</trunc> he had a huge workload in Freiburg and just seemed absolutely obsessed with work <pause dur="0.5"/> this # certainly became a very important <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>characteristic <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>of his life <pause dur="0.6"/> # he went on to take a chair at Heidelberg in eighteen-ninety-<pause dur="0.2"/>six <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> but <pause dur="0.7"/> in eighteen-ninety-seven <pause dur="0.7"/> he # and he'd oh as <pause dur="0.3"/> i'll just sort of say a little bit <pause dur="0.3"/> he # <pause dur="0.2"/> he when he the chair that he took in in Heidelberg replaced one of the <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # a <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> a man named Kniess who was one of the heads of the German Historical School <pause dur="0.3"/> so he was very much part of that # <pause dur="0.5"/> that # general historiographical tradition of the time the German Historical School a lot of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> # a lot of # <pause dur="0.4"/> people at the time writing histories with a great # <pause dur="0.2"/> economic and sociological sort of content to them <pause dur="0.6"/> and # <pause dur="0.9"/> but he has what happens then in eighteen-ninety-seven <pause dur="0.3"/> he has a crisis his father died <pause dur="0.6"/> # this is was the the onset of his his crisis his father died <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and he <trunc>d</trunc> just before his

father's death he'd had a huge <pause dur="0.4"/> quarrel with him a huge fight with him <pause dur="0.5"/> over # the way he was his # Weber's mother was being treated by his father <pause dur="0.7"/> and # <pause dur="1.3"/> he didn't see <trunc>ge</trunc> get to see his father <pause dur="0.3"/> before he died he'd had this big <trunc>f</trunc> big fight with him so felt terrible guilt and remorse after this <pause dur="0.7"/> and had a nervous breakdown <pause dur="2.0"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> and he suffered for the rest of his life from <pause dur="0.5"/> severe depression <pause dur="0.5"/> interspersed by <pause dur="0.2"/> manic work <pause dur="0.2"/> and periods of travel <pause dur="0.6"/> so that really was sort of marked his life from from that time onward we see <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> this # <pause dur="1.7"/> this this <vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.6"/> conflict with the father <pause dur="0.5"/> and then this period of <trunc>s</trunc> of # a nervous breakdown after after his father's death and # <pause dur="0.5"/> it affecting him for the rest of his life <pause dur="1.0"/> well in nineteen-o-two he returned to some duties he did some teaching <trunc>ad</trunc> and administration <pause dur="0.4"/> but he was mainly doing a lot of travelling <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> after this time <pause dur="0.4"/> and # he travelled <trunc>i</trunc> during this time and he travelled # through to Italy <pause dur="0.7"/> he hoped he would recuperate in Italy but he couldn't concentrate <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.6"/> he did

start to do some writing and in nineteen-o-four <pause dur="0.5"/> wrote <pause dur="0.3"/> the first chapter of The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.7"/> so he writes that that first chapter then <pause dur="0.3"/> but immediately after that <pause dur="0.3"/> he set off to the U-S <pause dur="0.8"/> and it was his <pause dur="0.2"/> it was you know this was # a really a big event for him <pause dur="0.2"/> it was his trip to his first trip to America <pause dur="0.7"/> and he went with # other leading figures German figures of the time <pause dur="0.4"/> Werner Sombart <pause dur="0.4"/> and # and Troeltsch <pause dur="0.6"/> but particularly Sombart who was someone i'll <pause dur="0.2"/> we we'll be mentioning him <trunc>la</trunc> after <pause dur="0.4"/> who that he he came to debate The Protestant Ethic # with <pause dur="0.6"/> now he was enthralled by # the United States by <pause dur="0.3"/> the pace of life in the big cities <pause dur="0.5"/> # he was bemused by the democratic customs of the natives there <pause dur="0.4"/> but found in in it absolutely exhilarating experience # <pause dur="0.6"/> # seeing it <pause dur="0.2"/> and he came to write about it quite a lot in the The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.6"/> he he wanted to enter sympathetically into the New World <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> but wanted to retain his capacity for an informed judgement on the directions it was taking <pause dur="1.9"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> he was <pause dur="0.9"/> absolutely #

fascinated by the characteristics of American capitalism <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> impressed by the extent of the waste of human life in # this frenetic activity of money making # <pause dur="0.3"/> in in the U-S <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> in New York decided he would look for material that he could <pause dur="0.4"/> use to develop this the chapter that he'd started before he'd left <pause dur="0.4"/> and it started the The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.2"/> so that experience in America was also extreme was absolutely fundamental <pause dur="0.4"/> to what he came <pause dur="0.3"/> to write <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> after he returned to German # Germany he finished <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> finished the text <pause dur="1.1"/> then the Russian # the first <trunc>ru</trunc> Russian revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> was something that was <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> redirected his attention and his scholarly interest <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> this man of enormous # energies he <pause dur="0.4"/> he was also you know working flat out # <pause dur="0.3"/> well he had these these periods when he sort of went in for this sort of manic work <pause dur="0.3"/> and he <pause dur="0.5"/> managed to learn Russian in bed before getting up each morning <pause dur="0.2"/> imagine it <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> # so that he could follow the Russian daily press and he wrote a piece on the nineteen-o-five revolution <pause dur="0.8"/>

so he's very much one of these # what we find # <pause dur="0.4"/> with # with <trunc>ver</trunc> Weber he's very much one of this generation of universal scholars <pause dur="0.3"/> that we find # in this period <pause dur="0.4"/> a lawyer <pause dur="0.2"/> an economist <pause dur="0.2"/> a historian a philosopher he ranged across these fields <pause dur="0.5"/> he was also well acquainted with the <pause dur="0.4"/> the <trunc>thi</trunc> the <trunc>liter</trunc> all the lot of literature on the theology of his day <pause dur="0.6"/> # he did an enormous quantity of work <pause dur="0.8"/> and # <pause dur="1.0"/> i have to say it was a rather different kind of setting than # we find in universities today <pause dur="0.5"/> there was a lot of research time <pause dur="0.4"/> available <pause dur="0.2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>to <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> then <pause dur="0.4"/> and there was no # pressure for rapid publication <pause dur="0.4"/> so he was <trunc>d</trunc> # ranging across these fields doing a huge amount of research and # learning a <pause dur="0.3"/> a huge amount over many fields <pause dur="0.4"/> but # in a rather different setting than # than we face in in in universities now <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> but this was something that certainly allowed him to range widely over the humanities <pause dur="0.8"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> we find him being transformed # <pause dur="0.3"/> the the whole world of the of the the German scholar the German # <pause dur="0.5"/> # the <pause dur="0.2"/> the German professor over that period

