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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">




<title>The Academic Landscape</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:47:02" n="5679">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>

<language id="fr">French</language>



<person id="nm0097" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm0097, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="m"><p>ss, audience, medium group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="m"><p>sl, all, medium group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="3"><p>number of speakers: 3</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">History of Art</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>




<u who="nm0097"> okay i'll i'll begin then <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> # just for a bit of atmosphere if you feel you want to break into spontaneous applause <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="2" n="ss"/> throw flowers cheers of bravo <pause dur="0.5"/> rush up for my autograph any of that feel free <pause dur="1.3"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> today we're turning to landscape and representations of the rural <pause dur="0.3"/> having concentrated on Paris for the last few weeks <pause dur="0.4"/> and i want to begin by making <pause dur="0.5"/> a general <pause dur="0.2"/> but i think a highly significant point <pause dur="0.5"/> that underpins <pause dur="0.3"/> the bulk of landscape production in nineteenth century France <pause dur="0.2"/> and indeed elsewhere as well <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's this <pause dur="1.2"/> landscapes are produced in <pause dur="0.3"/> and for <pause dur="0.5"/> the city <pause dur="1.4"/> landscape is an essentially <pause dur="0.2"/> urban genre <pause dur="1.0"/> and wherever artists may physically paint their pictures <pause dur="0.6"/> which is of course very often in urban studios <pause dur="0.6"/> the controlling institutions <pause dur="0.8"/> # audiences exhibitions dealers <pause dur="0.9"/> all belong to Paris or Rome or London or some other large urban centre <pause dur="1.2"/> and indeed one might say that <pause dur="0.8"/> the very idea of the rural <pause dur="0.3"/> the very idea of the city <pause dur="0.3"/> is <trunc>construc</trunc> # <trunc>s</trunc> of of the country i beg your pardon is constructed in <pause dur="0.3"/> the city <pause dur="4.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now

since the end of the seventeenth century <pause dur="0.5"/> French academic art theory had distinguished between two kinds of landscape <pause dur="1.3"/> firstly <pause dur="0.3"/> historical landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> or <distinct lang="fr">paysage historique</distinct> <pause dur="1.5"/> and secondly rural landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> or <distinct lang="fr">paysage champêtre</distinct> <pause dur="2.3"/> the first of these categories historical landscape <pause dur="0.4"/> is best represented by the two great <pause dur="0.2"/> seventeenth century masters of the genre <pause dur="0.8"/> Poussin and Claude <pause dur="0.5"/> and here we've got on the right <pause dur="0.4"/> by Claude <pause dur="0.2"/> which is just spelled <pause dur="0.2"/> like the name Claude <pause dur="0.5"/> # The Judgement of Paris <pause dur="3.1"/> and on the left <pause dur="0.5"/> Poussin's <pause dur="0.4"/> landscape <pause dur="0.7"/> with Orpheus and Euridice <pause dur="0.4"/> or Euridice <pause dur="0.4"/> and they're both from about the middle of the seventeenth century <pause dur="2.2"/> and you can see <pause dur="0.3"/> what function the landscape has here it's <pause dur="0.5"/> basically an arena a setting <pause dur="0.2"/> which includes some of the elements of history painting <pause dur="0.8"/> a mythological or sometimes a biblical subject <pause dur="0.6"/> classical architecture <pause dur="0.3"/> an episode from ancient history <pause dur="0.9"/> whatever <pause dur="1.0"/> so that's historical landscape <pause dur="1.4"/> the second category <pause dur="0.9"/> <distinct lang="fr">paysage champêtre</distinct> or rural landscape <pause dur="0.6"/> was

used to refer to <pause dur="0.2"/> something like this <kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> the image on the right <pause dur="0.4"/> which is a seventeenth century Dutch <pause dur="0.2"/> landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> by Ruisdael <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's spelled R-U-I-S-<pause dur="0.5"/>D-A-E-L <pause dur="1.1"/> it's just called Landscape <pause dur="1.8"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> as you can see <kinesic desc="indicates slides" iterated="n"/> in the comparison here <pause dur="0.5"/> there seem to be fewer rules it's a more casual or more <trunc>s</trunc> straightforward look <pause dur="0.4"/> at nature <pause dur="2.9"/> this distinction between historical and rural <pause dur="0.2"/> is very much in operation in the early part of the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.7"/> and the story that i'm going to be telling in the next <pause dur="0.3"/> # three lectures <pause dur="0.5"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="1.0"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> original primacy of historical landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> the way that's gradually undermined <pause dur="0.2"/> by the ascendance of rural landscape <pause dur="0.7"/> # and the way then that changes to introduce new forms of landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> so this is in a way the first instalment of <pause dur="0.3"/> a trilogy <pause dur="3.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now in the Academy <pause dur="0.4"/> the powerful ruling body of French art <pause dur="1.3"/> who organize training and production <pause dur="0.7"/> as we know landscape wasn't considered <pause dur="0.2"/> particularly <pause dur="0.2"/> worthy as a genre <pause dur="0.7"/> and in the hierarchy of <trunc>res</trunc> of genres you'll remember <pause dur="0.2"/> it trails behind history painting and

portrait painting and animal painting <pause dur="0.2"/> so it's quite low down <pause dur="0.7"/> in this sort of hierarchy <pause dur="2.0"/> one <pause dur="0.5"/> the shining examples of <pause dur="0.2"/> Claude and Poussin <pause dur="0.9"/> gave landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> quite an eminent history <pause dur="0.7"/> the genre was <pause dur="0.4"/> insufficient in two main respects <pause dur="1.3"/> firstly <pause dur="0.4"/> landscape was seen as less morally elevating <pause dur="0.4"/> than history painting <pause dur="1.0"/> images like these <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> this is a <pause dur="0.2"/> a painting by an artist called Drouais <pause dur="1.6"/> and it's called Marius at Minternae <pause dur="0.2"/> from seventeen-eighty-six a bit of <pause dur="0.2"/> Roman history <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> and on the <pause dur="1.0"/> right on your right here <pause dur="0.2"/> Ingres' painting from eighteen-o-one <pause dur="0.5"/> Achilles Receiving the Ambassadors of Agamemnon <pause dur="1.7"/> and i just put those up as examples of <pause dur="0.5"/> history painting <pause dur="0.3"/> the most elevated kind <pause dur="1.0"/> so landscape can't fulfil the same moral and didactic <pause dur="0.2"/> functions <pause dur="0.2"/> as <kinesic desc="indicates slides" iterated="n"/> images like this according to the Academy <pause dur="0.2"/> that's the first problem with it <pause dur="0.9"/> secondly <pause dur="0.2"/> and a kind of corollary of that <pause dur="0.9"/> the landscape artist was viewed as less erudite <pause dur="3.0"/> a landscape painting like <pause dur="0.4"/> the Ruisdael for instance <pause dur="0.6"/> would seem to show no signs of

