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<title>The Annales: Braudel and beyond</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:50:58" n="8233">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>

<language id="fr">French</language>



<person id="nm0093" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm0093, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="m"><p>sl, all, medium group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="3"><p>number of speakers: 3</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">History</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG3</item>

<item n="module">Historiography</item>




<u who="nm0093"> good morning <pause dur="1.0"/> how are you all <pause dur="0.2"/> all right <pause dur="2.7"/> good <pause dur="0.3"/> just a few notices <pause dur="0.2"/> just a reminder after this # <pause dur="0.6"/> # today <pause dur="0.2"/> # one o'clock <pause dur="0.7"/> in room H-four-o-three there's an open <pause dur="0.6"/> day for potential graduate students so if you're thinking of going on doing # <pause dur="0.5"/> # graduate work <pause dur="0.7"/> postgraduate work in # this university or elsewhere go along and # chat <pause dur="0.5"/> # have a discussion <pause dur="0.3"/> room H-four-o-three <pause dur="1.2"/> secondly this <pause dur="0.2"/> same time next week <pause dur="0.4"/> and in this room <pause dur="0.2"/> there will be a session for # <pause dur="0.3"/> students <pause dur="0.2"/> for <pause dur="0.2"/> third year students # # a sort of careers session <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>b</trunc> <trunc>w</trunc> there'll be publicity going up over the next week <pause dur="0.3"/> but it's targeted at you <pause dur="0.5"/> # so if you're <pause dur="0.5"/> thinking you might like a job at the end of all this <pause dur="0.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="2" n="ss"/> # <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/> whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> # that is that could be helpful and useful for you so <sic corr="please">trees</sic> <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>b</trunc> # book that time <pause dur="0.2"/> this <trunc>th</trunc> this place <pause dur="0.5"/> one o'clock

after the lecture next week <pause dur="0.2"/> and there'll be a session <pause dur="0.5"/> and then thirdly i'm told <pause dur="0.3"/> that there is a # <pause dur="0.3"/> sign up notice <pause dur="0.2"/> about library skills # sessions <pause dur="0.5"/> # aimed at second and third year students intended to focus on library reference and bibiliographical sources <pause dur="0.5"/> in the library and also remote sites accessed via the Internet <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> this is <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean i know you probably all know all this stuff anyway but particularly if you're going to do a long essay <pause dur="0.3"/> associated with your special subject or whatever this year <pause dur="0.4"/> this could be very helpful for you <pause dur="0.4"/> so there there there is a <pause dur="0.7"/> # two two times so it's on a sign up basis it'll be on the board <pause dur="0.3"/> one is # <pause dur="1.2"/> actually good lord it's <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>today <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> i wonder why i've been given this to to talk today <pause dur="0.3"/> it's at one o'clock so # there's again there's another clash <pause dur="0.3"/> # there for you <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> so i would just turn up and it's in # library training room <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> floor one of the library </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0093" trans="pause">

the Annales <pause dur="1.3"/> we left it last week <pause dur="0.4"/> # just <pause dur="0.2"/> in the post-war <pause dur="0.8"/> moment <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> in which <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>f</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> academic life in France as most of the <trunc>wester</trunc> the rest of the western Europe <pause dur="0.4"/> is <trunc>re</trunc> <pause dur="0.7"/> reorganizing itself if you like in the aftermath of # # the war <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> as i argued what happens then is that <pause dur="0.6"/> # an intellectual grouping associated with <pause dur="0.8"/> a history periodical <pause dur="0.2"/> the Annales <pause dur="0.7"/> # which in the <trunc>s</trunc> from its inception in nineteen-twenty-nine through the thirties <pause dur="0.4"/> had been a crusading <pause dur="0.4"/> a crusading journal if you like for a new kind <pause dur="0.4"/> # of history <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> secures a very firm institutional base <pause dur="0.3"/> at the heart of the of higher education and # <pause dur="0.4"/> # the research establishment <pause dur="0.3"/> # within # # within France <pause dur="1.2"/> and that <pause dur="0.3"/> what that stood for was # a greater openness in French # in the French historical establishment <pause dur="0.2"/> # thereafter <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> towards <pause dur="0.5"/> social <pause dur="0.3"/> economic <pause dur="0.2"/> and cultural history i mean the <pause dur="0.2"/> the journal <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>ref</trunc> <trunc>rec</trunc> renamed itself as i as i mentioned last time the Annales has gone through a number of <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> changes of name <pause dur="0.5"/> # <trunc>rech</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> changed its name to Annales <pause dur="0.3"/>

well it's usually E-S-C <pause dur="0.2"/> <distinct lang="fr">économies</distinct> economies <distinct lang="fr">sociétés</distinct> societies <distinct lang="fr">civilisation</distinct> <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> economy <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>soci</trunc> <trunc>s</trunc> <trunc>e</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> economic history social history <pause dur="0.2"/> cultural history that's the sort of triad of values which this <pause dur="0.9"/> new type of history of the thirties had established <pause dur="0.3"/> a move away from the politico <pause dur="0.3"/> # # <trunc>e</trunc> political <pause dur="0.3"/> elitist type of narrative history which had been as i was arguing was the norm <pause dur="0.4"/> in # French historical <pause dur="0.5"/> departments or establishments # <trunc>hither</trunc> hitherto <pause dur="0.7"/> and that <pause dur="0.4"/> and this is the last point i i left you with really <pause dur="0.4"/> it is at that moment that there appears <pause dur="0.4"/> a work which would be the flagship <pause dur="0.2"/> if you like of the Annales <pause dur="0.4"/> approach which # Lucien Febvre <pause dur="0.4"/> who is the <trunc>s</trunc> the <trunc>do</trunc> doctoral <pause dur="0.2"/> supervisor <pause dur="0.2"/> the doctoral # of of this doctoral dissertation <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>f</trunc> Lucien Febvre says <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> it's everything we've been looking for and waiting <pause dur="0.4"/> # for <pause dur="0.5"/> it will be the work of <pause dur="0.3"/> a man Fernand Braudel <pause dur="0.3"/> who had spent most of the # Second World War <pause dur="0.4"/> in a prisoner of war camp in Germany <pause dur="0.4"/> and there had written on <pause dur="0.3"/> old school <pause dur="0.2"/> # notebooks <pause dur="0.3"/> the

core of a thesis which he'd researched <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the nineteen-thirties in a number of # # locations <pause dur="0.4"/> # which were sustained as a thesis and which was published in nineteen-forty-nine as <pause dur="0.4"/> The Mediterranean <pause dur="0.3"/> and the Mediterranean World <pause dur="0.4"/> in the Age of Philip the Second <pause dur="0.2"/> published in nineteen-forty-nine author Fernand Braudel <pause dur="0.4"/> Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World <pause dur="0.4"/> in the Age of # # Philip the Second the sixteenth century <pause dur="0.2"/> # broadly speaking <pause dur="0.7"/> this a classic work and if you're doing the Annales <pause dur="1.0"/> you do Braudel <pause dur="0.4"/> you know about this # # this work <pause dur="0.5"/> he had been a pupil of # Lucien Febvre a doctoral student working under Lucien Febvre in the nineteen-#-thirties <pause dur="0.5"/> he'd <pause dur="0.2"/> had a number of postings including one in São Paulo in # Argentina <pause dur="0.3"/> but had spent as i say most of the war in a concentration camp where he was sort of writing up very good place to write up i would think a as long as you can get paper and pen <pause dur="0.3"/> a <trunc>conc</trunc> a concentration camp doesn't have the sort of