was being transformed from <pause dur="0.5"/> # a petty bourgeois <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of character harried by money into an upper class academician <pause dur="0.4"/> with a large house and the facilities to establish an international salon culture <pause dur="0.5"/> so he's moved certainly moved into that that world by this time <pause dur="1.0"/> he was also # Weber was also one of the # the last of the political <pause dur="0.2"/> professors <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> he made <pause dur="0.9"/> contributions # <pause dur="1.0"/> # detached contributions to science and # and <trunc>a</trunc> also acted as a as a political <trunc>f</trunc> figure in the intellectual vanguard of the middle classes <pause dur="0.5"/> # at the time <pause dur="0.4"/> but he was much less successful than he would like to have been he was a sort of <pause dur="1.0"/> he he tried to have a political career <pause dur="0.3"/> almost did it <pause dur="0.2"/> but didn't <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> he # at the age of fifty-four <pause dur="0.3"/> he allowed his name to go forward as a candidate for the German Democratic Party <pause dur="0.2"/> but didn't bother to canvass thought that <pause dur="0.5"/> people should just know who he was and # <pause dur="0.3"/> and and vote for him <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> he thought he expected he would be he would be adopted as the party candidate but was passed over for a local non-entity and he was very

deeply hurt <pause dur="0.2"/> by this <pause dur="0.3"/> so at the end of the day <pause dur="0.3"/> this was a man who was better about writing about the mechanics of power <pause dur="0.4"/> than dealing in its practicalities <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.7"/> so # <pause dur="0.2"/> he he <trunc>w</trunc> <trunc>de</trunc> was very disappointed and he actually he ended up dying shortly after this at the age of fifty-six <pause dur="0.5"/> but gosh he was just fifty-six and the <pause dur="0.5"/> volume of the his his scholarly output by this time was absolutely amazing <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but this <trunc>inde</trunc> and indeed <kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> this was one of the shortest # <pause dur="0.6"/> tracts that he he he ever wrote <pause dur="0.3"/> it was a short and inspired piece of writing <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> it represented Weber's early turning to broader cultural themes and one of <pause dur="0.5"/> # it was very much one of the early pieces he wrote after <pause dur="0.3"/> his breakdown <pause dur="3.2"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> as i said before it was written in two parts over the period nineteen-o-four to five # <pause dur="0.2"/> interspersed by <kinesic desc="indicates point on transparency" iterated="n"/> this <trunc>t</trunc> # trip to America <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="3.0"/> now <pause dur="0.9"/> just to say # something on the context <pause dur="0.3"/> in which it was written <pause dur="0.5"/> i just want to # to set that out first of all <pause dur="0.4"/> Weber's often <pause dur="0.2"/> thought about as a theorist who championed <pause dur="0.7"/> the cause of the independent role of <pause dur="0.2"/> #

ideas and social life but he also had strong <trunc>materias</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> materialist leanings <pause dur="0.4"/> so we can sort of # debate that that issue <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> there's a lot of misunderstandings of The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> really taken from <pause dur="0.2"/> Baudelairizing <pause dur="0.2"/> the thesis creating a kind of Baudelairized thesis that Calvinism was the principal cause of capitalism <pause dur="0.7"/> of ideas leading # to the to the economic system <pause dur="0.4"/> # but this is not # <pause dur="0.4"/> this is not <pause dur="0.3"/> how we should characterize # the argument in this text <pause dur="0.4"/> first of all <pause dur="0.3"/> we have to see <pause dur="0.3"/> that there was a very important <pause dur="0.3"/> social and political context for this essay <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> i <trunc>d</trunc> i want to to to come to <pause dur="0.4"/> the characteristics of of of that context <pause dur="0.4"/> it was written in the context of a contemporary debate <pause dur="0.3"/> in Germany <pause dur="0.2"/> on the differences between <pause dur="0.5"/> Protestants and Catholics <pause dur="1.2"/> and the impact of this <pause dur="0.3"/> on <pause dur="0.4"/> social structure <pause dur="0.3"/> and social status <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the broader background to that <pause dur="0.5"/> goes <pause dur="0.4"/> back to the context of the Kulturkampf <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> Prussia <pause dur="0.4"/> that period which Bismarck had launched of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # discrimination against the Catholics <pause dur="1.9"/> so

this turns of course a lot of the the civil service the # the state sort of denies this <pause dur="0.3"/> but what it turns into is an academic <pause dur="0.3"/> # aspects of it turning into an academic debate <pause dur="0.3"/> on the positions of Catholics <pause dur="0.3"/> # in the society <pause dur="0.6"/> and and the the # the the Catholic # Protestant <pause dur="0.3"/> division <pause dur="0.6"/> the other # <pause dur="0.5"/> # context i want to draw attention to <pause dur="0.4"/> # in this is the whole approach that that Weber took <pause dur="0.4"/> in writing # writing this this essay <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a very simple <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> simple # <trunc>si</trunc> simple approach a sort of simple # formulation <pause dur="0.3"/> of the question # <pause dur="1.3"/> he combined what he managed to do was to combine a sensitivity to <pause dur="0.4"/> diverse structural meanings # <pause dur="0.3"/> in this <pause dur="0.3"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> an <trunc>insi</trunc> an insistence on <pause dur="0.3"/> an <trunc>abs</trunc> a fundamental causal role <pause dur="0.6"/> for # <pause dur="0.4"/> material factors in influencing the course of history <pause dur="1.6"/> he drew on elements of Marx but he was not <pause dur="0.2"/> definitely not a a Marxist never accepted # Marxism <pause dur="0.3"/> rejected its politics <pause dur="0.2"/> but he certainly did draw on elements of Marx <pause dur="0.9"/> the essay was also as i <pause dur="0.3"/> i <pause dur="0.2"/> it it presents a sort of fairly simple formulation because it was highly focused <pause dur="0.3"/> he wanted to make a very