scholarship <pause dur="0.5"/> no signs of <pause dur="0.3"/> ethical subtlety <pause dur="0.3"/> no signs of antiquarian learning <pause dur="1.2"/> and the Academy was very keen on promoting the idea of the artist as <pause dur="0.3"/> a learned scholarly <pause dur="0.2"/> professional <pause dur="3.1"/> so landscape deficient <pause dur="0.3"/> both because it wasn't <pause dur="0.4"/> elevated and moral enough <pause dur="0.2"/> and because the artist who produced it <pause dur="0.5"/> wasn't scholarly <pause dur="0.5"/> enough himself <pause dur="0.8"/> but it's worth mentioning that in spite of this <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> huge numbers of landscapes were produced <pause dur="0.3"/> and all the way through the eighteen-tens eighteen-twenties and into the eighteen-thirties <pause dur="0.5"/> as many of a third as a third of all entries in the Salon would be landscapes <pause dur="0.4"/> so of all the artists in Paris <pause dur="0.6"/> a third of them <pause dur="0.2"/> would at any time probably be painting <pause dur="0.4"/> landscapes so it was a popular genre nonetheless <pause dur="1.7"/> now there were considerable attempts <pause dur="0.5"/> at the end of the eighteenth and in the early nineteenth centuries <pause dur="0.6"/> to revive the flagging fortunes of historical landscape <pause dur="0.7"/> to elevate it and raise its status both <pause dur="0.3"/> aesthetically and institutionally <pause dur="1.6"/> and academicians <pause dur="0.3"/> started a kind of

campaign i suppose to <pause dur="0.5"/> position the landscape painter as being a learned and morally forceful figure <pause dur="0.3"/> just like his colleague who painted history painting <pause dur="1.0"/> and the key figure behind this <pause dur="0.4"/> campaign <pause dur="0.7"/> is an artist called Pierre-Henri <pause dur="0.2"/> de Valenciennes <pause dur="0.3"/> and his name is spelled V-A-L-<pause dur="0.7"/>E-N-<pause dur="0.5"/>C-I-E-<pause dur="0.4"/>double-N-E-S and he's a landscape specialist who's working <pause dur="0.2"/> around the turn of the nineteenth century <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and here's a couple of his images <pause dur="0.5"/> this is from seventeen-ninety-three <pause dur="0.2"/> it's called Mercury and Argus </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/><u who="nm0097" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> this is Ideal Landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> with Washerwomen <pause dur="1.9"/> from eighteen-o-seven <pause dur="2.5"/> but more important than Valenciennes' painting <pause dur="0.5"/> was a textbook he published in eighteen-hundred <pause dur="0.3"/> called Elements of Practical Perspective <pause dur="1.5"/> which proved to be a very influential work right the way through the nineteenth century <pause dur="2.1"/> in his book Valenciennes defended <pause dur="0.2"/> the practice

of landscape <pause dur="1.2"/> # but he didn't actually try and subvert the academic hierarchy <pause dur="0.3"/> his defence was mounted very much within a standard sort of academic <pause dur="0.3"/> framework <pause dur="2.1"/> and he used the conventional split between historic and <pause dur="0.2"/> rural landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> as the basis of his argument <pause dur="1.8"/> and what he wanted to do was consolidate <pause dur="0.4"/> a separate hierarchy <pause dur="0.3"/> within the genre of landscape so just as the Academy worked with an idea of <pause dur="0.4"/> a hierarchy of genres from the most elevated to the least elevated <pause dur="1.3"/> Valenciennes wanted to take landscape and create <pause dur="0.4"/> an internal hierarchy <pause dur="0.2"/> to the genre <pause dur="1.8"/> with <pause dur="0.4"/> <distinct lang="fr">paysage historique</distinct> at the top <pause dur="1.8"/> Valenciennes claimed that there were two ways of looking at nature <pause dur="0.5"/> and he says and i'm quoting now from his book <pause dur="1.4"/> <reading>the first <pause dur="0.6"/> is that in which we see nature as it is <pause dur="0.5"/> and represented and represented as faithfully as possible <pause dur="1.5"/> according to this procedure <pause dur="0.3"/> one eliminates objects that don't seem interesting enough <pause dur="0.4"/> brings forward others that fit <pause dur="0.5"/> even though they might be far away <pause dur="0.4"/> looks for harmonies and contrasts <pause dur="0.2"/>

and finally chooses this or that view <pause dur="0.2"/> because it's more pleasing and picturesque <pause dur="1.3"/> the second <pause dur="0.7"/> is that in which we see nature as it ought to be <pause dur="0.6"/> and in the way <pause dur="0.2"/> enriched imagination <pause dur="0.3"/> presents the view to the eyes of man <pause dur="0.3"/> of genius <pause dur="0.5"/> who has seen much <pause dur="0.2"/> composed carefully <pause dur="0.5"/> and analysed and reflected <pause dur="0.2"/> upon the choice that one must make</reading> <pause dur="2.1"/> so he's <pause dur="0.9"/> talking about nature as it is <pause dur="0.5"/> as opposed to nature as it ought to be the real <pause dur="0.3"/> and the ideal <pause dur="1.4"/> and it's this latter category of course the ideal <pause dur="0.2"/> nature as it ought to be <pause dur="0.3"/> that Valenciennes holds up as the higher <pause dur="1.9"/> not only for him does it resemble history painting <pause dur="0.4"/> in its visual and moral perfection <pause dur="1.0"/> but he gives the painter of such a picture <pause dur="0.5"/> a very specific identity <pause dur="0.9"/> and in his book he makes it clear that the artist who paints <pause dur="0.4"/> historical landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> will have read the poets <pause dur="0.4"/> by which he means <pause dur="0.4"/> # the great classical poets like Homer and Virgil <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the painter of <distinct lang="fr">paysage</distinct> <trunc>hi</trunc> <distinct lang="fr">historique</distinct> will be able to distinguish specific customs and costumes <pause dur="0.6"/> historical and archaeological

detail that he'll have gleaned from reading <pause dur="0.6"/> well again Homer Xenophon <pause dur="0.2"/> Pausanias <pause dur="0.4"/> Roman historians as well <pause dur="2.1"/> and <reading>the <pause dur="0.2"/> painter of <distinct lang="fr">paysage historique</distinct></reading> says Valenciennes <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>will also understand the ethical and philosophical implications of his work</reading> <pause dur="1.2"/> so in other words Valenciennes is presenting an image of the historical landscape painter <pause dur="0.3"/> as exactly this kind of scholarly <pause dur="0.4"/> professional <pause dur="1.2"/> while the rural painter <pause dur="0.5"/> is perhaps more like an artisan <pause dur="1.1"/> historical landscape requires intellect <pause dur="1.0"/> the other requires less highbrow faculties <pause dur="3.2"/> now it's clear i think from this particular defence of landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> that <pause dur="1.0"/> various forms of the genre <pause dur="1.1"/> are invested with specific <pause dur="0.2"/> identities <pause dur="0.2"/> and in particular i think there's an issue here about class <pause dur="0.4"/> and institutional status <pause dur="0.4"/> which we might # <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> exemplify as <pause dur="0.3"/> the professional <pause dur="0.3"/> versus the artisan <pause dur="1.2"/> interestingly though this division also maps onto a kind of geographical <pause dur="0.5"/> division <pause dur="1.6"/> the professional historical landscape painter <pause dur="0.4"/> is connected to a southern tradition <pause dur="1.8"/> of the Italian

landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> which stretches back to Roman history <pause dur="0.7"/> and Greek history <pause dur="1.8"/> while the more artisanal <pause dur="0.4"/> rural landscape painter <pause dur="0.3"/> belongs to a northern tradition <pause dur="0.2"/> exemplified by Dutch and Flemish artists <pause dur="2.7"/> so there's Valenciennes the most articulate <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> the defenders of the genre <pause dur="0.7"/> and the redefinition of <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> its function <pause dur="1.0"/> and <kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> here's just one more image by him <pause dur="0.5"/> # this is just called Arcadian Landscape <pause dur="0.4"/> from around the turn of the century <pause dur="4.9"/> now academic landscape received another huge boost in eighteen-seventeen <pause dur="0.7"/> when it was announced that in parallel <pause dur="0.2"/> with the annual Prix de Rome for history painting <pause dur="0.5"/> there would be a Prix de Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> for landscape painting <pause dur="0.2"/> to be held every four years <pause dur="1.9"/> the Prix de Rome was the most important competition <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> academic <pause dur="0.2"/> art education <pause dur="1.4"/> every two years a subject was set from <pause dur="0.2"/> either the classics or the Bible <pause dur="1.1"/> and every student entering it <pause dur="0.4"/> had to paint a picture <pause dur="0.5"/> of that <pause dur="0.2"/> theme <pause dur="1.2"/> and the student who was judged to have delivered the best rendition of it <pause dur="0.5"/> was sent to work

and study <pause dur="0.3"/> in Rome <pause dur="0.4"/> which at the turn of the nineteenth century was the Mecca of the art world <pause dur="2.6"/> the Prix de Rome for landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> was to work the same way except it would be every four years but again there would be a <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> a subject set <pause dur="0.4"/> students would enter <pause dur="0.3"/> and the winner would go off to Rome to study in <pause dur="0.3"/> Italy <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> there we are <pause dur="0.5"/> so i'll just put up this as a <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of visual memento <pause dur="0.2"/> this is by Cogniet <pause dur="0.8"/> whose painting we looked at you remember in the seminars a few weeks ago <pause dur="0.5"/> this is called The Artist in his Room at Rome <pause dur="1.9"/> from eighteen-seventeen <pause dur="0.3"/> and it shows Cogniet who's just arrived from Paris <pause dur="0.5"/> with a rather <pause dur="0.7"/> nice Italian landscape <pause dur="0.8"/> out of the window <pause dur="4.4"/> Rome <pause dur="0.3"/> visiting Italy was considered crucial <pause dur="0.2"/> to the development of an artist <pause dur="0.9"/> it was the home of antiquity <pause dur="0.4"/> Roman antiquity <pause dur="0.5"/> it was also the home of course of the great masters most notably Raphael <pause dur="0.5"/> whom the French Academy <pause dur="0.5"/> absolutely # deified <pause dur="1.5"/> and it was felt that <pause dur="0.3"/> the artist needed to go and study these works first hand <pause dur="0.9"/> and to

absorb the artistic ambience <pause dur="0.2"/> of Rome <pause dur="3.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> here's two examples of French landscape painters working in Rome <pause dur="0.8"/> one an unfinished sketch the other a highly finished picture <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> both showing one of <pause dur="0.3"/> the French artists' favourite subjects the Colosseum <pause dur="0.8"/> the image on the right <pause dur="0.3"/> the sketch <pause dur="0.4"/> is by Michallon <pause dur="0.7"/> he's spelled M-I-C-H-<pause dur="0.4"/>A-double-L-O-N <pause dur="0.4"/> which is called The View of the Colosseum <pause dur="1.2"/> from around <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> eighteen early eighteen-twenties i think <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> and here on the <pause dur="0.7"/> left <pause dur="0.7"/> by an artist called Bracassat <pause dur="0.3"/> that's B-R-A-<pause dur="0.3"/>C-A-<pause dur="0.2"/>double-S-A-T <pause dur="0.4"/> the Colosseum from around eighteen-twenty <pause dur="3.3"/> note <pause dur="0.2"/> in the Bracassat <pause dur="0.4"/> how the landmark the Colosseum <pause dur="0.5"/> is contained within an ideal landscape <pause dur="1.2"/> that's very Claudian in its composition <pause dur="0.8"/> in its division between silver and shade in the foreground <pause dur="0.4"/> and then <pause dur="0.6"/> sort of this golden light on the horizon <pause dur="1.7"/> the building the focus nestles in the very centre <pause dur="0.3"/> of the image it's the focus of the image <pause dur="0.4"/> and it's as if <pause dur="0.4"/> we the viewers <pause dur="0.3"/> are positioned as tourists coming across this <pause dur="0.3"/> view <pause dur="0.6"/> as if we sort of <pause dur="0.4"/>

walk down this path <pause dur="0.3"/> and there it is spread out before us <pause dur="0.8"/> the glorious Colosseum <pause dur="3.3"/> and what's meant to be happening here <pause dur="0.6"/> is that the <pause dur="0.4"/> meaning of the architecture <pause dur="0.6"/> is supposed to be inflecting <pause dur="0.2"/> the meaning of the landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> and vice versa <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="1.0"/> perhaps a <pause dur="1.2"/> better <trunc>e</trunc> a clearer example of what that means is this painting this is Valenciennes again <pause dur="1.0"/> # The Ancient City of <sic corr="Agrigento">Agrigentum</sic> <pause dur="0.4"/> from seventeen-eighty-seven <pause dur="4.1"/> and what Valenciennes is trying to do <pause dur="0.3"/> is trying to imbue <pause dur="0.2"/> the entire landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> with the spirit of classical antiquity <pause dur="2.7"/> so just as the <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> togas or antique dress of the figures down here <pause dur="0.5"/> identifies them as <pause dur="1.0"/> antique <pause dur="0.5"/> morally elevated <pause dur="0.2"/> noble <pause dur="1.7"/> and just as the <pause dur="1.4"/> architecture <pause dur="0.6"/> of these classical buildings <pause dur="0.7"/> connotes <pause dur="0.4"/> antique <pause dur="0.2"/> grandeur <pause dur="0.2"/> that's now been lost <pause dur="1.5"/> so Valenciennes wanted the landscape itself <pause dur="0.2"/> the very setting <pause dur="0.6"/> to be imbued with these same ideas of <pause dur="0.3"/> moral worth <pause dur="1.0"/> grandeur <pause dur="0.6"/> elevation <pause dur="1.4"/> a sort of an ethical force <pause dur="2.9"/> so they're trying to make the landscape itself <pause dur="1.1"/> connote some