diversions of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # other sort of # # localities bit grim sometimes i'm sure but # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> publishes it nineteen-forty-nine goes into a re-edition in nineteen-seventy-two it is one of the classics of twentieth century historiography <pause dur="0.2"/> why what's so special about it <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> more pertinently for what we're saying now how does it link up to <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> that new kind of history why is it seen as a sort of # a role model a flagship of this new genre <pause dur="0.3"/> of Annales style history <pause dur="0.8"/> well one thing you can say about it absolutely it is not the kind of small scale study <pause dur="0.3"/> which <pause dur="0.4"/> Febvre and Bloch had argued before history had been obsessed with before you know ministries and # <pause dur="0.4"/> kings and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.5"/> it is <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> a massive it has a massive focus it is <pause dur="0.2"/> at the heart of the study is the history of a sea <pause dur="0.2"/> the Mediterranean Sea not even a small sea <pause dur="0.4"/> # a very big <pause dur="0.3"/> # # sea it's not small <trunc>se</trunc> # # small scale <pause dur="0.6"/> it is non-Eurocentric because one of the interesting things about this is # one of the numerous things which are

interesting about it <pause dur="0.4"/> is that it is # <pause dur="0.3"/> a <trunc>s</trunc> # the Mediterranean is a <pause dur="0.2"/> # a sea which abuts on two three <pause dur="0.2"/> # continents and therefore you can write <pause dur="0.2"/> a history which is not as Eurocentric as most of the history had been written # hitherto he's as interested in other words <pause dur="0.4"/> in the southern <pause dur="0.2"/> and eastern shores of the # Mediterranean as its # European <pause dur="0.3"/> # # # # fringe as well <pause dur="0.9"/> it is very clearly an anti <pause dur="0.3"/> well even yes i think anti certainly non but even anti politicocentric <pause dur="0.3"/> # text as well <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> # <trunc>br</trunc> Braudel tells the story how of how when he was starting his # doctoral research <pause dur="0.4"/> he he wanted to work on the diplomatic history <pause dur="0.3"/> of the age of Philip the Second <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and indeed that study is still there but it's encased # <trunc>i</trunc> within a much broader <pause dur="0.3"/> # framework as as # we'll see <pause dur="1.6"/> it is fourthly <pause dur="0.4"/> avowedly and very <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of magnificently interdisciplinary <pause dur="0.5"/> # sociology economics cultural history <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> demography <pause dur="0.2"/> i think that's coming in as well in other words the study of population <pause dur="0.3"/> in the past through

quantitive # # <trunc>m</trunc> # materials assembled in any way through parish records or <pause dur="0.4"/> or whatever i think that's one of the big <pause dur="0.8"/> you know developments in post-war French history the way in which population history gets written into <pause dur="0.3"/> # the way in which French history # # is done <pause dur="0.8"/> and the other discipline i think which it draws very heavily on and which again goes back to the Annales <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of paradigm is geography <pause dur="0.5"/> # you know this is a a geographical history in fact sometimes called <pause dur="0.5"/> geohistory Braudel's geohistory as it you see that sometimes in # referred to <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> it's got a hero this <trunc>st</trunc> story this narrative but the hero's not a man or a woman <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a sea <pause dur="0.5"/> # the sea is absolutely at the heart the the you know the topic of the <pause dur="0.3"/> of the of the book <pause dur="0.5"/> and he goes on i mean one of one of the other works which he does which i think isn't quite as # as # sort of earth shattering as this really <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> on capitalism in the early modern period <pause dur="0.3"/> which again is <pause dur="0.6"/> goes on from this and <trunc>tr</trunc> tries to see <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> do a history of not just the <trunc>s</trunc>

the Mediterranean but of the whole <pause dur="0.2"/> the whole world a sort of global history # which brings in the geographical factors in particular and which is very interdisciplinary <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>a</trunc> and whatever so <pause dur="0.4"/> extremely interdisciplinary and this is something which he continues # with <pause dur="1.0"/> and another <pause dur="0.6"/> i think central feature of the work which i'd really highlight which i think is what <trunc>brau</trunc> one of the things that Braudel brings to <pause dur="0.5"/> # the Annales <pause dur="0.4"/> framework or the Annales paradigm and gives it a sort of very distinctive feel about <pause dur="0.4"/> is his notion of time so when i'm talking about fernel <pause dur="0.4"/> Fernand Braudel's time i'm not just thinking of the moment of Fernand Braudel <pause dur="0.3"/> the advent of <trunc>for</trunc> Fernand Braudel in the late forties i'm thinking also <pause dur="0.4"/> of his notion of <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # time <pause dur="1.5"/> it links his notion of time links back to those critiques of narrative <pause dur="0.3"/> and political narrative which Lucien Febvre and Marc Bloch <pause dur="0.3"/> were making <trunc>agai</trunc> # # in the past <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> against that sort of political emphasis <pause dur="0.2"/> # # <trunc>o</trunc> on # # <trunc>l</trunc> # against that idea

that <pause dur="0.4"/> history had to be told through the narrative of a ruling elite or a king or a ministry <pause dur="0.3"/> # or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> implicit in that against the idea that time is something which is linear <pause dur="0.6"/> linear and can be followed <pause dur="0.3"/> by a narrative # mode so you just you know history is what happened next <pause dur="0.4"/> # # if you like and that comes out <pause dur="0.4"/> # in <pause dur="0.2"/> in the way in which history # was and to a certain extent is written by many <pause dur="0.4"/> # # people <pause dur="2.8"/> not only is it unilinear is it <pause dur="0.2"/> it is also homogeneous <pause dur="0.4"/> # so basically <pause dur="0.3"/> it <pause dur="0.2"/> follows the same frameworks as political history how many of us not have not read something like <pause dur="0.8"/> you know Society in the Age of # <pause dur="0.2"/> Louis the Fourteenth or Population in Society in Victorian England so accepting the political framework and working within <pause dur="0.4"/> # with those <pause dur="0.8"/> for Braudel <pause dur="0.5"/> time i think had little to do with dates of kings and ministries <pause dur="0.4"/> # but rather <pause dur="0.4"/> time <pause dur="0.3"/> # pulsates to social economic <pause dur="0.3"/> cultural <pause dur="0.4"/> even geographical <pause dur="0.3"/> # rhythms <pause dur="2.1"/> in the <pause dur="0.3"/> preface to The Mediterranean World he

says he sort of started on this biography well this diplomatic history rather <pause dur="0.3"/> of # Phillip the Second <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> he <pause dur="0.4"/> decided he'd work not just on Spanish diplomatic documents but as many diplomatic documents as he could so he <trunc>look</trunc> went all over the Mediterranean all over Europe looking at other <pause dur="0.4"/> # # records <pause dur="0.4"/> and he said there came a moment there came a moment <pause dur="0.2"/> and he got interested in population and society and economics and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.5"/> there came a moment when he <trunc>s</trunc> he <trunc>s</trunc> said he suddenly had a sort of moment of realization <pause dur="0.5"/> that Philip the Second who after all was going to be the hero the centre <pause dur="0.4"/> the absolute centre of this study <pause dur="0.3"/> was and i'm quoting <pause dur="0.4"/> more acted upon <pause dur="0.2"/> than actor <pause dur="0.4"/> he was <distinct lang="fr">plus agi qu'acteur</distinct> he was more acted upon <pause dur="0.4"/> # than actor <pause dur="0.4"/> now this obviously is recalling and i think probably fairly consciously <pause dur="0.4"/> # the <trunc>i</trunc> # in in by Braudel the idea <pause dur="0.3"/> outlined by Marx in The Eighteenth Brumaire that <pause dur="0.5"/> man as # <pause dur="0.2"/> Marx put it makes his own history <pause dur="0.4"/> but not under conditions of his