clear and focused <pause dur="0.3"/> explanation of what he was putting <pause dur="0.3"/> forward <pause dur="0.3"/> he rejected <pause dur="0.4"/> # a multidimensional analysis of the whole problem <trunc>betw</trunc> of religion and society <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> focused on the economic sector <pause dur="0.5"/> was the <trunc>eco</trunc> he <trunc>w</trunc> he focused right down <pause dur="0.2"/> into the the economic sector <pause dur="0.3"/> and the rise of what he called a rational capitalism <pause dur="2.2"/> so he was <pause dur="0.7"/> interested in two things a rational capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> its religious preconditions <pause dur="0.5"/> now the other interesting thing about <pause dur="0.3"/> the religious preconditions that he looks at <pause dur="0.3"/> he doesn't look at all religious preconditions <pause dur="0.4"/> by any means <pause dur="0.9"/> he <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>foc</trunc> he doesn't even look at Germans and Lutherans <pause dur="0.3"/> instead he focuses in <pause dur="0.4"/> on <pause dur="0.5"/> Anglo-Saxons <pause dur="0.5"/> he talks about Americans a lot here as well <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the Calvinist world <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> he centres his argument on on those aspects <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> he was looking <pause dur="0.3"/> to find <pause dur="0.4"/> in this <pause dur="0.3"/> much more focused # approach <pause dur="0.8"/> to to find the guiding principles of conduct <pause dur="0.5"/> and the value system governing patterns of behaviour <pause dur="0.8"/> that's really what he's trying to do <pause dur="0.3"/> now let's turn to his

argument <pause dur="0.5"/> which you will find by reading the text <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> very clearly set out <pause dur="0.4"/> first of all he tells us he wants to tell us about capitalism <pause dur="0.5"/> and you'll find on your handout <pause dur="0.7"/> my spelling isn't very good so you'd better correct # <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> perhaps some kind of <pause dur="0.8"/> slip there <pause dur="0.2"/> but # <pause dur="0.5"/> not mens but means <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> now if we turn to his argument he he tells us first what he # <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> what he <pause dur="0.2"/> he wants to single out in his definitions of capitalism <pause dur="0.8"/> what The Protestant Ethic starts with # The Protestant Ethic starts with is a very fairly broad and <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>e</trunc> very contestable if you read these you will find these very contestable but # <pause dur="0.5"/> # contrasts he wants to set out contrasts <pause dur="0.3"/> between the development of the West and the East <pause dur="1.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> we get <pause dur="1.1"/> the West the the East and the West # set out <pause dur="0.3"/> as different systems <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> he looks at rational systems in the West he sees <trunc>s</trunc> argues there are more rational systems developed in the West <pause dur="0.5"/> # in music in architecture in perspective <pause dur="0.6"/> # that there's trained officials of the state <pause dur="0.4"/> that the state # <pause dur="0.7"/> # itself has sort of a rational structure with a written constitutional constitution <pause dur="0.6"/>

rationally ordained law and an administration bound to rules or laws <pause dur="0.7"/> capitalism was not then identified <pause dur="0.2"/> with greed <pause dur="0.2"/> for gain <pause dur="0.9"/> but identified with the pursuit of profit <pause dur="1.6"/> an ever renewed profit <pause dur="0.3"/> by means of continuous <pause dur="0.4"/> rational <pause dur="0.3"/> capitalistic enterprise <pause dur="1.0"/> so that's what he he sees as as the central # the central point <pause dur="0.3"/> in in capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> it was that pursuit of profit <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> and ever renewed profit <pause dur="0.5"/> and that pursued by rational capitalistic enterprise <pause dur="1.9"/> now he argues certainly <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>ca</trunc> # calculation was carried on in India <pause dur="0.8"/> where the decimal system was invented <pause dur="1.1"/> but <pause dur="0.7"/> that decimal system was only really made use of by developing capitalism in the West he argues <pause dur="0.4"/> # in India it led to no <pause dur="0.3"/> modern bookkeeping <pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and he cites other examples like China <pause dur="0.6"/> where we see <pause dur="0.2"/> origins of # mathematics and mechanics <trunc>t</trunc> # <pause dur="0.9"/> but # <pause dur="1.6"/> the <pause dur="0.5"/> again the technical utilization of this knowledge # <pause dur="0.3"/> was not taken up <pause dur="0.2"/> in the way that it was in in the West <pause dur="0.8"/> so we have that East-West comparison set out <trunc>a</trunc> at the beginning <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="2.4"/> so <pause dur="0.8"/> #

finally <pause dur="0.2"/> just to to recap <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> capitalist action <pause dur="0.4"/> as we see in the West involved regular pursuit of profit <pause dur="0.2"/> through economic exchange <pause dur="2.7"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> Weber also goes into different types of capitalism <pause dur="1.2"/> okay he's got # <pause dur="1.1"/> the the the different types of capitalism <pause dur="0.4"/> he he <pause dur="0.3"/> enquires into <pause dur="1.1"/> these were set out as <pause dur="0.2"/> booty capitalism <pause dur="0.2"/> that is the robber barons <pause dur="1.9"/> pariah capitalism <pause dur="1.5"/> now this is a kind of commercial activity <pause dur="0.6"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> he identified with forms of money lending <pause dur="0.5"/> and again <pause dur="0.5"/> sets this discusses this in terms of Jewish enterprise <pause dur="0.6"/> now this led to a lot of debate over the the text later on <pause dur="0.3"/> # especially the # debate that he has with Sombart <pause dur="0.4"/> who takes this further and argues that # <pause dur="0.5"/> we can see sort of origins of capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> being tied up with <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the # enterprise of the Jews <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> but <pause dur="1.2"/> i think it's a very interesting # area i won't be able to go into it in any depth today but it's something that # you may want to pursue in your seminars and # <pause dur="0.3"/> and your essays <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> that was an a a <trunc>fair</trunc> a central part of the some of the critique of

