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ahlect040

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<title>Letter form development</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>

<idno>ahlct040</idno>

<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any

way</p>

<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>

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<date>20/02/2001</date><equipment><p>video</p></equipment>

<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>

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<person id="sf0185" role="participant" n="s" sex="f"><p>sf0185, participant, student, female</p></person>

<person id="om0186" role="observer" n="o" sex="m"><p>om0186, observer, observer, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="s"><p>ss, audience, small group </p></personGrp>

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<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Typography</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ah</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG1</item>

<item n="module">History of Typography</item>

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<u who="nf0184"> you all have the <pause dur="0.8"/> feedback sheets <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> and i'm going to <pause dur="0.4"/> pass round <pause dur="0.5"/> the # attendance sheet if you'll <pause dur="1.3"/> if you'll sign it please <pause dur="3.1"/><event desc="passes out attendance sheet" iterated="n"/> today's session is on # letter form development <pause dur="1.0"/> and that <pause dur="0.2"/> by which i mean we're going to focus on the <pause dur="0.4"/> # display types of the nineteenth century <pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> i have a handout here that <pause dur="0.5"/> has space for you to # <pause dur="0.4"/> to sketch some of the <pause dur="0.7"/> typefaces that you we'll be looking at on the <pause dur="0.2"/> screen in a little while <pause dur="0.3"/> so i'll pass this around <event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/></u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf0185" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> <pause dur="0.7"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0184" trans="pause"> and here's the <pause dur="0.2"/> there's the attendance sheet there <pause dur="0.9"/> # so far this term we've looked at <pause dur="0.2"/> the socio-economic forces behind <pause dur="0.4"/> a number of the rapid changes in <pause dur="0.3"/> the in the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> we have looked at the development in <pause dur="0.3"/> the printing presses and machinery and at <pause dur="0.2"/> what happened in papermaking <pause dur="1.9"/> for the last two weeks we've been looking at the new processes of photography and lithography <pause dur="0.8"/> as well as the # the the rebirth # of the woodcut <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> when it came back in the course of the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> as wood engraving <pause dur="1.8"/> next week we're going to go on to #

looking at how the making of type speeded up that's type manufacture <pause dur="0.5"/> and composition <pause dur="0.5"/> and both # <pause dur="0.4"/> aspects of type <pause dur="0.8"/> and the use of type <pause dur="0.5"/> were mechanized in the course of the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.5"/> first the # <pause dur="0.6"/> manufacture of type and then actually <pause dur="0.4"/> composing type <pause dur="0.2"/> so that it could be used for # for printing <pause dur="0.6"/> and we will have <pause dur="0.3"/> a a demonstration of the working <pause dur="0.3"/> linotype system that's here in the department <pause dur="1.7"/> so this week's # topic <pause dur="0.7"/> is the letter forms that are known as display type <pause dur="0.9"/> and these were above all a response to the advertising needs <pause dur="0.5"/> # of the <pause dur="0.3"/> century's developing commerce and industry <pause dur="0.4"/> and you remember in our second lecture we talked about <pause dur="0.2"/> the developments # <pause dur="1.1"/> for advertising that came out of the increased production <pause dur="0.2"/> general # industrial production <pause dur="0.4"/> following the industrial revolution <pause dur="1.6"/> so what we're trying to # <pause dur="0.8"/> achieve today # in terms of these letter forms <pause dur="0.4"/> is looking at approximately <pause dur="0.4"/> when and <pause dur="0.2"/> why they developed <pause dur="1.1"/> i'll talk a little bit about <pause dur="0.4"/> the nature of the evidence