own choosing <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> and that <pause dur="0.3"/> what <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>ca</trunc> we can see if we're not careful as human <pause dur="0.7"/> freedom of choice or freedom or or or or will <pause dur="0.5"/> can sometimes be conditioned by social <pause dur="0.3"/> economic <pause dur="0.3"/> # all sorts of other factors which are <pause dur="0.3"/> having a determining <pause dur="0.2"/> but not always conscious influence <pause dur="0.3"/> on the actions of a particular <pause dur="0.4"/> # # person <pause dur="0.3"/> so i think from that <pause dur="0.5"/> from that moment of realization that Phillip the Second more acted upon than actor <pause dur="0.5"/> more a a pawn if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> in the in in in the in the web of # complex and interlocking <pause dur="0.3"/> determinisms <pause dur="0.3"/> than someone absolutely at the heart of and on top of the action which # <pause dur="0.4"/> was taking place under under his reign <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> i think <pause dur="0.4"/> Braudel <pause dur="0.2"/> builds and <trunc>i</trunc> constructs a really quite complicated <pause dur="0.3"/> so i'll take some time over it but i think important <pause dur="0.4"/> notion of <pause dur="0.3"/> time how the <trunc>t</trunc> historian should deal with <pause dur="0.4"/> # time which is after all <pause dur="0.2"/> the substance of what historical work is about or it certainly its mode <pause dur="0.6"/> of # # the way in which it unravels <pause dur="1.3"/> basically what Braudel goes on and says <pause dur="0.5"/> i <pause dur="0.4"/> from this realization is

that <pause dur="1.0"/> maybe i was too obsessed <pause dur="0.2"/> and maybe other historians have been too obsessed <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> the surface if you like of the past <pause dur="0.5"/> they've just sort of like gone for <pause dur="0.4"/> the big political actors <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.5"/> kings queens ministers <pause dur="0.4"/> # or whatever <pause dur="0.5"/> and they've told the story of the surface <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> # a king dies a minister falls # a war breaks out a war ends # or whatever <pause dur="0.5"/> this is if you like the history of events <pause dur="0.3"/> this is <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> to give you another word <pause dur="0.5"/> # phrase <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="13"/> which <pause dur="0.3"/> if you do Annales you have to know the Annales you have to <pause dur="0.6"/> throw this in <pause dur="0.7"/> event history or <distinct lang="fr">l'histoire événementielle</distinct> <pause dur="2.2"/> <distinct lang="fr">entiel</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> so you know this is definitely dinner party talk here <pause dur="0.5"/> <distinct lang="fr">l'histoire événementielle</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of narrative history event history <pause dur="0.4"/> # at the <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> surface at the topmost surface <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> of of the past the most visible <pause dur="0.4"/> the most newsworthy if you like part of history <pause dur="2.4"/> and what <pause dur="0.2"/> Braudel argues is the historian's job is not just to record that not just to <pause dur="0.3"/> tell that story but also to # <pause dur="0.2"/> see the forces which are

underlying it <pause dur="0.2"/> and which condition <pause dur="0.4"/> and determine it as well <pause dur="0.4"/> and the metaphor which he uses to to sort of get this sense that <pause dur="0.9"/> that sort of top level that surface level of event history is only one dimension or one <trunc>a</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> level of the story <pause dur="0.4"/> the metaphor he uses is of the sea <pause dur="0.6"/> he says <pause dur="0.4"/> basically what historians have been interested in the past is like <pause dur="0.5"/> the froth of history <pause dur="0.3"/> the froth you know the little waves going up and down a king falls <pause dur="0.6"/> war breaks out and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.5"/> that sort of level they followed the surface level <pause dur="0.5"/> of the # of the ocean <pause dur="1.0"/> but there are tides <pause dur="1.3"/> if you're the do the # if you're an oceanographer you need to know about tides <pause dur="0.5"/> if you're an oceanographer you need to know about the deep <pause dur="0.7"/> the linear history the surface history <pause dur="0.4"/> <distinct lang="fr">l'histoire événementielle</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> is only one of what he <trunc>s</trunc> argues are three levels of if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> # of of of time which the historian has to try and deal <pause dur="0.3"/> # deal with <pause dur="0.9"/> now <pause dur="0.5"/> those three levels are in fact <pause dur="0.4"/> in The Mediterranean and Mediterranean World

the three <pause dur="0.5"/> sections in which he <pause dur="0.2"/> he he does he divides the book <pause dur="0.5"/> and there is an event history as i say he started off doing diplomatic history of Philip # the Second <pause dur="0.3"/> and there is a sort of diplomatic history of the reign of Phillip the <trunc>se</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> # Philip the Second <pause dur="0.5"/> but it's the third part <pause dur="0.2"/> and i think that's quite symptomatic in other words <pause dur="0.7"/> it's probably not the most important the most important is what comes first <pause dur="0.3"/> # and second and part one <pause dur="1.7"/> is <pause dur="0.5"/> if you like the deep <pause dur="0.4"/> the <trunc>o</trunc> the oceanic # metaphor the deep those <pause dur="0.4"/> deep <pause dur="0.3"/> and barely mutable structures <pause dur="0.3"/> within which men <pause dur="0.3"/> of the <trunc>six</trunc> and women of the sixteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> # lived <pause dur="0.4"/> things like mountains <pause dur="0.3"/> islands <pause dur="0.5"/> population densities <pause dur="0.3"/> rivers <pause dur="0.9"/> if you took just a <pause dur="0.3"/> a if you sort of were talking about # <pause dur="0.8"/> a particular <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="2.2"/> moment like the sixteenth century then you know it would <pause dur="0.3"/> you wouldn't notice any move <pause dur="0.2"/> you wouldn't notice any history to those phenomena 'cause they seem to be <pause dur="0.3"/> immutable <pause dur="0.8"/> if however you took the long <pause dur="0.9"/> the the long perspective if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> if you put your

framework <pause dur="0.9"/> around the sixteenth century but stretched it out if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> you might see some movement after all rivers silt up <pause dur="0.6"/> # mountains have <pause dur="0.2"/> railways driven up through them or or or under them <pause dur="0.2"/> so in other words even geography <trunc>eve</trunc> even some of the most <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> apparently unchangeable aspects of the past of of of of the environment in the past <pause dur="0.4"/> have their own history <pause dur="0.4"/> but for doing that you need to study not <pause dur="0.5"/> you know <pause dur="1.3"/> fourteenth of July seventeen-eighty-nine attack on the Bastille <pause dur="0.6"/> you need to see things in the long term <pause dur="0.3"/> or again the great Braudelian word and again something to drop <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="6"/> a <pause dur="0.9"/> phrase to <pause dur="0.4"/> to use the <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> <pause dur="1.4"/> long <pause dur="0.2"/> duration <pause dur="0.2"/> so in other words there are only <trunc>s</trunc> there are some historical realities <pause dur="0.4"/> which are only graspable <pause dur="0.5"/> if you take the perspective of <pause dur="0.6"/> <distinct lang="fr">la longue durée</distinct> the long long # duration <pause dur="0.8"/> and so <pause dur="0.4"/> if you look at that <trunc>ch</trunc> # # chapter <pause dur="1.1"/> on # <pause dur="0.6"/> # the first chapter it's a very brilliant chapter <pause dur="0.4"/> # of the # <pause dur="0.2"/>