the work the # what he had to say about this <pause dur="0.3"/> area <pause dur="0.3"/> he identified as # <pause dur="0.3"/> i'll put it down here <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on transparency" iterated="y" dur="7"/> pariah capitalism <pause dur="6.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.5"/> # partly Weber didn't think that this kind of capitalism was central to the whole process <pause dur="0.4"/> because of the # <pause dur="0.8"/> partly because the Jews were excluded from the core of economic life <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> this was a capitalism that opered operated on the fringes of of # the society <pause dur="0.8"/> so # <pause dur="0.3"/> he doesn't # he doesn't pursue that # <pause dur="0.2"/> as as he might have <pause dur="0.9"/> now he also # set out traditional capitalism <pause dur="2.0"/> that's large scale <pause dur="0.2"/> lending # large scale undertakings in all civilizations <pause dur="0.2"/> which were set up for specific ends <pause dur="2.2"/> and then finally rational capitalism <pause dur="0.9"/> economic activity <pause dur="0.3"/> geared to a regular market <pause dur="0.2"/> the use of bookkeeping <pause dur="0.3"/> systematic pursuit of profit <pause dur="0.6"/> this is the kind of capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> that he's specifically interested in <pause dur="0.4"/> and only in the West do we see <pause dur="0.2"/> he argues this kind of capitalistic activity <pause dur="0.3"/> becoming associated with the rational organization of formally free labour a disciplined

labour force </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nf0090" trans="pause"> another <pause dur="0.5"/> # <vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.3"/> he he <trunc>s</trunc> he goes into this in a little more detail on the <pause dur="0.3"/> the different types of socio-economic <trunc>pac</trunc> factors <trunc>distin</trunc> distinguishing the European experience from India and China <pause dur="0.3"/> so we get # more detail then <pause dur="0.3"/> provided on India and China <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> what <pause dur="0.2"/> he sees coming out in the West is in contrast to his perception of the East <pause dur="0.4"/> is a separation of productive enterprise from the household <pause dur="0.4"/> in in the West <pause dur="0.7"/> the development of the western city <pause dur="0.7"/> another characteristic <pause dur="0.9"/> and # <pause dur="0.6"/> a rational <pause dur="0.3"/> practice of juridical # well # the the rationalization of juridical practice <pause dur="4.2"/> the development of a nation state <pause dur="0.2"/> administered by bureaucratic officials and finally double entry bookkeeping <pause dur="0.4"/> double entry bookkeeping always plays a big # <pause dur="0.4"/> big part in these conceptions of of the West <pause dur="1.9"/> okay <pause dur="2.9"/> and so out of this <pause dur="0.2"/> we get # <pause dur="0.6"/> a characterization of what becomes an ideal type <pause dur="1.0"/> this was a <pause dur="0.4"/> very <pause dur="0.8"/> important for Weber <pause dur="1.0"/> the definition of these various ideal types <pause dur="1.4"/> so this kind of rational capitalism that he's

described with all these various # characteristics i've set out <pause dur="0.4"/> # this became his ideal type <pause dur="0.6"/> and it was also associated with a specific character <pause dur="0.9"/> the culture <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> the entrepreneur <pause dur="4.0"/> now where does he find this culture of the entrepreneur <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> now the examples he draws our attention to <pause dur="0.3"/> are American examples he takes us <pause dur="0.5"/> back <pause dur="0.3"/> to # <pause dur="0.4"/> Ben Franklin <pause dur="0.4"/> and the philosophy of American capitalism <pause dur="0.9"/> all of these these aphorisms that are so famous # <pause dur="0.3"/> in Ben Franklin <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>remember <pause dur="0.3"/> time is money <pause dur="0.2"/> he that can earn ten shillings a day by his labour and goes abroad or sits idle one half that day <pause dur="0.5"/> though he spends but sixpence during his diversion or idleness ought not to reckon <pause dur="0.4"/> that the only expense <pause dur="0.3"/> he has really spent or rather thrown away five shillings besides <pause dur="0.8"/> remember credit is money <pause dur="0.2"/> if a man lets his money lie in my hands after it is due <pause dur="0.3"/> he gives me the interest <pause dur="0.2"/> or as much as i can make of it during that time <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> this amounts to a considerable <trunc>s</trunc> # sum where a man has <pause dur="0.2"/> good and large credit and makes good use of it <pause dur="2.6"/>

money can beket beget money</reading> <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> i'm just i'm just # <pause dur="1.0"/> <reading>and its offspring can <trunc>ge</trunc> beget more and so on</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/> and he goes on to say that # <pause dur="0.9"/> <reading>the most trifling actions that affect a man's credit are to be regarded <pause dur="0.3"/> the sound of your hammer at five in the morning <pause dur="0.2"/> or at eight at night heard by a creditor makes him easy six months longer</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> boy now you know it <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>but if he sees you at the billiard table <pause dur="0.6"/> or hears your voice at a tavern <pause dur="0.3"/> when you should be at work he sends for his money the next day demands it <pause dur="0.2"/> before he can receive it in a lump</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> so these are the sorts of # <pause dur="0.4"/> the aphorisms that became that he he identifies with with American capitalism <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> sees as as an aspect of that culture of the entrepreneur that he wants to draw into this analysis <pause dur="0.4"/> and so we get him moving on <pause dur="0.3"/> to where does this come from <pause dur="0.3"/> and moving on to this concept of the calling <pause dur="0.9"/> # so we move here into religion <pause dur="0.4"/> the calling and <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>ca</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> Calvinism <pause dur="2.1"/> and <pause dur="1.6"/> Weber <pause dur="1.1"/> in <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>a</trunc> as he did before in trying to define capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> in <trunc>con</trunc> and looking at a comparative # <pause dur="0.5"/> analysis