that we have concerning <pause dur="0.4"/> these # display type letter # type forms <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> which <pause dur="0.3"/> amount to what are known as specimens <pause dur="0.2"/> type specimens # <pause dur="0.2"/> type specimens on the board there <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> that come <pause dur="0.4"/> they're issued by the type founders and then # our other <pause dur="0.4"/> principal source of evidence for these <pause dur="0.2"/> display letter forms <pause dur="0.4"/> is the examples of <pause dur="0.3"/> the printed artefacts themselves so we're actually looking at the letter forms <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> in use <pause dur="1.8"/> so we're going to # # learn the names of the five <pause dur="0.3"/> # basic varieties and you'll if you look at your handout <pause dur="0.4"/> you'll see that the names <pause dur="0.9"/> # are listed there <pause dur="0.8"/> and # <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm going to show you in a little bit <pause dur="0.2"/> # the <pause dur="0.6"/> and i'll allow you time to sketch <pause dur="0.2"/> the principal characteristics of these five basic categories <pause dur="2.2"/> <trunc>wa</trunc> <trunc>no</trunc> we'll # discuss a little bit how these <pause dur="0.6"/> display <pause dur="0.2"/> types <pause dur="0.2"/> relate <pause dur="0.2"/> to book types <pause dur="0.3"/> and you'll see on the board i've written <pause dur="0.3"/> display types versus book types <pause dur="0.4"/> by which i mean there are <pause dur="0.2"/> these are <pause dur="0.2"/> two <pause dur="0.4"/> categories of the use of types <pause dur="0.5"/> and they have very strong implications <pause dur="0.2"/> for what those types look

like <pause dur="0.3"/> the <trunc>ty</trunc> types used for books <pause dur="0.3"/> # have an entirely different characteristic <pause dur="0.2"/> character and nature <pause dur="0.5"/> from the types that are used <pause dur="0.3"/> for display purposes <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> you might in this case <pause dur="0.2"/> equate to advertising # purposes <pause dur="1.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> some of the terminology for the discussion of types goes back <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> to the fifteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> and relates a little bit <pause dur="0.2"/> to what we talked about last term <pause dur="2.6"/> all right now let's move to the topic of display types themselves <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> there were <pause dur="0.8"/> # a great many types designed for and used more or less <pause dur="0.2"/> only for <pause dur="0.2"/> books <pause dur="1.1"/> those are what i'm calling here book types <pause dur="0.7"/> the others <pause dur="0.4"/> are used for <pause dur="0.3"/> # wider purposes <pause dur="0.4"/> especially for things <pause dur="0.3"/> that are meant to be posted up and seen from a distance <pause dur="0.5"/> and these are the ones that we refer to a lot on this under this general heading of heading called <pause dur="0.5"/> display types <pause dur="2.6"/> now we also have a few display functions within books <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> because we use the same term <pause dur="0.2"/> when we're talking about headings <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> types that are just used for for titles <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> it's a bit confusing to

have the same term display <pause dur="1.2"/> for both <pause dur="0.7"/> # in both fields but nevertheless we have to live with it <pause dur="1.1"/> yeah there are some <pause dur="0.9"/> two handouts one relates to your <pause dur="0.9"/> essays and the other relates to the # <pause dur="1.6"/> to today's work <pause dur="0.5"/> and there's also the # <pause dur="1.5"/> attendance sheet please <pause dur="5.1"/> in the nineteenth century <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it was the display types <pause dur="0.2"/> # that underwent the more interesting developments when we compare these two category of the use of that type <pause dur="0.8"/> and it's it's generally understood that book types <pause dur="0.4"/> the ones used for books were more or less in the doldrums <pause dur="0.2"/> much less interesting in terms <pause dur="0.4"/> of their developments <pause dur="1.8"/> so today we're looking at the <pause dur="0.2"/> the category of of of type that had its # <pause dur="0.4"/> an <trunc>e</trunc> an explosion of sorts in the nineteenth century <pause dur="1.4"/> but we need to start as usual a little bit before the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.5"/> # because for most of the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.5"/> # there were no special types <pause dur="0.2"/> that were designed for display purposes <pause dur="1.1"/> instead <pause dur="0.7"/> what was used were the largest available book types <pause dur="1.7"/> and these only got to approximately two