Mediterranean Mediterranean World you'll find him talking <pause dur="0.4"/> about the geographical realities of the sixteenth century and these immutable realities <pause dur="0.4"/> but in terms <trunc>a</trunc> and using evidence which can be from the twelfth century or <trunc>ma</trunc> might even be from the twentieth century because it's only taking <pause dur="0.3"/> the long framework the long <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> that you can get that sort of # <pause dur="0.3"/> # sense of what the realities were in in that particular <pause dur="0.3"/> # moment <pause dur="1.9"/> what about <pause dur="0.4"/> is there anything between if you like <pause dur="0.2"/> <distinct lang="fr">la longue durée</distinct> <pause dur="0.7"/> the sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> the deep <pause dur="0.2"/> of the of the oceans <pause dur="0.3"/> and the surface well <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> yes he says there is a second layer <pause dur="0.4"/> # between <pause dur="0.3"/> # the <pause dur="0.4"/> # the two <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> this is if you like the <trunc>oce</trunc> ocean metaphor tides so <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> waves move up a little bit of froth a little bit of froth # here or there or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> but there are also tides moving them almost you know imperceptibly to the human eye but they are clearly <pause dur="0.3"/> # moving them <pause dur="0.6"/> # not not # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> following the sort of very <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> type of # time scale <pause dur="0.2"/> but a sort of midway

time scale pitched between <pause dur="0.3"/> events <pause dur="0.3"/> and underlying <pause dur="0.2"/> # structures <pause dur="0.3"/> and here he's thinking of things like <pause dur="0.4"/> price <pause dur="0.4"/> # cycles or population trends <pause dur="0.2"/> or cultural trends <pause dur="0.3"/> things which you know classically might last a generation or a generation or two so we think of the sixteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> we think of the price revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> # the # the <trunc>incre</trunc> well i'm sure you all remember this from basic two <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the rise in prices which you know goes over the whole of the sixteenth century and then the seventeenth century we have a deflation of prices so you know these are <pause dur="0.4"/> these are the tides of history if you like which the historian also has to try and <pause dur="0.3"/> # realize between the events the you know day almost daily or yearly occurrences <pause dur="0.2"/> and these very sort of <pause dur="0.6"/> immutable history <pause dur="0.3"/> # # underneath <pause dur="1.6"/> <trunc>his</trunc> the past <pause dur="0.8"/> for the historian the historian's time <pause dur="0.2"/> Braudel's time then <pause dur="0.2"/> has layers <pause dur="0.5"/> it is not a unilinear <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of movement <pause dur="0.2"/> nor is it homogeneous you know <trunc>y</trunc> you when he when he's looking at # <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> #

some of the sort of geographical factors he's <pause dur="0.3"/> drawing evidence from outside the sixteenth # # century and each <pause dur="0.4"/> of these levels each of these layers is following its own <pause dur="0.2"/> its own logic <pause dur="0.6"/> its own logic and its own rationality and its own <pause dur="0.6"/> rhythm its own temporal <pause dur="0.3"/> # rhythm <pause dur="0.7"/> and what the historian's task for Braudel <pause dur="0.5"/> is is firstly to <pause dur="0.5"/> be aware of and to work within that sort of tripartite division of the past <pause dur="0.7"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> event history at the top <pause dur="0.9"/> trend history if you like to call it <trunc>undern</trunc> # underneath <pause dur="0.3"/> and then <pause dur="0.2"/> sort of basic long term structures underneath to to work within that <pause dur="0.4"/> and to work for a history which combines those in a single <pause dur="0.4"/> single <pause dur="0.3"/> view <trunc>a</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> and provides what he calls <pause dur="0.2"/> a total <pause dur="0.3"/> history <pause dur="0.5"/> # a history which takes everything <pause dur="0.3"/> in <pause dur="1.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> that means that <pause dur="0.4"/> our notions of historical causation <pause dur="0.3"/> must inevitably change fairly radically if we see time <pause dur="0.3"/> and if we see the past in those terms <pause dur="0.3"/> because if for example <pause dur="0.3"/> you know classically why does <pause dur="0.6"/> you know Philip

the Second <pause dur="0.3"/> you know send an armada to # to England in # <pause dur="0.2"/> whenever it is fifteen-eighty-eight or why to go to war in <pause dur="0.4"/> in # # nineteen-fourteen <pause dur="1.0"/> a an event history type of # approach well would look at the actors involved and try and to say think well he said that he thought that he intended to do that <pause dur="0.4"/> he got this wrong he thought someone else was doing it <pause dur="0.2"/> so in other words in terms of intentions and actions and purpose of actions by the individuals <pause dur="0.3"/> # involved <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> Braudel is saying what we need to do is to see that within the wider frameworks of trends and <trunc>u</trunc> <trunc>und</trunc> underlying <pause dur="0.3"/> # structures which can explain <pause dur="0.3"/> # # the way that # # this this actually happened so these long term factors <pause dur="0.3"/> can have their impact <pause dur="0.3"/> # on # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> # on on why things happen when they do and what <pause dur="0.3"/> the way in which we think about causes <pause dur="0.2"/> for historical # actions <pause dur="0.3"/> let me give you an example of that 'cause i can see that sort of look of <pause dur="0.9"/> we call it the <trunc>historiograph</trunc> <trunc>hiri</trunc> historiography <pause dur="0.3"/> dazzle or bafflement which you know

it's a sort of well known clinical condition that we always see <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of spreading around the room at particular moments <pause dur="0.4"/> let me give you a particular example of how that type of structural <pause dur="0.3"/> approach to causation <pause dur="0.4"/> bringing in the idea of different temporal rhythms <pause dur="0.3"/> # might actually <pause dur="0.3"/> # work and the <trunc>w</trunc><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> the one i'm going to take is <pause dur="0.4"/> someone who <pause dur="0.2"/> who actually writes in the Annales i don't know what you know <trunc>m</trunc> we don't always <pause dur="0.3"/> people don't always say that he's a member of the Annales School but it's a particularly good <pause dur="0.4"/> example i think which will bring this out <pause dur="0.5"/> Labrousse <pause dur="0.4"/> Ernest Labrousse <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> writing <pause dur="1.2"/> in the # <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="2.6"/> # thirties and forties <pause dur="0.7"/> and writing about one of the great you know # <pause dur="0.2"/> events of history the French Revolution <pause dur="0.6"/> i would say that wouldn't i as a French revolutionary historian but # <pause dur="0.5"/> why did you know big historical question why did the <trunc>r</trunc> the why was there a <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>revolution <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>in seventeen-eighty-nine why did Bastille fall <pause dur="0.4"/> on # July the fourteenth # # <trunc>s</trunc> # <pause dur="0.2"/> <unclear>where am i</unclear> # seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.4"/>

# July the fourteenth seventeen-eighty-nine what what's going on there now <pause dur="0.4"/> how are you going to tell that story <pause dur="0.3"/> i mean one way of doing that is to say well <pause dur="0.6"/> we need to concentrate on what Louis the Sixteenth thought he was doing and then we need to look at what the <pause dur="0.3"/> estates general and then there are people like Mirabeau <pause dur="0.5"/> and we can see the interlocking the intermeshing if you like of political actions and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.5"/> # going on <pause dur="0.3"/> # in one way # or the other so we could do that and it'd just be about politics it wouldn't be a problem okay there'd be a revolution <pause dur="0.4"/> Louis the Sixteenth was not a good king <pause dur="0.4"/> didn't manage the population didn't <trunc>mo</trunc> manage society well <pause dur="0.5"/> # government fell apart <pause dur="0.2"/> there was a revolution so you could do that sort of history <pause dur="1.3"/> Labrousse is an economic historian <pause dur="0.7"/> he says well <pause dur="0.3"/> let's think of it in this in these <pause dur="0.2"/> in these three levels of of causation let's think of it <pause dur="0.3"/> at first of all about the <pause dur="1.3"/> fact that <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> of what's happening in the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> the

eighteenth century is a period of prosperity <pause dur="0.4"/> in in France and in most of western Europe you've got the overseas empires you've got <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> # the emergence of capitalism you've got <trunc>ag</trunc> agrarian improvements <pause dur="0.5"/> you've got general <trunc>le</trunc> rising levels of # prosperity across the board as far as one can see <pause dur="0.3"/> spread out over the century as a whole you know this is one of those sort of things which people <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of are dimly aware of you know people in memoires they sometimes say you know people look fatter than <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the portraits of my grandfathers or <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> things # people have things which they never had a generation ago so there's a sense that they'll <pause dur="0.4"/> of growing # prosperity <pause dur="0.5"/> the underlying trend if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> the sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> type of thing is one of <pause dur="0.3"/> general <pause dur="0.3"/> improvement general material improvement <pause dur="0.3"/> and moreover and the other dimension to that <pause dur="0.4"/> would be <pause dur="0.4"/> a gradual increase in prices prices for most goods are going up but going up <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of fairly evenly in a way which is actually as as Labrousse says