kind of moral <pause dur="0.4"/> value <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> what kind of work <pause dur="0.2"/> would get a student to Italy <pause dur="0.8"/> well here are two winners <pause dur="0.3"/> of the Prix de Rome for landscape <pause dur="1.5"/> on the right <pause dur="0.5"/> the very first winner from eighteen-seventeen <pause dur="0.6"/> Michallon again <pause dur="0.6"/> and this is Democritus and the Abderites <pause dur="1.5"/> quite what's going on i don't know i have to say i <pause dur="0.3"/> have to confess ignorance and say i don't even know who the Abderites were <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="1.9"/> but if you're that interested i'm sure there's a book in the library somewhere and if you find out you can tell me <pause dur="1.1"/> # on the left by an artist called Buttura <pause dur="0.3"/> B-U-double-T-U-R-A <pause dur="2.1"/> this is the winner of eighteen-thirty-seven <pause dur="1.3"/> Apollo Attending his Flocks <pause dur="3.2"/> and i think they are both good examples of the kind of work that was demanded <pause dur="0.5"/> classical subjects <pause dur="0.2"/> very highly finished very smooth surfaces <pause dur="0.6"/> and very highly composed very sort of artificially put together <pause dur="0.8"/> the similarity of composition <pause dur="0.5"/> should be immediate at once i think the same device of <pause dur="0.3"/> trees as framing motifs <pause dur="1.3"/> and also note in both the

trees are used to construct space <pause dur="2.3"/> the tree <pause dur="0.6"/> at the front marks the <pause dur="0.5"/> frontal plane <pause dur="1.1"/> there's another tree or a <trunc>s</trunc> bit of foliage further back which marks a middle plane <pause dur="0.5"/> and then there's a kind of horizon line which marks a <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> a plane at the back so there's this sort of planar construction <pause dur="0.5"/> to create space <pause dur="1.1"/> it's the same here <pause dur="0.9"/> frontal plane <pause dur="0.8"/> middle plane and then the backdrop <pause dur="0.3"/> almost as if they're sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> backdrops in a stage set <pause dur="5.1"/> highly # conventional <pause dur="1.6"/> # this is <pause dur="0.5"/> clearly <pause dur="0.3"/> a <pause dur="0.2"/> Claudian or Poussinesque Poussinesque <pause dur="0.6"/> # device <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> there for instance is Claude's landscape with Isaac and Rebecca <pause dur="2.8"/> # and you can see at once that the debt to Claude <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms of composition <pause dur="0.3"/> is enormous <pause dur="1.5"/> in terms of the <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> planar organization <pause dur="0.3"/> also in the structure of light that became very traditional <pause dur="0.4"/> darks in the foreground <pause dur="0.3"/> emphasizing the framing motifs <pause dur="0.8"/> and then <pause dur="0.2"/> becoming systematically lighter <pause dur="0.4"/> towards the horizon <pause dur="1.4"/> and again that's a way of creating space it's what's known as aerial <pause dur="0.2"/> perspective <pause dur="1.0"/> create a

sense of recession <pause dur="0.6"/> by moving from dark <pause dur="0.9"/> to light <pause dur="1.1"/> at the first point </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0097" trans="pause"> so <pause dur="1.1"/> works like this <kinesic desc="indicates slides" iterated="n"/> winners of the Prix de Rome <pause dur="0.7"/> # displaying their learning <pause dur="1.0"/> full of intellectual investment <pause dur="1.4"/> showing off classicizing tendency <pause dur="0.4"/> and also very consciously <pause dur="0.4"/> using <pause dur="0.6"/> seventeenth century French models the idea of a great national style <pause dur="1.1"/> and of course in the nineteenth century many people were looking back <pause dur="0.3"/> to the seventeenth century as a kind of French golden age <pause dur="0.5"/> so clearly there's <trunc>someth</trunc> something invested here <pause dur="0.3"/> to do with national identity and sort of the <pause dur="0.3"/> French cultural prowess <pause dur="5.2"/> now you've seen how conventional <pause dur="0.3"/> these compositions are <pause dur="1.0"/> how much they conform to templates <pause dur="0.8"/> from <pause dur="0.4"/> Claude and Poussin <pause dur="1.0"/> and of course what that alerts us to at once <pause dur="0.5"/> is that these are studio paintings <pause dur="0.6"/>

it's as if the artists haven't gone out and copied nature <pause dur="0.9"/> but they've merely gone into the Louvre or another art gallery <pause dur="0.3"/> and copied other paintings <pause dur="0.9"/> what they're representing is not the world outside <pause dur="0.4"/> but they're representing other representations <pause dur="1.9"/> but we shouldn't infer from this <pause dur="0.2"/> that study for nature wasn't undertaken <pause dur="0.2"/> by these artists <pause dur="0.6"/> one often comes across accounts <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> in sort of <pause dur="0.2"/> a lot of survey books of nineteenth century French art for instance <pause dur="0.8"/> which declare that <pause dur="0.5"/> it was the Barbizon painters or even the Impressionists who were the first to go out and paint <pause dur="0.6"/> in the open <pause dur="0.7"/> to make studies in the open air <pause dur="1.1"/> but by the turn of the nineteeenth century <pause dur="0.8"/> plein air landscape study and plein air just means in the open air <pause dur="0.6"/> was a very common <pause dur="0.8"/> academic practice <pause dur="0.5"/> and again it was one that Valenciennes <pause dur="0.4"/> had particularly encouraged <pause dur="3.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and here are <pause dur="2.9"/> a couple of <pause dur="0.2"/> studies <pause dur="0.4"/> done plein air <pause dur="0.2"/> by Valenciennes <pause dur="1.0"/> here's another little quotation from his treatise <pause dur="0.3"/> The <pause dur="0.4"/> # Elements of Practical Perspective