of East and West does so also <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> # religion <pause dur="0.3"/> he looks at a comparison of religions <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.3"/> argues that the behaviour of his Protestant <trunc>en</trunc> entrepreneurs differs from that of entrepreneurs under all other world religions <pause dur="1.4"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> so this this <trunc>t</trunc> # <kinesic desc="holds up book" iterated="n"/> this book then became a fragment in a study of world religions that he embarked on # # later <pause dur="0.4"/> # where he studied Judaism Hinduism Buddhism and Confucianism <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> he said of Hinduism <pause dur="0.3"/> that it was otherly # <reading>otherworldly <pause dur="0.5"/> directed towards escaping the encumbrances of the material world <pause dur="0.4"/> rather than rational mastery of that world</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="2.3"/> he wrote about <pause dur="0.3"/> certainly wrote about the period when Hinduism became systematized and trade and manufacture reached its peak in India <pause dur="0.5"/> i mean we cannot deny that the great merchants of the # <pause dur="0.6"/> # of the world <pause dur="0.2"/> during from the # the or across the early modern period into the eighteenth century before they were pushed aside especially by the British <pause dur="0.4"/> # the great merchants of the south # <pause dur="0.6"/> the South # China Seas the # the

whole of the Indian Ocean area <pause dur="0.3"/> that whole area between the Mediterranean and China <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> were that whole area was dominated by Indian merchants <pause dur="0.2"/> trading across this <trunc>va</trunc> vast area <pause dur="0.4"/> so certainly it didn't # mean that the Indians were not not good <trunc>a</trunc> good at this <pause dur="0.5"/> but he argued the affect of Hinduism <pause dur="0.3"/> and the caste system inhibited economic development compared <pause dur="0.3"/> to the West <pause dur="0.9"/> in China <pause dur="0.4"/> he noted high # levels of evolution <pause dur="1.5"/> but with Confucianism <pause dur="0.5"/> this was one it was one that had # <pause dur="0.2"/> lacked the activism <pause dur="0.2"/> of Calvinism <pause dur="2.6"/> now he comes into probably his greatest problems with Judaism <pause dur="1.0"/> which <pause dur="0.4"/> did # <pause dur="0.8"/> # certainly introduce the tradition of ethical prophesy <pause dur="0.6"/> # involved the propagation of a divine mission <pause dur="1.0"/> but again <pause dur="0.3"/> # it lacked the active missionary zeal of ethical prophesy that we find # <pause dur="0.3"/> in # in Calvinism <pause dur="2.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> now but but what he goes # he goes on from those world religions to set out then a <pause dur="0.3"/> divide between <pause dur="0.5"/> Calvinism <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>cath</trunc> Catholicism <pause dur="1.3"/> so we get to Christianity <pause dur="0.4"/> Christianity is the one that's going to do it <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> it has to be Calvinist

Christianity <pause dur="0.7"/> and he notices there a sharp contrast between Catholic and Protestant attitudes and draws some broad generalizations from this <pause dur="0.6"/> he argues <pause dur="0.4"/> that the Reformation <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the the Reformation <pause dur="1.7"/> <reading>brought not the elimination of the church's control over everyday life <pause dur="0.4"/> but the substitution of a new form of control</reading> <pause dur="1.2"/> he argued that <pause dur="0.8"/> <reading>the Catholic Church was relatively lax in these controls and have # previously <pause dur="0.4"/> and # many of them were scarcely <pause dur="0.2"/> perceptible <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> Calvinism <pause dur="0.5"/> penetrated to all departments of private and public <pause dur="0.2"/> public life <pause dur="1.2"/> infinitely burdensome <pause dur="0.4"/> earnestly enforced</reading> <pause dur="1.2"/> was # would be today he he argues it would be for us <trunc>t</trunc> us today # # <reading>an absolutely unbearable form of ecclesiastical control</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> so this was <trunc>som</trunc> something that had become the strongest of of the fates <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/> Catholicism in addition <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>was associated with magic and superstition <pause dur="0.9"/> the cycle of sin repentance <pause dur="0.2"/> atonement release <pause dur="0.7"/> followed by renewed sin <pause dur="0.3"/> and mediated by a priest</reading> <pause dur="2.0"/> this was his # very much his his image of # <pause dur="0.2"/> of of Catholicism <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> i have recently found it

fascinating to see the way that this contrast between Protestantism <pause dur="0.3"/> and capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> was played out in another contemporary <pause dur="0.3"/> and highly influential text <pause dur="0.6"/> Thomas Mann's Buddenbrooks <pause dur="0.4"/> so i just want to say something about this <pause dur="0.4"/> Thomas Mann <pause dur="0.2"/> like <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # like # Weber <pause dur="0.5"/> was born <pause dur="0.3"/> into <pause dur="0.3"/> a Hanseatic town <pause dur="0.2"/> was born in in # <pause dur="0.6"/> in Lübeck from a line of # prosperous and influential merchants <pause dur="0.8"/> he was one of these sons who did not follow his # the path into # <pause dur="0.5"/> # becoming a <trunc>s</trunc> a merchant in turn <pause dur="0.4"/> the story that he describes in Buddenbrooks <pause dur="0.4"/> is in <pause dur="0.2"/> some ways # <pause dur="0.3"/> not actually his own story but it follows that # <pause dur="0.5"/> there there is <trunc>ver</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> echoes of that right # right through the book <pause dur="0.5"/> but he has an absolute fascinating # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> penetration <pause dur="0.3"/> in the book of <pause dur="0.3"/> mercantile society and bourgeois family life in these north German <pause dur="0.3"/> Protestant towns <pause dur="0.5"/> there's a wonderful character in the <trunc>bo</trunc> the <trunc>b</trunc> central character of the book i i indeed is a woman # the one of the sisters in the family <pause dur="0.6"/> Antoni <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>an</trunc> <trunc>ant</trunc> or Antonia she would she would have been and she's called Toni <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> she goes off to Munich at one point and describes her