centimetres in height <pause dur="1.2"/> that's what's referred to # <pause dur="0.5"/> in <pause dur="0.3"/> in type as a two-line pica <pause dur="2.3"/> at the in the later eighteenth century though we do have the beginnings <pause dur="0.3"/> of special design <pause dur="0.3"/> for <trunc>disla</trunc> display purposes <pause dur="0.9"/> in the seventeen-sixties <pause dur="0.7"/> the French # <pause dur="1.2"/> type founding family known as the Fourniers <pause dur="0.7"/> developed letters that <pause dur="0.3"/> that had <pause dur="0.5"/> were floriated and floriated letters <pause dur="0.4"/> # it's put up on the board <pause dur="0.6"/> i by floriated i mean that that any decoration <pause dur="0.6"/> took the form of # flowers <pause dur="0.4"/> floral patterns <pause dur="1.6"/> and in the seventeen-eighties <pause dur="0.5"/> # at least two English type founders # William Caslon and and the <pause dur="0.8"/> # type founder Fry <pause dur="0.8"/> developed simple # <pause dur="0.3"/> open what were known as open types <pause dur="0.3"/> or alternatively in-line <pause dur="0.4"/> and i'm going to show you one # <trunc>i</trunc> on a slide just now <pause dur="0.4"/> # they're characteristic of these open or in-line and you'll see i've got in-line on the board in quotation marks because <pause dur="0.3"/> that was what they called it <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> was a letter that had a white line engraved down the thick strokes <pause dur="0.4"/> now i want to to show you this first # <pause dur="0.3"/> late eighteenth century in-line <pause dur="0.2"/> and i have to # <pause dur="0.6"/> turn the projector on <pause dur="0.5"/> clumsy <pause dur="6.5"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/>

and i'm going to have to turn off <pause dur="0.5"/> some of the lights i hope you'll be able to # <pause dur="1.3"/> see well enough to <pause dur="0.2"/><event desc="turns off lights" iterated="n"/> sketch <pause dur="1.9"/> just maybe <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="4.3"/> all right these are the letters that were referred to as in-line <pause dur="0.6"/> # and the the line they're referring to is the white line that runs down <pause dur="0.4"/> the thick <pause dur="0.8"/> # thicker portions of the letters <pause dur="1.7"/> and you'll see they came in a variety of sizes there <pause dur="0.5"/> # all the way up to <pause dur="0.4"/> # what is listed there as five-line <pause dur="0.2"/> pica <pause dur="0.2"/> which is only # two centimetres high <pause dur="3.1"/> # <pause dur="1.7"/> and a variety of English printers began to use these large letters for posters <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.9"/> as early as seventeen-sixty-five we have we have Thomas Cottrell <pause dur="0.3"/> using letters that are about two inches high <pause dur="3.7"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="10"/> and i'm going to show you a <pause dur="0.2"/> a slide <pause dur="0.4"/> of just rather large letters by Thomas Cottrell <pause dur="4.3"/> these are are are Thomas Cottrell's # and i want you not to be # <pause dur="0.2"/> misled by the slide because that does enlarge it greatly <pause dur="0.4"/> this is the actual size <pause dur="0.8"/> and i think even at at the back of the room you should be able to read that just but you see

there's <pause dur="0.3"/> quite a difference <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.6"/> so this is the largest late eighteenth century # <pause dur="1.0"/> display face that we're # <trunc>ha</trunc> know about <pause dur="4.2"/> oh i've got my technology and your technology all <pause dur="1.1"/> intertwined here </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="om0186" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="nf0184" trans="pause"> oh <pause dur="0.3"/> if you </u><u who="om0186" trans="overlap"> right <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0184" trans="overlap"> just <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> that's good <gap reason="inaudible" extent="5 secs"/><pause dur="8.6"/> we were so busy setting up his technology we didn't get mine sorted <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="0.9"/> <shift feature="pitch" new="high"/>aagh <shift feature="pitch" new="normal"/><pause dur="7.9"/> now the real change in display faces came in the first # two decades of the nineteenth century <pause dur="1.4"/> we already mentioned that basically it's the needs of the advertising industry <pause dur="0.5"/> # that that led to this development for types that <pause dur="0.4"/> come under the phrase eye-catching <pause dur="1.3"/> now if you read Professor Twyman and it is his # <pause dur="0.3"/> his chapter five that covers # <pause dur="0.2"/> display lettering <pause dur="0.2"/> <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.4"/> he says that they # he finds no <pause dur="0.9"/> <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> satisfactory single explanation for why all of a sudden there was this great development in in display types <pause dur="0.9"/> he points to as i mentioned briefly the growth of trade <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> and then the need <pause dur="0.6"/> the growing need for # competitive advertising <pause dur="1.3"/> he points to the fact that