from eighteen-hundred <pause dur="1.4"/> he says quote <pause dur="1.1"/> <reading>my student has drawn under my direction for some months <pause dur="0.7"/> he's copied several paintings of the best masters <pause dur="0.4"/> but he has not yet looked at nature <pause dur="0.8"/> he must study it <pause dur="0.5"/> and when the weather is fine <pause dur="0.2"/> we go into the country together <pause dur="0.7"/> there i give him my views on how to make studies <pause dur="0.4"/> that may serve him later <pause dur="0.4"/> in composing pictures</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/> well that <pause dur="0.4"/> short quotation i think is very dense <pause dur="0.4"/> and <trunc>reme</trunc> reveals a lot about the workings of the academic landscape <pause dur="0.7"/> and there are three particular things i'd like to <pause dur="0.2"/> emphasize about that <pause dur="1.1"/> firstly of course <pause dur="1.0"/> simply that Valenciennes <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> stresses the importance <pause dur="0.2"/> of looking at nature and of making these sketches <pause dur="0.5"/> en plein air <pause dur="0.2"/> in the open <pause dur="0.7"/> and here's two he did in Rome from the <trunc>seventeen-se</trunc> seventies <pause dur="0.5"/> this is just known as Roofs in Sunlight <pause dur="1.4"/> and on the

other side on the right <pause dur="0.2"/> Study of Roman Sky <pause dur="1.5"/> so these are examples of Valenciennes himself in Rome <pause dur="0.5"/> sitting outside with his paints and easel <pause dur="1.0"/> and <pause dur="1.3"/> sketching details atmospheric effects and so forth <pause dur="2.6"/> secondly <pause dur="1.5"/> we should note <pause dur="0.3"/> that Valenciennes thinks of these sketches as raw materials <pause dur="0.2"/> to be used later <pause dur="0.2"/> in a composition <pause dur="1.1"/> he says studies <pause dur="0.3"/> that will serve one later in composing pictures <pause dur="0.5"/> so it's almost as if <pause dur="0.7"/> these images <pause dur="0.3"/> are part of something like a renaissance model book a compendium of <pause dur="0.2"/> skies lighting effects natural elements foliage or so forth <pause dur="0.4"/> that the artist can refer back to <pause dur="0.4"/> when he's back in his studio <pause dur="0.8"/> and build up <pause dur="0.7"/> a more formal composition from them <pause dur="1.5"/> and of course what we witnessing there <pause dur="0.3"/> is the transition from nature as it is <pause dur="0.4"/> to nature as it should be <pause dur="0.4"/> from the empirical <pause dur="0.5"/> like this <pause dur="0.4"/> to the ideal <pause dur="0.7"/> like those Prix de Rome winners <pause dur="2.8"/> so that's the second i think important thing <pause dur="1.4"/> point <trunc>vale</trunc> Valenciennes makes about plein air painting <pause dur="1.6"/> thirdly <pause dur="0.9"/> i think we should note that <pause dur="0.2"/>

the process only takes place <pause dur="0.5"/> after a lengthy period of instruction <pause dur="1.5"/> he began by saying <pause dur="0.2"/> <reading>my student has drawn under my direction for some months</reading> <pause dur="1.5"/> so the student has already copied other paintings <pause dur="0.5"/> copied other prints <pause dur="0.4"/> and only then will Valenciennes take him out into the open air <pause dur="0.5"/> with his paints and <pause dur="0.7"/> # a sketchbook <pause dur="1.9"/> which again reminds us that academic landscape begins with other representations <pause dur="3.9"/> and i think what's going on here is that the student Valenciennes' students students in the Academy whoever it may be <pause dur="0.7"/> are somehow being inculcated <pause dur="0.6"/> are being taught <pause dur="0.4"/> how they ought to look at nature <pause dur="0.6"/> they are given preformed modes of visual <pause dur="0.2"/> experience <trunc>pre</trunc> predetermined ways of looking at <pause dur="0.5"/> and apprehending nature <pause dur="1.5"/> so it's as if <pause dur="0.3"/> Valenciennes <pause dur="0.2"/> and other teachers <pause dur="0.3"/> want to mediate <pause dur="0.7"/> the way their students look at <pause dur="0.3"/> nature <pause dur="1.5"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> i suppose influence <pause dur="0.7"/> how they see it <pause dur="0.2"/> and how they represent it <pause dur="1.9"/> well of course in a sense <pause dur="0.3"/> no visual experience escapes that kind of mediation <pause dur="0.6"/> we can't see

anything in a pure way <pause dur="1.0"/> you know what we see around it is always preceded by our knowledge <pause dur="0.3"/> our preconceptions our prejudices <pause dur="0.6"/> by other representations we've seen other things we've assimilated and learned about <pause dur="0.8"/> there can be no <pause dur="0.4"/> # direct observation <pause dur="0.3"/> detached from our <pause dur="0.7"/> intellectual <pause dur="0.3"/> and perceptual make-up <pause dur="1.9"/> but what's striking here <pause dur="0.6"/> is the way that the process of artistic production <pause dur="0.2"/> the process of making a picture <pause dur="0.6"/> is structured <pause dur="0.2"/> so deliberately with representations <pause dur="0.7"/> preceding <pause dur="0.4"/> the raw material <pause dur="1.1"/> with pictures <pause dur="0.3"/> preceding nature <pause dur="1.6"/> and of course what it means is that the moment the student steps outside the studio <pause dur="0.2"/> and goes and looks <pause dur="0.7"/> at <pause dur="0.8"/> a river a pond <pause dur="0.2"/> # a tree whatever it is <pause dur="1.4"/> he already sees it in terms of landscape traditions <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of pastoral traditions <pause dur="0.5"/> in terms of other kinds of painting <pause dur="2.8"/> and also <pause dur="0.6"/> he will also view nature <pause dur="0.4"/> as <pause dur="0.5"/> something bucolic <pause dur="0.4"/> picturesque <pause dur="0.3"/> jolly <pause dur="0.6"/> or something noble <pause dur="0.3"/> and moralizing <pause dur="1.9"/> so the landscapes he produces <pause dur="0.3"/> are firmly set within <pause dur="0.4"/> what one might call <pause dur="0.3"/>

ideological frames <pause dur="5.1"/> now in making that claim <pause dur="1.2"/> that there's something about <pause dur="0.2"/> academic landscapes <pause dur="0.2"/> that's <pause dur="0.2"/> ideological <pause dur="1.0"/> i'm parting company <pause dur="0.2"/> with i think many of the books <pause dur="0.3"/> you'll read <pause dur="3.7"/> for instance <pause dur="0.3"/> if you've looked at Peter Galassi's book Corot in Italy which i put on the reading list <pause dur="1.0"/> you might have read this <pause dur="0.2"/> Galassi says of academic landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> quote <pause dur="1.2"/> <reading>if for history painters <pause dur="0.7"/> antiquity was fraught with passion and conflict <pause dur="0.4"/> dense with urgent analogy <pause dur="0.2"/> to contemporary affairs <pause dur="0.7"/> for Valenciennes and his school <pause dur="0.4"/> the classical past <pause dur="0.2"/> was a dreamland of tranquillity</reading> <pause dur="2.5"/> so Galassi seems to be claiming that history painting is all about <pause dur="0.5"/> drama and morality <pause dur="0.7"/> but that <pause dur="0.3"/> historical landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> is just a kind of <pause dur="0.5"/> lovely utopian dreamland <pause dur="0.2"/> that's not really about anything in particular <pause dur="1.2"/> and he also seems to make the <trunc>p</trunc> <pause dur="0.7"/> claim that <pause dur="0.6"/> history painting <pause dur="0.2"/> is very loaded <pause dur="0.2"/> with <pause dur="0.5"/> political <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> ideological significance <pause dur="0.8"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> historical landscape had none of that <pause dur="2.2"/> i would claim <pause dur="0.7"/> that Galassi overlooks some