secreting profits it's allowing profits to be made it's allowing <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>m</trunc> # capital to be invested it's allowing anyone who produces to do <pause dur="0.3"/> # pretty well whether you're a peasant or a <pause dur="0.3"/> or a noble or or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> so you've got that level of <pause dur="0.2"/> temporality if you like over the eighteenth century looked at as a whole <pause dur="0.4"/> things are doing well <pause dur="0.6"/> however <pause dur="0.5"/> from about seventeen-seventyish <pause dur="0.2"/> seventeen-seventy seventy-three seventy-four <pause dur="0.8"/> we go into what he calls an intercycle <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> we don't need to know what that is but what he means basically is that a recession <pause dur="0.6"/> there there are <trunc>probl</trunc> there are economic problems for reasons i won't go into <pause dur="0.3"/> but basically prices start oscillating a bit more widely <pause dur="0.3"/> wildly <pause dur="0.4"/> # there are <pause dur="0.3"/> # sort of # problems in certain sectors of the economy <pause dur="0.3"/> # there's a growing problem which people start worrying about of poverty which seems to be rearing its head so there's a sort of <pause dur="0.7"/> in the context of general prosperity there's a definite temporal downturn okay so there's a speeding up if you

like <pause dur="0.3"/> at at one level of history <pause dur="0.3"/> # of of of things that are going on <pause dur="1.7"/> and then let's take <pause dur="0.3"/> a third <pause dur="0.3"/> level of temporality <pause dur="0.7"/> in seventeen-eighty-eight <pause dur="0.8"/> seventeen-eighty-seven was bad enough but seventeen-eighty-eight <pause dur="0.3"/> there's a terrible harvest <pause dur="0.3"/> it's one of the worst harvests in # the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.5"/> and prices go through the roof and when they go as high as they do rising four five six times from normal <pause dur="0.5"/> that means many many people are going to be <pause dur="0.2"/> unable to afford <pause dur="0.3"/> # what they # enough food to eat <pause dur="0.4"/> they won't be able to <trunc>a</trunc> afford anything else there will be a slump in demand there will be a <trunc>f</trunc> a collapse of many industries there will be more unemployment people will have even less money to pay <pause dur="0.3"/> for for for for goods which are going through <pause dur="0.3"/> # through the roof <pause dur="0.6"/> and it so happens that when we think about not just the you know the very broad temporality <pause dur="0.2"/> but when we think about <pause dur="0.6"/> you know <pause dur="0.2"/> prices and the price of bread which most people live on in the # late eighteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> let's

think about <pause dur="0.5"/> you know how the price of bread varies well the crucial <pause dur="0.5"/> unit of time for thinking about the price of bread <pause dur="0.5"/> is the <trunc>calen</trunc> is the sorry the harvest year <pause dur="0.7"/> 'cause you know the harvest comes in <pause dur="0.7"/> price falls 'cause lots of stuff on the market lots of grain on the market <pause dur="0.6"/> and then gradually that food will be eaten up and <pause dur="0.2"/> prices will drift upwards at the end of the cycle just before the harvest <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.6"/> that's what always happens but put it in the context of okay general prosperity <pause dur="0.2"/> so maybe people's expectations were a bit higher than # before <pause dur="0.3"/> but then an economic downturn in the seventeen-seventies so people are starting to think well maybe of discontent maybe not too happy about things <pause dur="0.4"/> then suddenly <pause dur="0.3"/> in seventeen-eighty-seven and eighty-eight very bad harvests <pause dur="0.2"/> and by the summer of seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.5"/> there is no food to be had price of bread <pause dur="0.3"/> is gone through the roof in fact the highest price <pause dur="0.3"/> of bread <pause dur="0.3"/> in the eighteenth century with one

exception which we doesn't doesn't count for various reasons 'cause it doesn't fit my theory <pause dur="0.4"/> # but # for the highest price for the # <trunc>eighte</trunc> in the eighteenth century the price of bread <pause dur="0.3"/> is just before the harvest is gathered in <pause dur="0.4"/> # in <pause dur="0.5"/> seventeen-eighty-nine and seventeen-eighty-nine's not a bad harvest in fact <pause dur="0.5"/> so if we said that was just before <pause dur="0.4"/> we would say it was probably the middle of July <pause dur="0.4"/> seventeen-eighty-nine in fact we might as well say it was the fourteenth of July <pause dur="0.3"/> # seventeen-#-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.4"/> okay and it's true if you look at his graph in fact they do the prices do actually fall # <trunc>b</trunc> by late July <pause dur="0.4"/> # and <trunc>au</trunc> and August they sort of <trunc>wa</trunc> wander around but <pause dur="0.3"/> the highest point is reached in the whole of the eighteenth century the price of bread in seventeen <pause dur="0.3"/> seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> so in other words what is going on here this is another story completely from the one <pause dur="0.3"/> which a political historian a traditional political historian would have done of the Ancien Régime's collapse <pause dur="0.3"/> which would

emphasize the collapse of government the problems of intentions of rulers <pause dur="0.3"/> the unruliness or turbulence of particular politicians or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> it is suggesting that <pause dur="0.3"/> those <pause dur="0.2"/> players those historical players those historical actors <pause dur="0.3"/> are themselves being mobilized <pause dur="0.4"/> are being acted upon are being conditioned by these <pause dur="0.2"/> these very real social <pause dur="0.3"/> and economic realities which are working <pause dur="0.3"/> in this very sort of temporally <pause dur="0.4"/> differentiated way <pause dur="0.2"/> so we need to know that the eighteenth <trunc>cen</trunc> if we want to know <pause dur="0.4"/> why there was a revolution why there was a storming of the Bastille in seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> sure we want to know about politics in seventeen-eighty-nine <pause dur="0.3"/> but we also need to know about that the eighteenth century was a period of prosperity we also need to know at another temporal level <pause dur="0.3"/> that that prosperity has a sort of hiccup downwards <pause dur="0.3"/> # from the seventeen-seventies <pause dur="0.3"/> and we need to know about the temporality of the harvest year because that is one of the crucial conditioning

facts <pause dur="0.3"/> of economic social cultural and political life <pause dur="0.3"/> if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> # in the # <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> in this period <pause dur="0.3"/> so i think Labrousse is a very is a wonderful example it seems to me <pause dur="0.3"/> of the way the type of history which Braudel <pause dur="0.3"/> is is is asking for let's <pause dur="0.4"/> to understand <pause dur="0.3"/> causes in history we have to accept <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> it's not the actor's time <pause dur="0.2"/> and the actor's conceptions which will <pause dur="0.3"/> give us the answer to everything we have to think about <pause dur="0.3"/> the way <pause dur="0.3"/> those ideas those answers if you like <pause dur="0.3"/> are structured <pause dur="0.3"/> # within <pause dur="0.2"/> social economic <pause dur="0.2"/> # and # <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> cultural and other <pause dur="0.3"/> # sort of # # frameworks <pause dur="0.2"/> and seventeen-eighty-nine the analysis of seventeen-eighty-nine is <pause dur="0.4"/> how those structures <pause dur="0.3"/> come together how they mesh and it's <pause dur="0.2"/> from that meshing that you get a revolutionary <pause dur="0.4"/> # # event <pause dur="0.5"/> the way in which and let me just add <trunc>ano</trunc> throw in another term <pause dur="0.4"/> # the way in which the structures mesh <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> is sometimes <pause dur="0.4"/> called <distinct lang="fr">la conjoncture</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> and that again is <pause dur="0.5"/> a term which is thrown together but