impressions of the Catholics <pause dur="0.4"/><shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> this is # really # <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> really <trunc>fa</trunc> she she describes Munich she says <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>yes one has a <trunc>g</trunc> has to get used to a great deal it is a real foreign country <pause dur="0.4"/> the strange currency and the difficulty of understanding the common people <pause dur="0.5"/> i speak too fast to them and they seem to talk gibberish to me <pause dur="0.5"/> and then the Catholicism <pause dur="0.3"/> i hate it as you know i have no respect for it</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> as she goes on to <trunc>dis</trunc> # writes a very amusing letter home about her encounter with # <pause dur="0.3"/> an archbishop or a <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>pri</trunc> # a high level priest <pause dur="0.4"/> who # <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>gave me an ogling look out of the window like a lieutenant of the guard</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.4"/> # this is # your your # your <trunc>protes</trunc> she says to her mother <reading>your Protestant # missionaries <pause dur="0.4"/> are certainly nothing compared to this rakish old prince of the church</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> # so there's this whole this is sort of echoes right right through this this # <pause dur="0.3"/> this <trunc>c</trunc> # conflict between <pause dur="0.4"/> # the the Protestants and the Catholics <pause dur="0.4"/> and later Thomas Buddenbrook <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> who the is the the eldest son in his family and carries on # <pause dur="0.3"/> the family firm <pause dur="0.4"/> # this family merchant firm <pause dur="0.4"/> he has # # <pause dur="0.2"/>

premonitions of his own downfall <pause dur="0.4"/> and that <pause dur="0.2"/> of the family firm and i this think it's very striking the way he writes this <pause dur="0.4"/> and i want to also tell you this was published first in nineteen-o-two <pause dur="0.5"/> before The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.3"/> was published <pause dur="0.3"/> so this is the kind of thing that is around at the time that # <pause dur="0.5"/> that # that # the The Protestant Ethic was being written <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> he talks about being in a sort of <trunc>de</trunc> depressed mood he says <reading>it may pass <pause dur="0.7"/> but just now i feel older than i am i have business cares <pause dur="0.6"/> at the director's meeting of the Büchen railway yesterday Council Hegenstorm simply talked me down refuted my <trunc>connecs</trunc> contentions <pause dur="0.4"/> nearly made me appear ridiculous <pause dur="0.5"/> i feel that could not have happened to me before it was as though something had begun to slip <pause dur="0.5"/> as though i hadn't the firm grip <pause dur="0.2"/> i had on events <pause dur="0.7"/> what is success <pause dur="1.1"/> it is an inner an indescribable force <pause dur="0.4"/> resourcefulness power of vision a consciousness that i am by my mere existence <pause dur="0.3"/> exerting pressure on the movement of life

above me <pause dur="1.1"/> it is my belief in the adaptability of life to my own ends <pause dur="0.4"/> fortune and success lie with ourselves <pause dur="0.4"/> we must hold them firmly <pause dur="0.2"/> deep within us <pause dur="0.4"/> for as soon as something begins to slip <pause dur="0.3"/> to relax to get tired within us <pause dur="0.3"/> then everything without <pause dur="0.3"/> us will <trunc>reb</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> # rebel <pause dur="0.3"/> and struggle <pause dur="0.3"/> to withdraw from our influence <pause dur="0.8"/> one thing follows another blow after blow and the man is finished <pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and i have often thought of a Turkish proverb <pause dur="0.2"/> which says when the house is finished <pause dur="0.3"/> death come <pause dur="0.4"/> it doesn't need to be death <pause dur="0.2"/> but the decline the falling off the beginning of the end</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> he carries this on but it's an extraordinary statement <pause dur="0.3"/> of this # <pause dur="0.9"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>imp</trunc> # the importance ascribed to this inner force within ourselves <pause dur="0.5"/> which becomes in Weber's terms the the calling <pause dur="0.6"/> well let's # <pause dur="0.2"/> let's look at the calling <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> now the notion of the calling was introduced by the Reformation <pause dur="0.7"/> and projected religious behaviour into the day to day world <pause dur="1.5"/> it was a moral responsibility the moral responsibility of the Protestant <pause dur="0.5"/>

which was <pause dur="0.2"/> accumulative responsibility <pause dur="0.2"/> it was not a cycle <pause dur="0.3"/> as in the Catholic conception of <trunc>s</trunc> of sin repentance <pause dur="0.4"/> forgiveness <pause dur="1.2"/> the idea of the calling was present in Luther's doctrines <pause dur="0.3"/> it was more developed by the Puritan sects of in Calvinism Methodism <pause dur="0.6"/> Pietism and Baptism <pause dur="1.3"/> # it was most focused <trunc>i</trunc> in Calvinism <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="1.9"/> and it became obligatory under this # this <trunc>syste</trunc> this idea of the calling to regard oneself as chosen <pause dur="1.9"/> <reading>a lack of certainty <pause dur="1.4"/> was indicative <trunc>in</trunc> of insufficient faith <pause dur="0.5"/> performance of good works in worldly activity was accepted as a medium whereby surety could be demonstrated</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> so success in a calling came to <trunc>regar</trunc> <trunc>re</trunc> be regarded as a sign of being one of the elect <pause dur="0.7"/> it's very much that that <pause dur="0.2"/> religious conception <pause dur="0.5"/> the accumulation of wealth was sanctioned it was okay <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> as long as it was combined with sober <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> a sober industrious career and not with the expenditure on luxury <pause dur="2.6"/> so Calvinism <pause dur="0.2"/> # Weber <pause dur="0.3"/> # believed had the dynamism to supply the moral energy the drive of capitalist