important <pause dur="0.7"/> dimensions to the argument <pause dur="2.4"/> firstly <pause dur="0.7"/> as i've suggested <pause dur="0.7"/> i think he overlooks <pause dur="0.2"/> the relationship between <pause dur="0.5"/> landscape <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> what one might call cultural power <pause dur="0.8"/> knowledge and learning <pause dur="1.2"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="3.5"/> the # <pause dur="0.3"/> the moral <pause dur="0.3"/> contents of <pause dur="0.3"/> intellectual endeavour <pause dur="2.6"/> in other words the very pleasure derived from historical landscapes <pause dur="0.6"/> is bound up with a certain cultural and social status <pause dur="1.0"/> they were painted for <pause dur="0.4"/> an elite <pause dur="0.4"/> with elite tastes who could go <pause dur="0.3"/> and exercise their own scholarship by identifying <pause dur="0.2"/> Democritus <pause dur="0.4"/> by identifying the Abderites and unlike me <pause dur="0.3"/> being able to say who they were <pause dur="1.7"/> so i think that's the first point <pause dur="3.5"/> secondly <pause dur="1.2"/> consider this <pause dur="0.2"/> quotation from Valenciennes <pause dur="2.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> he's talking about the work of an artist called Gaspard Dughet <pause dur="0.7"/> often just known as Gaspard <pause dur="0.9"/> and he's represented on the right there <pause dur="1.6"/> i think <pause dur="1.2"/> yes <pause dur="0.6"/> # this is an ideal landscape of his <pause dur="0.3"/> from <pause dur="0.5"/> again the mid-seventeenth century <pause dur="1.1"/> this is what Valenciennes says about Gaspard <pause dur="0.2"/> quote <pause dur="1.4"/> <reading>his works quite simply offer landscapes <pause dur="0.4"/>

in which one might desire to have a house <pause dur="0.6"/> for it would be situated with a beautiful view <pause dur="0.8"/> one could breathe in the coolness at midday <pause dur="0.5"/> one might walk along the shady banks of the river <pause dur="0.4"/> or lose oneself in the thickness of a forest <pause dur="0.3"/> and give oneself over <pause dur="0.3"/> to sentimental reveries</reading> <pause dur="2.1"/> i think that's very interesting and it's a very interesting clue <pause dur="0.2"/> to how Valenciennes reads images <pause dur="0.3"/> like the one on the right <pause dur="0.7"/> and he reads them in terms of a personal <pause dur="0.3"/> appropriation <pause dur="0.4"/> of landscape <pause dur="1.9"/> he began after all by <pause dur="0.2"/> staking his claim on property <pause dur="0.3"/> it's where you might like to have a house <pause dur="1.3"/> and then he <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> evoked that <trunc>s</trunc> sort of # set of <pause dur="0.4"/> conventional leisure activities <pause dur="1.0"/> going into a forest walking along a river <pause dur="0.6"/> dreaming <pause dur="0.2"/> as you're wandering through the beauties of nature <pause dur="2.6"/> what's happening here <pause dur="0.2"/> is nicely summed up <pause dur="0.5"/> by <pause dur="1.0"/> # this quotation <pause dur="0.2"/> this comes from a book by a geographer called Denis Cosgrove <pause dur="0.9"/> and it's from a work called Social Formation <pause dur="0.4"/> and Symbolic Landscape <pause dur="0.6"/> which is actually terribly interesting <pause dur="0.2"/> # if

anyone feels brave enough to tackle it <pause dur="0.8"/> Cosgrove says this <pause dur="0.2"/> quote <pause dur="1.1"/> <reading>landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> is an ideological concept <pause dur="1.0"/> it represents a way in which certain classes of people have signified themselves in their world <pause dur="0.4"/> through their imagined relationship with nature <pause dur="0.9"/> and through which <pause dur="0.3"/> they've underlined and communicated <pause dur="0.3"/> their own social role <pause dur="0.5"/> and that of others with respect to external nature</reading> <pause dur="1.9"/> so what Cosgrove is <pause dur="0.3"/> talking about is the way that people <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> construct their personal identity construct a sense of who they are <pause dur="0.6"/> through their relationship with nature <pause dur="0.9"/> and obviously there's a big difference between if you think of your relationship with nature <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms of being <pause dur="0.4"/> a landowner <pause dur="0.5"/> an owner of a house in woods that you can stroll in <pause dur="0.6"/> or if you sort of think of your relationship with nature as being one of <pause dur="0.2"/> work <pause dur="0.2"/> of having to till the soil <pause dur="0.9"/> and so forth <pause dur="1.5"/> # and Valenciennes certainly seems to have a very clear idea in that little quotation <pause dur="0.3"/> what his relationship with

nature is <pause dur="0.3"/> and the kind of personal identity that gives him <pause dur="0.7"/> it's leisured <pause dur="0.4"/> property owning <pause dur="0.2"/> cultured <pause dur="0.2"/> and mobile <pause dur="1.1"/> so there again there seems to be a real <pause dur="0.4"/> # ideological <pause dur="1.0"/> underpinning <pause dur="0.3"/> to landscape and how it's viewed <pause dur="2.2"/> and this leads on i think to the third way <pause dur="0.3"/> in which we <trunc>th</trunc> might think of <pause dur="0.2"/> landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> as being particularly this kind of academic landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> as being <pause dur="0.3"/> ideologically loaded <pause dur="1.3"/> and it's this <pause dur="0.4"/> that this very <pause dur="0.3"/> pastoral mode <pause dur="0.2"/> this sort of bucolic <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> mode of representing nature <pause dur="0.6"/> is in an way a misreading <pause dur="0.3"/> of rural life <pause dur="0.9"/> it's a representation of the countryside <pause dur="0.3"/> that excludes labour <pause dur="0.3"/> it excludes peasants <pause dur="0.4"/> it excludes poverty <pause dur="0.5"/> it excludes class <pause dur="1.9"/> and again i think there's a clear <pause dur="0.4"/> ideological underpinning there it's turning nature into this kind of dreamland <pause dur="0.9"/> where you're not disturbed <pause dur="0.4"/> by any of the sort of real grubby events that happen out there <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in the countryside <pause dur="3.0"/> now in saying all that i'm not trying to make the claim that <pause dur="0.5"/> # a work <pause dur="0.3"/> like <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>de</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> Democritus and the Abderites <pause dur="0.3"/> is designed to circulate political messages