basically it's the it's the way in which the <pause dur="0.5"/> the <pause dur="0.5"/> the structures these underlying structures are actually coming together are actualizing themselves if you like so sometimes this sort of # <pause dur="1.5"/> duality between reality and <trunc>conj</trunc> <distinct lang="fr">structure</distinct> <distinct lang="fr">conjoncture</distinct> those are the terms which <pause dur="0.4"/> # # # reflect the sort of Annales <pause dur="0.5"/> # approach <pause dur="1.4"/> now let me just <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>th</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> out of that <pause dur="0.2"/> throw a few <pause dur="0.2"/> # consequences if you like it's a very long section this isn't it <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="2.3"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="3.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> part two <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah i should have done that earlier <pause dur="0.4"/> # i always like to divide it up into # sections <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> one of the interesting things of that notion of time the idea that time is layered but that also we have to think in very broad very big terms as well in terms of <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> is that that <pause dur="0.2"/> gets you closer <pause dur="0.5"/> for many respects to many social scientists <pause dur="0.5"/> # and their the concepts and methods which they use because sociologists <trunc>economi</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> economists and whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> are obviously <trunc>introduce</trunc> <trunc>int</trunc> <trunc>int</trunc> interested in <pause dur="0.3"/> ups and downs of events and all

the rest of it <pause dur="0.4"/> but they're more likely to be <trunc>inter</trunc> interested in trends they're more likely to build models which are based on a sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> static <pause dur="0.3"/> # you know # an essentially static sort of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # # framework which contains mobility contains movement <pause dur="0.3"/> # within it <pause dur="0.6"/> so in other words <pause dur="0.7"/> i think by offering # this structured history by <trunc>o</trunc> by emphasizing elements of immobility <pause dur="0.2"/> as well as mobility <pause dur="0.4"/> by <pause dur="0.2"/> taking your eye off the ball if you like oh what a great metaphor i've just discovered for thinking about the Annales yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> you take your eye off the ball and you look at the field and you look at the players and you look at <pause dur="0.4"/> God i could really work with that # <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1" n="ss"/> that one i'll have to work that in next year i think <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> you actually <pause dur="0.2"/> you you have a different sort of conception and one which is going to open out towards other <pause dur="0.2"/> # social # sciences <pause dur="1.7"/> and i think <pause dur="0.2"/> the other thing which i'd say about # that that model is that this becomes the model of how <pause dur="0.2"/> history is done in France

and <pause dur="0.4"/> initially in France then it's very much imitated <pause dur="0.3"/> # elsewhere <pause dur="0.4"/> the sort of three tiered model <pause dur="0.3"/> and if you look at some of the great some of the greatest works by French historians since the Second World War have followed this sort of model where they start <pause dur="0.3"/> like Braudel in the <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> you know the structures and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.4"/> and then they move through trends and the sort of <distinct lang="fr">conjoncture</distinct> <pause dur="0.4"/> # with # <pause dur="0.3"/> # the sort of middling <pause dur="0.3"/> rhythm if you like of # life <pause dur="0.4"/> and then they go to <pause dur="0.3"/> the events if you like the the sort of where where things are actually coming coming through <pause dur="1.2"/> and i think in that model so open to the social scientists so open to <pause dur="0.2"/> sociology economics and and whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> political history gets <pause dur="0.5"/> very short shrift <pause dur="0.6"/> political history which has been the centre <pause dur="0.4"/> the absolute centre of # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <trunc>hi</trunc> what the <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>historian's craft <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>essentially <pause dur="0.4"/> # for for for much of the # nineteenth and twentieth century sort of Rankean <pause dur="0.3"/> becomes an <pause dur="0.3"/> a <trunc>p</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> afterthought if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> to these

<trunc>rea</trunc> the real stuff of history which is social economic and trend and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.4"/> an appendix maybe even a parson's nose <pause dur="0.3"/> # to # to history <pause dur="0.6"/> and that type of total history <pause dur="0.6"/> and this is a problem i'll come back to may <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>u</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> <trunc>wa</trunc> # erase <pause dur="0.4"/> the importance of politics at the heart of history and that's something i will <trunc>t</trunc> certainly talk about <pause dur="1.9"/> a short second section there <pause dur="2.2"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="11"/> we now <pause dur="1.1"/> i'll now <pause dur="0.2"/> transport you <pause dur="3.6"/> couple of generations <pause dur="0.4"/> later <pause dur="2.5"/> the Montaillou <pause dur="0.5"/> # moment <pause dur="0.2"/> enter stage left <pause dur="0.3"/> # Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie that man i introduced you to as you know having given the worst lecture in # <pause dur="0.4"/> # western civilization <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> nineteen-sixty-six <pause dur="0.2"/> he writes his thesis a thesis which again is very much in the Braudelian mode you know different levels and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.4"/> which is called The Peasants of Languedoc The Peasants of Languedoc <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a brilliant book <pause dur="0.2"/> he's a brilliant writer <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> crap lecturer brilliant book # brilliant writer <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's a exemplification of

the Annales method everyone goes lyrical about it Braudel everyone <pause dur="0.8"/> what i think is one of the things that interesting about it is that <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> he uses a wider range of sources to <pause dur="0.4"/> work out what he calls a total history <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.5"/> a province the province of Languedoc <pause dur="0.5"/> from the bottom up if you like trying to see the the the history <pause dur="0.3"/> and the # <pause dur="0.3"/> # the way in which that society operates over the <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> the early modern period <pause dur="0.4"/> # sort of late Middle Ages through to the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> in in terms of a society as a whole it's a wonderful exemplification of historical sociology <pause dur="0.3"/> and again if you look at the preface i always think the prefaces of these important books is very <pause dur="0.5"/> very interesting you know when you get beyond the acknowledgements to my wife and # <pause dur="0.2"/> that other <trunc>n</trunc> unnamed woman who's my <trunc>wi</trunc> mistress but you don't you you you don't you notice don't # <pause dur="0.3"/> <unclear>you know this way</unclear> to pay particular attention obviously <pause dur="0.3"/> but he says one of the things he's interesting he says <trunc>i</trunc> you know i started

by looking <pause dur="0.4"/> at <pause dur="0.5"/> you know # <pause dur="0.2"/> land registers actually i was looking at land registers trying to follow those through in the <distinct lang="fr">longue durée</distinct> classic sort of Annaliste # sort of # move <pause dur="0.8"/> and i suddenly realized he says that <pause dur="0.8"/> i was <pause dur="0.5"/> through these <pause dur="0.2"/> through these documents i was <pause dur="0.3"/> getting the sense <pause dur="0.2"/> of the of a regional economy <pause dur="0.2"/> breathing <pause dur="0.5"/> you know <pause dur="0.4"/> so the trends you know <pause dur="0.4"/> period of prosperity <pause dur="0.7"/> period of <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="1.6"/> deficit or # # decline period of prosperity <pause dur="0.3"/> so you <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>thr</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> this sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> of a <pause dur="0.5"/> of a of a province a whole area's history being written from within <pause dur="0.3"/> from a particular source <pause dur="0.3"/> of a # excellent source the <pause dur="0.3"/> these land # <pause dur="0.4"/> # registers <pause dur="0.8"/> and he realizes he says that <pause dur="0.5"/> he'd gone in <pause dur="0.2"/> to the archives with questions <pause dur="0.3"/> and he realized at that moment that <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>c</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> the archives were asking questions of him <pause dur="0.6"/> # and i think there's a very good symbiotic moment which every historian actually any historian who's a decent historian actually <pause dur="0.4"/> # feels you go into <pause dur="0.4"/> an archive with a hypothesis or a set of hypotheses <pause dur="0.4"/> and you realize

after a while that you hypotheses <pause dur="0.3"/> are not only wrong but you're asking the wrong questions you need to listen to the archives you need to listen to what they're telling you <pause dur="0.2"/> to reframe your work <pause dur="0.2"/> # so that you can go <pause dur="0.3"/> go on <pause dur="1.3"/> brilliant writer <pause dur="0.3"/> brilliant book <pause dur="0.2"/> becomes one the editors of the Annales and follows on from Lucien Febvre who dies in the # # # late fifties writes on <pause dur="0.4"/> all those sort of other sort of social scientific things he writes on very interesting history of climate he writes all sorts of things on rent coin history of <trunc>coi</trunc> coinage he's interested in the history of <trunc>f</trunc> # physical anthropology <pause dur="0.2"/> historical epidemiology loads and loads of <trunc>di</trunc> of different and interesting <pause dur="0.3"/> # things <pause dur="0.4"/> and then in the late nineteen-seventies he publishes a work <pause dur="0.3"/> this is the one i'm emphasizing <kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> Montaillou <pause dur="0.3"/> where i think he <pause dur="0.3"/> he does something different <pause dur="0.3"/> he <trunc>t</trunc> he takes the Annales <pause dur="0.5"/> in a different direction or he tries to i think <pause dur="0.3"/> # and <pause dur="0.3"/> he's doing something which is <pause dur="0.4"/> at an angle from if you like the inspiration <pause dur="0.2"/>