certain # <pause dur="0.4"/> new generations of of potential purchasers <pause dur="0.3"/> were becoming at least partially literate <pause dur="0.8"/> # and he # talks about a number of <pause dur="0.2"/> technical developments <pause dur="0.9"/> some of which we've already discussed this term <pause dur="0.4"/> for instance <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> the development that related to the cost of paper so paper prices were going down <pause dur="0.6"/> # we've already we've talked earlier about <pause dur="0.3"/> the beginnings of the use of iron presses <pause dur="0.2"/> and the fact that # these could print <pause dur="0.3"/> a larger area of dense <pause dur="0.2"/> black type <pause dur="0.3"/> than earlier <pause dur="0.3"/> because these # <pause dur="1.0"/> these new faces didn't needed somewhat more # <pause dur="0.2"/> power in the machines <pause dur="1.7"/> likewise the origins of the designs <pause dur="0.2"/> # are not <pause dur="0.2"/> wholly <pause dur="0.4"/> understood <pause dur="0.6"/> some of them may have come out of the # profession of sign writing <pause dur="0.6"/> # the especially <pause dur="0.2"/> the signs that were made for for shops <pause dur="0.3"/> on a high street <pause dur="1.0"/> and it is also possible that the # wood engravers <pause dur="1.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> the work that they were doing as as wood engraved lettering <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> was part of the inspiration <pause dur="2.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and here i show you # a slide of a lottery bill <pause dur="0.4"/> # printed in eighteen-ten <pause dur="4.4"/> # which

has the upper and lower words <pause dur="0.3"/> # done # <pause dur="0.2"/> by a wood engraver <pause dur="4.5"/> and you can see that the letters are placed on on banners or what's known as as as cartouches <pause dur="0.3"/> these are the sort of # panel that it's on <pause dur="0.4"/> and # they're <trunc>v</trunc> they're very <pause dur="0.4"/> very <pause dur="0.7"/> broad <pause dur="0.5"/> they have # # a shading that suggests <pause dur="0.3"/> three-dimensionality <pause dur="0.4"/> both # <trunc>u</trunc> upper and lower <pause dur="0.3"/> and these # at # at the bottom # have a Gothic <pause dur="0.2"/> type inspiration <pause dur="0.4"/> whereas at <trunc>a</trunc> at the top <pause dur="0.2"/> # the <pause dur="0.2"/> inspiration is much more # <pause dur="0.5"/> # Roman <pause dur="4.1"/> i said i was going to discuss what our sources of evidence are for these these <pause dur="0.3"/> types of the nineteenth century <pause dur="2.2"/> we know that certain type founders issued <pause dur="0.4"/> specimen sheets that are referred to as type specimens <pause dur="1.5"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> unfortunately as a source of evidence the type specimen # <pause dur="1.6"/> is is difficult to interpret <pause dur="0.3"/> by which i mean we don't always have the very earliest ones <pause dur="0.3"/> type specimens are issued by the makers of these types <pause dur="0.3"/> in order to sell the types <pause dur="1.8"/> # they were showing off essentially their wares <pause dur="0.3"/> and so by nature

these these type specimens were ephemeral <trunc>sh</trunc> they intended to have <pause dur="0.3"/> a short life their purpose wasn't to <trunc>d</trunc> document <pause dur="0.3"/> their <trunc>pur</trunc> purpose was to sell <pause dur="2.1"/> so # <pause dur="0.5"/> we can only go by the earliest surviving ones we have # to help us date the beginnings of this process <pause dur="0.6"/> and there are very good collections of type specimens for instance at # the Saint Bride Printing Library <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and occasionally <pause dur="0.3"/> body academic bodies like the # Printing Historical Society <pause dur="0.3"/> will issue facsimiles <pause dur="0.5"/> and they help in sorting out <pause dur="0.4"/> # which <pause dur="0.2"/> type founders started to issue these # and when <pause dur="1.7"/> the the other # <pause dur="0.3"/> main source <pause dur="0.4"/> of evidence is the printed objects themselves <pause dur="1.3"/> but again <pause dur="0.2"/> these were often very short-lived <pause dur="0.4"/> printed for # <pause dur="0.5"/> purposes # of advertising individual # events or objects <pause dur="0.7"/> very often they're not dated <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> # it's highly possible <pause dur="0.3"/> that in the cases of a large proportion of them <pause dur="0.3"/> they've just disappeared altogether <pause dur="0.3"/> so again <pause dur="0.2"/> as far as records go <pause dur="0.2"/> there it weren't it's not very complete <pause dur="0.9"/> but # the