entrepreneurs <pause dur="4.2"/> now Weber found much to admire in Calvinism for its effectiveness <pause dur="0.7"/> but he also found it deeply <pause dur="0.2"/> problematic <pause dur="0.4"/> so let's look at about at how he he writes about it </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nf0090" trans="pause"> he he looks at <pause dur="0.2"/> predestination <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="1.2"/> shows that <pause dur="0.3"/> there were no magical means of attaining the grace of God <pause dur="0.2"/> for those to whom God had decided to deny it <pause dur="0.3"/> and you didn't know whether you were going to fall into that category <pause dur="0.6"/> there were the harsh very harsh doctrines of absolute <trunc>trans</trunc> transcendentality of God <pause dur="0.5"/> and the corruption of everything pertaining to the <trunc>c</trunc> to the flesh <pause dur="0.8"/> an inner isolation of the individual <pause dur="1.8"/> # so he <trunc>f</trunc> <trunc>s</trunc> you <trunc>f</trunc> see in this the the reason for the negative attitude of Puritanism to sensuous and emotional elements in culture and religion <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="4.3"/> <reading>and the God of Calvinism demanded of believers not single good works but a life of good works combined with a unified system <pause dur="0.3"/> a consistent method of conduct as a whole</reading> <pause dur="1.8"/> now for the Catholics by contrast there was absolution <pause dur="0.3"/> a cycle of sin repentance atonement <pause dur="0.5"/> release <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/>

what <trunc>f</trunc> happens with Calvinism is the idea of the necessity of proving one's faith in worldly activity <pause dur="1.8"/> now if we turn to # <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> turn <pause dur="0.4"/> # just got another <pause dur="4.0"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> turn further to look at # asceticism <pause dur="0.3"/> which is an aspect of of # Calvinism <pause dur="2.2"/> now Weber pursues these themes of the relentless the all pervasive character of Calvinism <pause dur="0.7"/> # he talks about <reading>the waste of time being the first and deadliest sin <pause dur="1.3"/> human life <pause dur="0.2"/> infinitely short and precious <pause dur="1.1"/> # it's very precious to make <trunc>w</trunc> sure of one's own election <pause dur="1.0"/> a loss of time would be caused through sociability idle talk luxury <pause dur="0.9"/> in the Puritan view <pause dur="0.3"/> we see the providential character of the the play of private economic interest taking on a new emphasis</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> the <trunc>p</trunc> and there's this sort of the whole # providentialism of of the the system <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="2.2"/> the <reading>the providential purpose of the division of labour was to be known by its fruits</reading> <pause dur="0.9"/> and again the asceticism <pause dur="0.6"/> is very # # an ascetic # <pause dur="0.3"/> # discipline <pause dur="0.6"/> something that is # <pause dur="1.5"/> # <reading>an enemy to # hostility to sport to recreation to spontaneous

pleasure <pause dur="2.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> all of these things would lead away from <pause dur="0.4"/> # work <pause dur="0.5"/> towards # the calling</reading> <pause dur="4.8"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and again <pause dur="0.3"/> if you look at # some of the the further literature on this he he finds in the <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the fine <trunc>h</trunc> <trunc>a</trunc> fine arts a hatred of anything that smacked of superstition so critique of the theatre not no participation in the theatre <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> it's very interesting that in # <pause dur="0.2"/> Thomas Mann's Buddenbrooks the second son who <pause dur="0.2"/> goes off the rails <pause dur="0.4"/> is always going off to the theatre <pause dur="0.9"/> it's # <pause dur="0.7"/> he's # <pause dur="0.2"/> that's # <pause dur="0.4"/> the the sort of negative # side of # <pause dur="0.5"/> # # the # the the very negative attitudes towards of of Calvinism to # <pause dur="0.4"/> to this <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> now <pause dur="0.7"/> # if we look at the one of the things that that comes up here is what about the idea of possessions <pause dur="2.1"/> # <pause dur="1.6"/> it allowed this this whole ethos allowed for the accumulation of possessions <pause dur="0.6"/> but if you look to the idea of a man's duty to his possessions <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> with Calvinism he suborts <trunc>him</trunc> <trunc>bo</trunc> subordinates himself as the obedient steward <pause dur="1.0"/> a steward of these possessions a steward <pause dur="0.4"/> # or an acquisitive # <trunc>o</trunc> of an acquisitive machine it was <pause dur="0.3"/> the greater the

possessions <pause dur="0.6"/> he had <pause dur="0.4"/> the heavier the feeling of <pause dur="0.2"/> # responsibility for them <pause dur="3.0"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> so we see this sort of increase attempt to increase the glory of God and so increasing these possessions by <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>re</trunc> # restless effort <pause dur="1.3"/> # but <pause dur="0.2"/> worldly <trunc>pr</trunc> # Protestant # <pause dur="0.2"/> asceticism acted against the spontaneous enjoyment <pause dur="0.2"/> of # <pause dur="0.3"/> possessions <pause dur="1.0"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> the possessions that were there they were not to be luxuries <pause dur="0.5"/> restricted consumption <trunc>o</trunc> of luxuries <pause dur="2.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="2.4"/> now Weber's Calvinist <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> at the end of the day <pause dur="0.8"/> couldn't bring himself <pause dur="0.3"/> to accept the presumption of salvation <pause dur="1.1"/> and so no matter how hard he worked <pause dur="0.6"/> how # <pause dur="1.6"/> how <trunc>f</trunc> # <trunc>fa</trunc> great his accumulation of wealth was <pause dur="0.3"/> how successful a businessman he was <pause dur="0.4"/> how important a member of the business community or a <trunc>s</trunc> political community he was <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> he suffered the anguish <pause dur="0.5"/> that only rational world activity <pause dur="0.2"/> can mollify <pause dur="0.4"/> and # <pause dur="0.4"/> would have <trunc>t</trunc> had no # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # no sense that <pause dur="0.5"/> he <trunc>w</trunc> had succeeded in becoming # <trunc>t</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> becoming one of the elect # <pause dur="0.2"/> succeeded <trunc>i</trunc> in reaching God <pause dur="0.9"/> and so <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="sigh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> # we have <pause dur="1.0"/> material goods <pause dur="0.7"/> then <trunc>cr</trunc> gaining <pause dur="0.4"/> an increasing