in the same way <pause dur="0.2"/> as Daumier for instance who we were looking at last week <pause dur="1.0"/> they're not <pause dur="1.0"/> political propaganda <pause dur="0.2"/> they're not trying to make political points <pause dur="1.0"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> i am trying to <pause dur="0.2"/> argue <pause dur="0.4"/> that there are certain values <pause dur="0.4"/> certain <pause dur="0.6"/> # ideas <pause dur="1.3"/> and a certain idea about status <pause dur="0.2"/> that's sort of built into the genre <pause dur="2.1"/> that there is a kind of ideological <pause dur="0.5"/> underpinning <pause dur="2.3"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> on the other hand <pause dur="0.2"/> you may agree with Peter Galassi <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and think <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm talking nonsense <pause dur="2.0"/> # <pause dur="6.8"/> so there we've looked at <pause dur="0.7"/> the kind of works that won the Prix de Rome <pause dur="2.4"/> the kind of subjects <pause dur="0.2"/> the kind of compositions <pause dur="1.2"/> and i've argued <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="1.0"/> there is a political dimension to this work <pause dur="0.9"/> also to be considered <pause dur="1.8"/> and i want to end just by talking about what happens <pause dur="0.5"/> to <distinct lang="fr">paysage historique</distinct> <pause dur="0.6"/> as we get nearer to the middle of the nineteenth century <pause dur="3.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and let's just have <pause dur="0.9"/> a couple more <pause dur="0.2"/> up <pause dur="0.9"/> on the <pause dur="1.2"/> # left here <pause dur="1.3"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> a work by an artist called <pause dur="0.2"/> Benouville <pause dur="0.9"/> he's spelled B-E-N-<pause dur="0.8"/>O-U-<pause dur="0.5"/>V-I-double-L-E <pause dur="1.5"/> it's Ulysses <pause dur="0.2"/> and Nausicaa <pause dur="1.8"/> again a Homeric subject <pause dur="0.4"/> and that

won the eighteen-forty-five competition <pause dur="3.5"/> and on the right here <pause dur="1.2"/> the winner of the eighteen-twenty-one <pause dur="0.4"/> competition the second landscape Prix de Rome <pause dur="0.4"/> by an artist called Remond <pause dur="0.3"/> R-E-M-O-N-D <pause dur="2.0"/> and that's The Rape of Proserpine <pause dur="0.8"/> so again another well established classical <pause dur="0.5"/> # a theme <pause dur="4.7"/> # shifts in attitude <pause dur="0.2"/> towards historical landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> and its style <pause dur="1.1"/> can be captured to some extent <pause dur="0.7"/> by <pause dur="0.4"/> looking at critical reactions <pause dur="0.2"/> to the entries for the Prix de Rome <pause dur="1.1"/> looking at how critics responded <pause dur="0.3"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> the winners when they were announced <pause dur="0.7"/> # each time <pause dur="1.6"/> of course as with any documentary evidence we need to be quite circumspect <pause dur="0.4"/> and remember that critics are a specialized audience <pause dur="0.3"/> they have agendas of their own that affect their responses <pause dur="1.4"/> # so it's not as if <pause dur="0.5"/> we can look at criticism <pause dur="0.5"/> take a quotation and assume that it stands for <pause dur="0.2"/> an entire audience or all Parisians or all French people <pause dur="1.1"/> but nonetheless i think to review the critical literature <pause dur="0.7"/> what critics said about these works is instructive <pause dur="2.0"/> and i

want to point out some of the ways in which <pause dur="0.4"/> critics' concerns changed <pause dur="0.3"/> between the eighteen-twenties <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> eighteen-forty-five <pause dur="0.5"/> when Benouville won <pause dur="3.2"/> so <pause dur="1.5"/> firstly <pause dur="1.0"/> there seemed to be <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="4.3"/> a shift <pause dur="0.8"/> in <pause dur="0.6"/> ideas about <pause dur="0.9"/> how to paint <pause dur="2.2"/> reviewing the finalists in eighteen-twenty-nine <pause dur="1.2"/> the Journal des Artistes <pause dur="0.6"/> which was a <pause dur="0.2"/> an art newspaper <pause dur="1.6"/> complained <pause dur="0.4"/> about the sheer diversity <pause dur="0.8"/> diversity of manner diversity of style diversity of treatment <pause dur="2.7"/> this diversity <pause dur="0.2"/> said the anonymous critic <pause dur="0.6"/> was symptomatic of a lack of good teaching <pause dur="0.3"/> in the École des Beaux Arts the Academy's school <pause dur="1.3"/> because <pause dur="0.2"/> quote <pause dur="0.8"/> <reading>there is one manner <pause dur="0.5"/> which must be better than the others <pause dur="0.4"/> that is to say which is truer <pause dur="0.5"/> closer to nature <pause dur="0.4"/> and which does not exclude <pause dur="0.2"/> the choice and arrangement demanded by good taste</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> unquote <pause dur="1.3"/> so this critic is saying <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a right way to paint landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> one way that is superior to all others <pause dur="0.3"/> this is what the Academy should be teaching people <pause dur="0.4"/> but they're clearly not <pause dur="0.7"/> because if you look at all the

entries <pause dur="0.9"/> they're all painting in different styles <pause dur="3.6"/> by eighteen-forty-five <pause dur="0.2"/> the opposite criticism is being made <pause dur="1.2"/> and the journal <pause dur="0.2"/> L'Illustration <pause dur="0.2"/> illustration <pause dur="0.5"/> complained in that year <pause dur="0.2"/> as it was reviewing <pause dur="0.2"/> the finalists of the Prix de Rome <pause dur="0.5"/> that the Academy was too conventional <pause dur="1.9"/> that its rigid protocols around landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> its adherence to <distinct lang="fr">paysage historique</distinct> and the <pause dur="0.4"/> Claudian tradition <pause dur="0.4"/> didn't allow sufficient diversity <pause dur="2.2"/> so that seems to be the first shift <pause dur="0.8"/> in eighteen-twenty-nine complaining <pause dur="0.3"/> everything's too different rather than sticking to the true way of doing it <pause dur="0.8"/> in eighteen-forty-five <pause dur="0.2"/> complaining that people are sticking to the true way of doing it too much <pause dur="0.3"/> and there's not enough diversity <pause dur="2.6"/> a similar switch in critical fortune <pause dur="0.2"/> relates to the historical subject itself <pause dur="1.8"/> in eighteen-thirty-three <pause dur="0.6"/> the Journal des Artistes again <pause dur="0.5"/> voiced some concerns about some of the entries <pause dur="0.4"/> the entries was # a Homeric subject <pause dur="1.8"/> again <pause dur="0.2"/> from <pause dur="1.0"/> the The Odyssey <pause dur="2.9"/> what they were worried about here was