collecting of this sort of short-lived material which is known as ephemera <pause dur="0.6"/> # is one of the justifications for our <pause dur="0.3"/> departmental Ephemera Studies Centre <pause dur="0.2"/> here that was # founded about five years ago <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="sniff" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.0"/> all that we know for certain <pause dur="0.3"/> is that by about eighteen-ten <pause dur="0.5"/> large display types <pause dur="0.3"/> began to appear in the type specimens <pause dur="0.4"/> # that do still exist <pause dur="0.6"/> and the first # good ranges # <pause dur="0.2"/> turn up in a type specimen dated eighteen-fifteen <pause dur="0.5"/> and this is the eighteen-fifteen <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> type specimen <pause dur="1.1"/> or # this is <pause dur="0.3"/> part of the type <trunc>spe</trunc> specimen this is <pause dur="0.4"/> this is not actually a type specimen itself because you see <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> it's been used as as figures <trunc>ins</trunc> inside a book but it's from a type <trunc>spe</trunc> specimen <pause dur="0.5"/> from a founder known as Figgins the he's got his put his own name in the second <trunc>m</trunc> <trunc>ma</trunc> big line down <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="3.9"/> and he had this # reasonably wide range of different styles <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> which i'll go into in some detail <pause dur="0.4"/> in a minute <pause dur="4.6"/> now i want to move on to the five basic categories which are on your handout <pause dur="3.3"/>

# <pause dur="0.8"/> and these were all developed in the first <pause dur="0.2"/> first half of the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> and we'll start with <pause dur="0.5"/> # fat face because that's the earliest <pause dur="4.0"/> and here <pause dur="0.5"/> # is an example of of of a <pause dur="0.4"/> a fat face <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="2.8"/> display type <pause dur="1.7"/> this one # came again from # <pause dur="0.3"/> eighteen-fifteen <pause dur="0.9"/> and you'll notice that it is <pause dur="2.1"/> fairly aptly named <pause dur="0.3"/> in that it is an extremely <pause dur="0.3"/> fat face <pause dur="0.5"/> now the fat faces <pause dur="0.2"/> were based on a book type <pause dur="0.4"/> known as modern face <pause dur="0.4"/> and i've got modern face on the board over there <pause dur="0.4"/> # in quotation marks because <pause dur="0.3"/> modern face is not just a <pause dur="0.9"/> a general term but it's a specific term <pause dur="2.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and it <pause dur="0.3"/> it relates to <pause dur="1.2"/> # various characteristics that i'll point out to you now first of all <pause dur="0.2"/> a fat face <pause dur="0.2"/> has <pause dur="0.4"/> a very strong vertical contrast <pause dur="1.1"/> in other words <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the main <pause dur="0.3"/> lines as as you look at it are are vertical <pause dur="0.9"/> as opposed to <trunc>s</trunc> <trunc>fi</trunc> earlier faces <pause dur="0.3"/> which had # an oblique <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> angle of emphasis <pause dur="0.2"/> so that if you had any fattening <pause dur="0.3"/> it you would be more inclined to put an oblique line through it than a vertical line <pause dur="0.5"/> the second characteristic general