# of the Annales hitherto <pause dur="1.1"/> Montaillou <pause dur="0.6"/> # appears in nineteen-seventy-eight <pause dur="0.3"/> is a tiny little village in the Pyrenees and it's basically the history of that village <pause dur="0.8"/> # and that village is important or at least we know anything about it 'cause most of the Pyrenean villages we don't know anything about any time before the twentieth century <pause dur="0.3"/> we know about it because it was the home of the Albigensian heresy <pause dur="0.5"/> and because it was the home of the <trunc>en</trunc> # Albigensian heresy <pause dur="0.5"/> the inquisition moved in on it <pause dur="0.2"/> and # there's one particular guy who was the bishop of nearby Pamiers <pause dur="0.4"/> # in the in the Languedoc <pause dur="0.3"/> # called Jacques Fournier <pause dur="0.2"/> who's sent there as an inquisitor and the point is that # Le Roy Ladurie makes a big point about is that <pause dur="0.2"/> Fournier was a peasant himself so he knew peasants he knew you <pause dur="0.3"/> you had to ask them lots of questions and always distrust them and always ask them and re-ask them <pause dur="0.3"/> and be careful for the ruses of peasant <pause dur="0.3"/> # peasant life <pause dur="0.3"/> because what he's trying to do is to root out <pause dur="0.2"/>

# heresy <pause dur="0.3"/> and so there are endless long interrogations which we have in Latin <pause dur="0.2"/> but we have them <pause dur="0.3"/> # of <pause dur="0.3"/> Fournier interrogating these people about their heresy <pause dur="0.5"/> now you could write a very interesting book about <pause dur="0.2"/> just the ideas of these these people <pause dur="0.3"/> but the point is that # what # # Le Roy Ladurie does <pause dur="0.4"/> is to <pause dur="0.3"/> using that wonderful source base <pause dur="0.4"/> talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> effectively well to write essentially <pause dur="0.2"/> a social anthropology <pause dur="0.5"/> of a village <pause dur="0.3"/> in the fourteenth century <pause dur="0.5"/> # asking the questions if you like which an anthropologist would be asking <pause dur="0.4"/> if he or she went into a Polynesian or <pause dur="0.3"/> # # African or whatever village <pause dur="0.8"/> as a sort of # participant <pause dur="0.5"/> # and followed <pause dur="0.2"/> and tried to understand <pause dur="0.5"/> what the <trunc>impor</trunc> how kinship works in this village how <pause dur="0.3"/> how neighbourhood counts what's the importance of the household what are what are the rhythms of the year <pause dur="0.3"/> what are the important symbolic <trunc>e</trunc> # <pause dur="0.3"/> # # <trunc>e</trunc> events in in in in this village's <pause dur="0.3"/> # history and how <pause dur="0.3"/> can <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> how can this heresy establish itself and what is there distinct about this particular

village <pause dur="0.3"/> # which <trunc>gi</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> makes it the home of this heretical <pause dur="0.2"/> # movement and how does that heretical movement sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> tie in with other beliefs # # which these villagers have <pause dur="0.2"/> it's a phenomenal book it's in fact a best-seller in France for years and years <pause dur="0.3"/> # and and years <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> as i say he's <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>g</trunc> got almost this sort of social anthropologist's eye it's that one of the things <pause dur="0.4"/> that # <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>pe</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> # peasants spend much of their time doing in the fourteenth century when their just hanging <trunc>aro</trunc> hanging out together <pause dur="0.4"/> is # picking nits off each other <pause dur="0.3"/> # this a sign of sort of close affection and he's got wonderful things about mothers sort of you know just talking to the neighbour sort of going through their children's hair <pause dur="0.3"/> but then this also lovers in bed are sort of like sorting through each other's <pause dur="0.4"/> # bodies sort of like <pause dur="0.3"/> picking the nits off <pause dur="0.4"/> don't try it it's it's likely to bring you enemies rather than friends i assure you <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1" n="ss"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> you know this <pause dur="0.2"/> in other words the material life the just the the the the nitty bitty gritty stuff

of everyday living in other words <pause dur="0.2"/> is available to you <pause dur="0.2"/> # through this # sort of lens <pause dur="0.3"/> and he has wonderful sort of personas there's a sort of local <pause dur="0.3"/> # # priest who's a sort of fixer mafia figure come <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>he</trunc> heretic as well it's a it's an incredibly highly coloured <pause dur="0.4"/> # picture <pause dur="0.4"/> and i think it what it does <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.7"/> do <pause dur="0.4"/> total history <pause dur="0.3"/> in a completely different way <pause dur="0.4"/> to Braudel this true to the inspiration of Braudel in wanting to write <pause dur="0.3"/> a total history <pause dur="0.6"/> <trunc>w</trunc> a history with everything in even nits and nit picking <pause dur="0.4"/> but on the other hand <pause dur="0.5"/> it's completely different from Braudel 'cause Braudel had taken things at the level of <pause dur="0.3"/> a sea or even of a globe if you like has taken the big picture <pause dur="0.3"/> # if you like <pause dur="0.4"/> what's <pause dur="0.4"/> # Le Roy Ladurie is going into <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> # is is a sort of anthropological <pause dur="0.2"/> # mode <pause dur="0.2"/> and i think this does mark a shift in much of what the good writing in the Annales <pause dur="0.3"/> # in the late <trunc>i</trunc> in # <trunc>i</trunc> well from the seventies but late sixties seventies and into the <pause dur="0.3"/> # eighties <pause dur="0.4"/> is that anthropology is taking over and becoming

one of the if you like pilot sciences or the <pause dur="0.3"/> the sort of leading edge disciplines <pause dur="0.2"/> which historians are trying to <pause dur="0.3"/> open out to and learn from <pause dur="0.2"/> and try and <pause dur="0.3"/> integrate into their own <pause dur="0.3"/> # # analyses <pause dur="0.4"/> # <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> one of the things some of you may have done <pause dur="0.9"/> when looking at basic # two is you might have done the history of witchcraft and you'll certainly have read <pause dur="0.4"/> Keith Thomas' well you mightn't have read it but you will have looked at # Keith Thomas' massive <pause dur="0.3"/> Religion and the Decline of Magic <pause dur="0.3"/> and you will know and that's a very similar sort of moment you know <pause dur="0.3"/> where he's trying an anthropological take <pause dur="0.3"/> to understand <pause dur="0.3"/> why there are witchcraft accusations in Essex or wherever or East Anglia whatever in the <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>f</trunc> # fifteenth century and where he learns and where he learns a a a a an approach or or method to do that <pause dur="0.5"/> is in the method of <pause dur="0.2"/> the <trunc>anthro</trunc> <trunc>s</trunc> the English anthropologist Evans-Pritchard <pause dur="0.3"/> among the Azande <pause dur="0.4"/> so in fact you read peasant life or or or or or rural life <pause dur="0.3"/> in # sixteenth seventeenth century <pause dur="0.3"/>