not so much <pause dur="0.2"/> technique <pause dur="0.4"/> or style <pause dur="0.6"/> but the way <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.2"/> the subject had been treated and in particular they found that <pause dur="0.3"/> women <pause dur="0.2"/> hadn't been made pure enough <pause dur="1.1"/> and there was a kind of a <pause dur="0.8"/> a carping rant <pause dur="0.4"/> about the way that the finalists in the Prix de Rome <pause dur="0.2"/> hadn't represented the women in their antique purity <pause dur="0.8"/> but had just painted them as if they were modern Parisiennes <pause dur="3.2"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> there was this worry <pause dur="0.6"/> that <pause dur="0.6"/> they weren't treating the subject in quite the right way <pause dur="1.6"/> but by eighteen-forty-five again there seems to be a shift <pause dur="0.3"/> and the critics aren't concerned with how the subject is being treated <pause dur="0.4"/> but with the very subject themselves and they're dismissing them as irrelevant <pause dur="2.3"/> so from a sort of <pause dur="0.3"/> scholarly <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> exposition of how Homer ought to be painted <pause dur="0.5"/> it shifts to a lot of critics just saying why paint Homer <pause dur="0.2"/> who cares <pause dur="7.6"/> there's also i think <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> a shift <pause dur="1.7"/> to be examined in terms of audience <pause dur="0.5"/> for landscapes <pause dur="2.2"/> and as i'll discuss next week <pause dur="0.8"/> the audience for <pause dur="0.2"/> historic <pause dur="0.2"/> landscape declines <pause dur="0.2"/> and the

<trunc>la</trunc> and the audience for <pause dur="0.2"/> other landscape forms particularly <distinct lang="fr">paysage champêtre</distinct> <pause dur="0.7"/> increases <pause dur="2.9"/> and this starts to happen even in academic circles <pause dur="3.0"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> the other great treatise on landscape from the early part of the century <pause dur="0.8"/> is a case in point <pause dur="0.6"/> and this treatise is by an # a writer called Deperthes <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's spelled D-E-P-<pause dur="0.7"/>E-R-<pause dur="0.3"/>T-H-E-S <pause dur="0.8"/> and it's just called The Theory of Landscape <pause dur="0.5"/> it was published in eighteen-eighteen <pause dur="1.1"/> and i suppose comes second to Valenciennes in <pause dur="0.4"/> historical importance <pause dur="5.5"/> and Deperthes challenged Valenciennes in two ways <pause dur="1.7"/> he didn't sort of try to completely undermine Valenciennes' theory <pause dur="0.3"/> but there were two significant <pause dur="0.4"/> amendments he wanted to make <pause dur="1.0"/> firstly <pause dur="0.3"/> he declared that historical landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> and <distinct lang="fr">paysage champêtre</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> were equally important <pause dur="3.0"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> Valenciennes had set up this hierarchy <pause dur="0.6"/> Deperthes says <pause dur="0.2"/> no <pause dur="0.5"/> both the rural and the historical modes of landscape <pause dur="0.2"/> are <pause dur="0.5"/> as good as each other <pause dur="5.8"/> what's more i suppose is a corollary of that <pause dur="0.3"/> Deperthes also <pause dur="0.4"/>

wanted to <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> claim that the painter <pause dur="0.2"/> of rural landscapes <pause dur="0.3"/> is just as professional <pause dur="1.4"/> just as artistic just as imaginative and just as scholarly <pause dur="0.7"/> as the historical <pause dur="0.2"/> landscape painter <pause dur="4.0"/> so Deperthes breaks down that hierarchy <pause dur="0.7"/> the second important <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> challenge he makes <pause dur="0.7"/> is that while he affirms <pause dur="0.4"/> that landscape <pause dur="0.3"/> is inferior to history painting <pause dur="1.4"/> he still believes that history painting is a greater genre <pause dur="1.1"/> he places landscape second in the hierarchy <pause dur="0.7"/> so he says history painting's the greatest <pause dur="0.6"/> after that comes landscape <pause dur="1.6"/> and his reason for doing this <pause dur="0.2"/> very largely <pause dur="0.6"/> was that he said landscape was socially more significant <pause dur="0.8"/> because being less esoteric <pause dur="1.5"/> being less archane <pause dur="0.3"/> not dealing <pause dur="0.6"/> with <pause dur="0.7"/> Abderites and Ulysses and the like <pause dur="0.7"/> it could appeal to a greater number of people <pause dur="0.5"/> it would speak to a larger audience <pause dur="6.0"/> so again there's an important shift there <pause dur="0.3"/> in terms of audience <pause dur="1.0"/> from <pause dur="1.3"/> Valenciennes <pause dur="0.8"/> placing this sort of more elite genre this very scholarly <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of highbrow genre at the top <pause dur="0.6"/> Deperthes is

saying well no actually this more <pause dur="0.4"/> general genre something that the bourgeoisie can go and buy and enjoy <pause dur="0.7"/> is actually just as good <pause dur="3.1"/> so i think we can <pause dur="0.3"/> trace the decline <pause dur="0.3"/> of historical landscape <pause dur="0.6"/> from <pause dur="0.6"/> its sort of high point in eighteen-seventeen when the <pause dur="0.2"/> Prix de Rome is instituted <pause dur="3.1"/> through the worries of the eighteen-thirties all those critics <pause dur="1.1"/> concerned that <pause dur="0.2"/> it's not being done properly <pause dur="0.8"/> to the open hostility we saw <pause dur="0.2"/> in eighteen-forty-five <pause dur="1.0"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> to end with two <pause dur="0.7"/> <trunc>ex</trunc> further examples of that hostility <pause dur="2.5"/> again from the eighteen-forty-five competition that <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> this painting won <pause dur="1.4"/> the journal L'Artiste <pause dur="0.2"/> the artist <pause dur="0.8"/> called <distinct lang="fr">paysage</distinct> <trunc>os</trunc> <distinct lang="fr">historique</distinct> <pause dur="0.3"/> the worst of all landscapes <pause dur="1.1"/> again turning Valenciennes' hierarchy on its head <pause dur="2.0"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> L'Illustration <pause dur="0.3"/> summed up <pause dur="0.2"/> the whole genre with these words <pause dur="0.6"/> something without truth <pause dur="0.4"/> something without naivety <pause dur="0.4"/> and completely boring <pause dur="1.9"/> so in a sense just like Titanic <pause dur="1.3"/> thank you # i'll end there <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> and as i say for the next seminar <pause dur="1.1"/> after reading week make sure you read the little extract from Teno <pause dur="0.3"/> and we'll <pause dur="0.5"/> discuss <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> a bit more <pause dur="0.3"/> about ways of making landscapes thank you