characteristic of modern face <pause dur="0.6"/> is is that you have what's <pause dur="0.4"/> referred to as an abrupt <pause dur="0.4"/> transition between <pause dur="0.2"/> the thin points and the thick points <pause dur="0.5"/> goes it's not <pause dur="0.2"/> it's not smoothed out it's very abrupt <pause dur="0.9"/> now what happens in the fat face <pause dur="0.3"/> is that they just exaggerate <pause dur="0.6"/> they exaggerate the difference between the thins and the thicks <pause dur="1.2"/> so so much so that the thicks <pause dur="0.4"/> the get almost as almost as wide as a third <pause dur="0.3"/> of the height of the # of the letter <pause dur="2.1"/> and it also # the fat faces retain this <pause dur="0.4"/> this verticality in the in the design <pause dur="3.6"/> now and <pause dur="0.3"/> when i talk about modern face type <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm referring to the to the book types <pause dur="0.2"/> so there there are book type designs underlying these <pause dur="0.2"/> display <pause dur="0.3"/> and i'll now show you another <pause dur="1.4"/> fat face <pause dur="0.9"/> which again <pause dur="0.8"/> can see <pause dur="0.2"/> such <pause dur="0.2"/> very <pause dur="0.3"/> strong contrasts between the the thinnest and the thickest <pause dur="0.3"/> and this one <pause dur="0.3"/> probably makes # the <pause dur="0.3"/> the overall vertical emphasis # even stronger <pause dur="11.7"/> now we think that these may have been originated by a # <pause dur="0.3"/> type founder named Robert Thorne <pause dur="0.5"/> but by about

eighteen-twenty <pause dur="0.3"/> most other type founders # at work <pause dur="0.3"/> were offering <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> fat faces <pause dur="1.1"/> and there are important variations # on fat face <pause dur="4.5"/> for instance there was a Gothic <pause dur="0.3"/> fat face based <trunc>o</trunc> on the types <pause dur="0.5"/> # the black letter types <pause dur="0.3"/> that come # down from the fifteenth century <pause dur="3.2"/> and then another variation <trunc>wa</trunc> on the fat face was to add <pause dur="0.6"/> shading <pause dur="1.1"/> so that you have this exaggerated <trunc>a</trunc> area below and to the right <pause dur="0.4"/> to give a a suggestion of <trunc>three-dimensiali</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> three-dimensionality <pause dur="1.0"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="5.0"/> now i'm going to move on to the second major category on your handout and that is <pause dur="0.4"/> the one that's called the Egyptian <pause dur="1.7"/> # never mind # that the # <pause dur="1.0"/> the heading here refers to it as antique <pause dur="0.6"/> the # <pause dur="1.7"/> type founders of the time had no # reason not to give each one of these types their own name <pause dur="1.3"/> # so the # terminology <pause dur="0.4"/> of these <pause dur="0.2"/> these different types <pause dur="0.4"/> is # <pause dur="0.2"/> a nightmare <pause dur="0.7"/> # what i'm using is the <pause dur="0.8"/> categories that have been set up by Professor Twyman in his chapter <pause dur="0.3"/> and # Nicolette Gray <pause dur="0.3"/> in her work on nineteenth century ornamented

types and title pages <pause dur="0.5"/> so the main characteristic <pause dur="1.1"/> of Egyptian <pause dur="0.6"/> was that <pause dur="0.2"/> all of the lines including the serifs <pause dur="1.3"/> <trunc>ha</trunc> are more or less the same thickness <pause dur="1.2"/> so <trunc>y</trunc> you have the the main stroke and the serifs i mean in this in this one on the <pause dur="0.2"/> on the screen at the moment <pause dur="0.5"/> the serifs are a little bit less fat than the i mean i've never not measured them but i they are less fat <pause dur="0.3"/> nevertheless you have <pause dur="0.2"/> the basic overall effect <pause dur="0.2"/> is that all lines are <pause dur="0.2"/> of equal <pause dur="0.3"/> or nearly equal weight <pause dur="2.2"/> # and this one <pause dur="1.7"/> was for <trunc>fro</trunc> is from Figgins' type specimen of eighteen-seventeen <pause dur="0.7"/> this was a very successful display face <pause dur="0.6"/> and that's because it produced a very dark and dense letter <pause dur="0.5"/> which still remained easy to read at a distance <pause dur="2.6"/> when it first appeared in eighteen-seventeen it was only in <pause dur="0.2"/> the capitals <pause dur="0.6"/> but # <pause dur="0.3"/> from <pause dur="0.2"/> in by the eighteen-twenties we were already having upper case and lower case capitals and small letters <pause dur="1.0"/> and this <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>e</trunc> Egyptian along with the fat face these are the two most # <pause dur="0.8"/> popular <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> display