# <pause dur="0.3"/> # # Essex through the <trunc>prit</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> through the lens of the anthropological take <pause dur="0.2"/> on witchcraft in a twentieth century society <pause dur="0.3"/> # in <trunc>af</trunc> Africa <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> whereas <pause dur="0.2"/> you know geography is still important <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>soci</trunc> sociology economics don't <pause dur="0.2"/> don't get me wrong on that but i think this there is a definite growth of interest in anthropology and particularly cultural anthropology <pause dur="0.3"/> # which Le Roy Ladurie <pause dur="0.3"/> is sort of # # bringing up and # # and retelling you need to <pause dur="0.5"/> understand the whole tissue <pause dur="0.3"/> of human relationships <pause dur="0.2"/> # at this <trunc>demo</trunc> demographic cultural social and economic and whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> # sort of level <pause dur="0.3"/> so i think the Montaillou moment <pause dur="0.2"/><event desc="wipes board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> i don't know why i put S there <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.7"/> is sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> the same inspiration of total history getting it all in if you like but <pause dur="0.2"/> on a totally different framework not the globe not the universe <pause dur="0.2"/> a tiny Pyrenean village <pause dur="0.3"/> for a couple of <pause dur="0.2"/> couple of years <pause dur="0.3"/> but in a way if you read it you'll see it is a <pause dur="0.3"/> a a a total history of a different sort <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="6"/> so what next <pause dur="3.6"/>

beyond <pause dur="0.3"/> # Montaillou what is in <pause dur="0.5"/> beyond Montaillou well <pause dur="0.5"/> the Montaillou book as i say is enormously <trunc>im</trunc> important it gives this anthropological twist and i'll come back to that when looking next # <pause dur="0.4"/> # term at the sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> cultural <pause dur="0.6"/> cultural twist cultural turn which much history takes in the # <pause dur="0.3"/> # # seventies <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> that feeds certainly into the tradition of the Annales <pause dur="0.6"/> and the Annales <pause dur="0.3"/> has <pause dur="0.2"/> continued you can <trunc>s</trunc> can read it <trunc>s</trunc> it still has the same idea of total history you will <trunc>s</trunc> still find <pause dur="0.4"/> masses of non-Eurocentric history you'll find a bit of politics in there but it will be <pause dur="0.3"/> interest in political symbolism or political structures rather than <trunc>e</trunc> event history <pause dur="0.4"/> masses of social history it's one of the great social history <pause dur="0.3"/> # # journals <pause dur="0.4"/> and from its success in France in the forties and fifties what's happened in the sixties seventies eighties <pause dur="0.3"/> it goes global it becomes a massively <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>tra</trunc> everyone is translated <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> # they all go on lecture tours of # America they become <trunc>p</trunc> # celebrities and all the rest of

it <pause dur="0.3"/> # so that Le Roy Ladurie could turn up as he did in London and give this # execrable <pause dur="0.2"/> # lecture which i i witnessed <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> what are the problems is the Annales <pause dur="1.5"/> maybe <pause dur="0.8"/> too successful <pause dur="0.4"/> difficult to say that isn't it really but maybe <pause dur="0.9"/> maybe there are problems from being so much part of the <pause dur="0.5"/> establishment <pause dur="0.4"/> # maybe <pause dur="0.3"/> there is an <pause dur="0.6"/> tendency towards complacency for just being institutionally so <pause dur="0.3"/> # well <pause dur="0.2"/> # connected maybe entering the celebrity society goes to people's <pause dur="0.3"/> # heads <pause dur="0.2"/> maybe <pause dur="0.2"/> it's difficult to <pause dur="0.3"/> keep a single model or a single paradigm even when inflected <pause dur="0.3"/> in the way that Le Roy Ladurie has has <trunc>t</trunc> tried to do in the seventies <pause dur="0.2"/> on the road as a viable and sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> # desirable <pause dur="0.3"/> # sort of # paradigm how do you <pause dur="0.2"/> in history <pause dur="0.3"/> remain <pause dur="0.2"/> a brand leader <pause dur="0.3"/> # if you like to <pause dur="0.2"/> bring it into Warwick # terminology <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> i think there are now looking around in the nineteen-nineties <pause dur="0.3"/> lots and lots of question marks against # # the Annales i'll look at some of these <pause dur="0.3"/> next term when sort of picking

up the story <pause dur="0.3"/> and taking it further in particular the way in which the move towards cultural history <pause dur="0.3"/> has # <pause dur="0.3"/> # # sort of shifted things but i think this <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> # many of the initial inspirations are still there and that they're still totally laudable <pause dur="0.2"/> if you like the idea of an <pause dur="0.3"/> open door policy the idea of genuinely interdisciplinary work <pause dur="0.3"/> even if much of that interdisciplinary <pause dur="0.3"/> # the the mix of that interdisciplinary work <pause dur="0.3"/> # # has has shifted and changed around in different particular ways <pause dur="0.3"/> but if i can give you just one 'cause i know we're running out of time <pause dur="0.3"/> one particular <pause dur="1.0"/> problem area i think in the Annales approach <pause dur="0.3"/> # which i think i would hold on to and worry about if i was you <pause dur="0.3"/> it is the way in which as i said earlier <pause dur="0.2"/> politics is almost erased <pause dur="0.5"/> almost erased from <pause dur="0.4"/> the sort of range of interests of the historian <pause dur="0.3"/> # of the Annales # kind <pause dur="0.4"/> that social you know that in a way it's a sort of oscillation thing you know <pause dur="0.5"/> political history narrative history small scale history was so

dominant when the Annales came in they're punching in the nineteen-thirties <pause dur="0.4"/> they punched all that out of the way they established their own paradigm <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> politics disappeared it was endlessly pilloried <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> and caricatured as event history <pause dur="0.3"/> if you ever you want to hear look at a <pause dur="0.3"/> a a a a face of contempt and disdain <pause dur="0.3"/> you only have to look at an Annaliste when he talks about event history <pause dur="0.3"/> it's that sort of <trunc>th</trunc> sort of thing traditional historians have been involved in <pause dur="0.3"/> we <pause dur="0.2"/> <distinct lang="fr">nous des Annales</distinct> we of the Annales <pause dur="0.2"/> we think <pause dur="0.3"/> you know society structures and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.2"/> actually <pause dur="0.2"/> actually count <pause dur="0.4"/> in some ways i would say <pause dur="2.0"/> well what <trunc>ab</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> you know a moment to interrogate that sort of structural approach where structures dominate <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> the event <pause dur="0.5"/> the event i mean a good event i think would be nineteen-sixty-eight <pause dur="0.7"/> Paris <pause dur="0.2"/> May <pause dur="0.6"/> turbulence in <trunc>pa</trunc> how do you when you're talking about structures <pause dur="0.3"/> work out something like May sixty-eight you could try a sort of Labroussian model <pause dur="0.3"/> but frankly <pause dur="0.3"/> it

it wouldn't work <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> by writing history only or <trunc>th</trunc> or <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>ne</trunc> almost solely in terms of social and economic <pause dur="0.5"/> trends and structures aren't you in <pause dur="0.2"/> risk of losing <pause dur="0.3"/> the political element the element of chance the element of accident <pause dur="0.3"/> the element of politics as well <pause dur="0.3"/> and rather than <pause dur="0.8"/> sort of <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> do a <trunc>w</trunc> a wonderful sort of reach come back political history all is forgiven maybe one of the the sort of tasks which many <trunc>his</trunc> historians have got interested in in the nineteen-eighties and nineteen-nineties <pause dur="0.3"/> is how you reinvent <pause dur="0.4"/> history <pause dur="0.3"/> political history <pause dur="0.3"/> so that it can learn from some of those sort of interdisciplinary and wide open and sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> # structural sort of approaches of the Annales <pause dur="0.3"/> but try and do it in a way <pause dur="0.3"/> # which is not just # sort of # trivial and trivializing but which actually <pause dur="0.2"/> # can help us understand the ups and downs <pause dur="0.3"/> the the the events the exceptions <pause dur="0.2"/> the accidents <pause dur="0.2"/> as well the structures the continuities <pause dur="0.2"/> and # and the underlying deeps <pause dur="0.3"/> # of history <pause dur="1.5"/> right <pause dur="0.6"/> thank you