an <sic corr="inexorable">inecexorable</sic> power <pause dur="0.2"/> over the lives of men <pause dur="0.9"/> and this is where Weber the text seems to be leading <pause dur="0.3"/> in a very i mean it's very interesting direction for the text sort of just at this juncture <pause dur="0.4"/> because it looks <pause dur="0.3"/> as you're reading this text <pause dur="0.3"/> that Weber <pause dur="0.5"/> is # <pause dur="0.5"/> praising <pause dur="0.3"/> this great <trunc>cal</trunc> you know this great entrepreneurial figure with this sort of # the sense of the calling <pause dur="0.5"/> the # <pause dur="0.4"/> this <pause dur="0.6"/> Calvinist # <pause dur="0.3"/> impetus to work <pause dur="0.6"/> but he shows <pause dur="0.3"/> here <pause dur="0.7"/> just how much power <pause dur="0.5"/> these <trunc>possess</trunc> the material possessions the the success in economic life starts to take over <pause dur="0.4"/> his whole entire # self <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> so <trunc>victoriou</trunc> victorious capitalism he argues rests on mechanical foundations <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="0.6"/> this is where i just want to # <pause dur="0.6"/> read you <trunc>thi</trunc> this passage because this is where the whole thing <pause dur="0.4"/> it's just you got to get to the end and you got to read the whole thing and get to the end <pause dur="0.4"/> 'cause <pause dur="0.7"/> he starts to talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> # the iron cage of capitalism <pause dur="0.4"/> that's where it all ends up <pause dur="0.5"/> where # <pause dur="0.6"/> everything is # we have this sort of being entirely

controlled by this effort to work <pause dur="0.3"/> effort to to reach God through through this this kind of material success <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and the possessions actually taking a total grip <pause dur="0.3"/> on on <trunc>hi</trunc> # his soul <pause dur="0.5"/> and he says # <pause dur="0.7"/> he says here <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="3.9"/> <reading>since <trunc>ascetic</trunc> # asceticism <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.9"/> undertook to remodel the world and work out its ideals in the world <pause dur="0.5"/> # material goods have gained an increasing and finally an <trunc>ec</trunc> inexorable power over the lives of men <pause dur="0.4"/> as at no previous period of history</reading> <pause dur="1.6"/> # he goes back <pause dur="0.3"/> in a in a previous <trunc>paras</trunc> he <trunc>t</trunc> he talks about <pause dur="0.4"/> the the early # some of the earlier # <pause dur="0.3"/> writers on this Baxter writing <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>that the care for external goods should only lie in the soldiers of the saint like a light cloak which can be thrown aside at any moment</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> but Weber says <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>but fate decreed the cloak should become an iron cage <pause dur="1.6"/> today the spirit of <trunc>re</trunc> religious asceticism where there finally who knows has escaped from the cage <pause dur="0.3"/> but victorious capitalism <pause dur="0.3"/> since it rests on mechanical foundations <pause dur="0.3"/> needs its support no longer <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="2.0"/> the rosy blush of its laughing air the Enlightenment

seems to be irretrievably fading and the idea of duty and one's <trunc>cal</trunc> calling <pause dur="0.4"/> prowls about in our lives like the <trunc>dos</trunc> ghost of dead religious beliefs <pause dur="0.9"/> # where the fulfilment of the calling cannot directly be related to the highest spiritual and cultural values <pause dur="0.5"/> or when on the other hand it need not be felt <pause dur="0.2"/> simply as economic compulsion <pause dur="0.3"/> the individual abandons the attempt <pause dur="0.2"/> to justify it</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> and so does it without knowing <pause dur="0.3"/> why <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> so there's where he ends up <pause dur="0.3"/> in the text <pause dur="0.7"/> <reading>who will live in this cage in the future <pause dur="2.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> specialists without spirits sensualists without heart <pause dur="0.5"/> this nullity imagines it has attained a level of civilization never before achieved</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/> so that's where he he gets us to <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> you can ask <pause dur="0.2"/> to what extent was this an endorsement of the The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.3"/> or its ultimate critique <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> now we # <pause dur="0.5"/> have # <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a <trunc>n</trunc> a whole # series of <trunc>are</trunc> areas in which we could take this text <pause dur="0.4"/> there's a number of issues that arose immediately the # <pause dur="0.5"/> The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.2"/> was set up <pause dur="0.3"/> there were a lot of critiques <pause dur="0.3"/>

made of it by a whole series of # <pause dur="0.3"/> writers <pause dur="0.2"/> in inside and outside Germany at the time <pause dur="0.4"/> it has become <pause dur="0.3"/> a subject of intense debate about its meaning and about # <pause dur="0.5"/> the areas where Weber went wrong et cetera <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> these covered <pause dur="0.3"/> a whole series of # of topics such as his <pause dur="0.5"/> # definition of # different <trunc>relid</trunc> # what what he said <trunc>wha</trunc> what he said characterized various religions <pause dur="0.4"/> # his characterizations of the differences between eastern and western <pause dur="0.4"/> # countries <pause dur="0.4"/> # his differences that he set out <pause dur="0.3"/> between Calvinism and # Catholicism <pause dur="0.4"/> what he had to say about Judaism <pause dur="0.5"/> these are a whole series of issues where there <pause dur="0.3"/> was a lot of # dispute and debate <pause dur="0.3"/> and # <pause dur="1.4"/> you will find <pause dur="0.3"/> that discussion <pause dur="0.5"/> carried on at length in the articles about The Protestant Ethic <pause dur="0.3"/> that that are on your reading list <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="3.1"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> though # <pause dur="2.0"/> okay <pause dur="1.7"/> i i think that that's # i <trunc>th</trunc> i'll just # take it to there i think you will see the disputes ranging over these <trunc>the</trunc> these areas and take them up in your text <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> and <trunc>y</trunc> and in your seminar <pause dur="0.7"/> okay # <pause dur="0.3"/> so i'll stop there

</u></body>

</text></TEI.2>