types <pause dur="3.7"/> the other three that i'm going to discuss next <trunc>l</trunc> in in the five basic <pause dur="0.3"/> were somewhat less <pause dur="0.2"/> widely used <pause dur="0.2"/> especially before <pause dur="0.2"/> about eighteen-thirty <pause dur="1.6"/> so next move on to the third one on your handout which is the sans serif <pause dur="1.4"/> in in this particular slide i'm only talking about # <pause dur="0.4"/> the line here <pause dur="0.5"/> which # you'll see is very helpfully referred to in this one as Egyptian <pause dur="0.5"/> but we have now come to call this one # <pause dur="0.9"/> sans serif <pause dur="0.5"/> now the <trunc>w</trunc> <trunc>de</trunc> derivation of the term sans serif <pause dur="0.5"/> # simply means <pause dur="0.2"/> without <pause dur="0.2"/> serifs <pause dur="0.6"/> sans means without so <pause dur="0.3"/> the sans serif <pause dur="2.2"/> which # <pause dur="0.2"/> as you see here <pause dur="0.2"/> # in this case was # originally called either Egyptian or sometimes it's called antique <pause dur="2.0"/> # <pause dur="1.6"/> this became the ancestor <pause dur="0.6"/> # of what was the the greatest innovation in type design of the nineteenth century and that is the <pause dur="0.5"/> sans serif book type <pause dur="2.3"/> <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> its <trunc>des</trunc> design <pause dur="1.3"/> was <pause dur="1.0"/> intended <pause dur="0.7"/> to capture the spirit of the very earliest Roman letter forms <pause dur="0.8"/> and it was # that's why some of the the people who <pause dur="0.5"/> who <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="2.2"/> issued this as a

type referred to it as antique because it was meant to be <pause dur="0.6"/> antique in inspiration <pause dur="1.7"/> and we another term we use for sans serif <pause dur="0.4"/> is that it's monoline in other words <pause dur="0.5"/> all of the line one size line <pause dur="1.5"/> i mean the # <pause dur="1.7"/> Egyptian that i just showed you in the previous slide <pause dur="0.4"/> had more or less one side <pause dur="0.2"/> # size line but it did have serifs <pause dur="1.6"/> so this one has no <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="2.7"/> no serifs <pause dur="0.3"/> it first appeared in # an eighteen-nineteen type specimen <pause dur="0.9"/> # where it was labelled Egyptian <pause dur="2.2"/> and then it disappears and it doesn't reappear until the eighteen-thirties when it was renamed by Figgins as sans serif <pause dur="1.7"/> and by yet another type founder # <pause dur="0.6"/> renamed it grotesque <pause dur="0.9"/> and it's grotesque <pause dur="0.2"/> not in that it's # full of ornate design because in fact it's rather austere <pause dur="0.4"/> but because it was found in <pause dur="0.5"/> in grottoes <pause dur="1.2"/> which had <pause dur="0.2"/> early <pause dur="0.8"/> Christian <pause dur="0.4"/> inscriptions that were very <pause dur="0.3"/> simple <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.2"/> grottoes so it got <trunc>an</trunc> another name was grotesque <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> i i can't even apologize for these difference in terminologies we just have to live with the fact

that every time the type founders <pause dur="0.4"/> came out with <pause dur="0.2"/> what they thought was something new <pause dur="0.2"/> they gave it another name <pause dur="0.3"/> and it's just luck i mean they had no responsibility to those of us <pause dur="0.4"/> who come along later and look at it and try to <pause dur="0.4"/> understand what's going on and categorize them and have to just live with the fact that they used the same names <pause dur="0.5"/> # for very different looking letter forms <pause dur="1.2"/>

i'll now go on to one that that doesn't have very many different names and that's the Tuscan it's the fourth one on your list <pause dur="2.1"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's not the one that's on the screen <pause dur="0.3"/> it's on i have to put this on the overhead <pause dur="10.6"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> the Tuscan <pause dur="3.8"/> has a different <trunc>characterisci</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> characteristic and that is <pause dur="0.4"/> that when it you come to the bottom of of the downstroke <pause dur="0.2"/> the serifs curl you can see how they curl in <pause dur="0.4"/> in opposite directions <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> this one also happens to be shaded and so i'm i'm i'm asking you at this point <pause dur="0.3"/> to ignore the shading and just look at the main downstroke <pause dur="0.3"/> and you'll see that there is a curl to the <pause dur="0.2"/>

left a curl to the right and then <pause dur="0.3"/> at the top of the <trunc>d</trunc> # the <trunc>downs</trunc> # # the stroke <pause dur="0.4"/> is <trunc>an</trunc> another pair of curls <pause dur="0.9"/> # and that is what characterizes # the the Tuscan <pause dur="1.4"/> i'm going to <pause dur="1.4"/> show you another one <pause dur="0.4"/> but i'll have to take the the the projector back <pause dur="14.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="y" dur="10"/> right <pause dur="0.4"/> the Vincent Figgins second line again is a Tuscan <pause dur="0.5"/> and there i'll get although this too <pause dur="0.2"/> has further ornamentation on <pause dur="0.3"/> the surface of especially the downstrokes <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll see when the downstroke gets to the line <pause dur="0.4"/> # it has curls in <trunc>ei</trunc> in either direction <pause dur="0.3"/> and we sometimes refer to that as <pause dur="0.6"/> as <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/> bifurcated <pause dur="0.2"/> i know you'll love this one <pause dur="11.8"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="9"/> it simply means that they're split <pause dur="2.0"/> so you refer to the # <pause dur="1.2"/> decoration as split <pause dur="2.3"/> now <pause dur="4.7"/> you've already seen that these Tuscans can go on to be # <pause dur="1.2"/> further decorated and and we'll talk about that in a minute <pause dur="1.8"/> but now i <trunc>wa</trunc> i'm going to move on to the fifth and last of these basic categories <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="y" dur="10"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> for that i have to go forward again <pause dur="1.0"/> and that's the one that's called

Italian <pause dur="5.3"/> right now with the Italian <pause dur="2.2"/> which we think actually originated in France <pause dur="0.2"/> so why it's called Italian i don't know again <pause dur="0.4"/> the letter in this case <pause dur="0.2"/> reverses # our expectations about which parts of the letter are going to be thick and which are going to be thin <pause dur="0.8"/> so that you have these huge <pause dur="0.3"/> serifs <pause dur="0.4"/> and very thin <pause dur="0.3"/> # vertical strokes in this case <pause dur="0.6"/> so # a <pause dur="0.2"/> an easy one for you to sketch perhaps <pause dur="0.3"/> is the I <pause dur="2.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and it looks it looks quite <pause dur="0.5"/> bizarre and almost # <pause dur="1.5"/> perverse <pause dur="2.5"/> and this first came to England in the specimen of # in a specimen of eighteen-twenty-one <pause dur="2.2"/> now the growth of all these <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> was quite fast <pause dur="0.3"/> but they're not used by all printers <pause dur="1.8"/> # most traditional printers were unhappy to see these used within books <pause dur="1.8"/> they were considered inappropriate for books <pause dur="0.4"/> but they were certainly used for posters <pause dur="0.5"/> # and many <pause dur="2.3"/> # would have had their <trunc>m</trunc> their greatest impact <pause dur="1.1"/> on the posters that are printed in the provinces at first <pause dur="2.1"/> # <pause dur="2.3"/> some of the smaller sizes of these types were # <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> cast in metal <pause dur="0.4"/> but the

large ones <pause dur="0.3"/> were often # <pause dur="0.8"/> done in wood and i have three examples <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.5"/> display letters <pause dur="0.3"/> of the nineteenth century here <pause dur="0.3"/> from the department has very large collections <pause dur="0.4"/> # of display letters that you may have noticed <pause dur="0.3"/> now i'd like you # i want to to pass these around for you just to to see <pause dur="0.6"/> they are they are these all these three are <pause dur="0.2"/> in made of wood <pause dur="1.0"/> sorry <pause dur="6.6"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="14.4"/> and while that's going around i'll show you <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> one of the <pause dur="0.2"/> provincial posters <pause dur="1.0"/> that would be making use of <pause dur="0.9"/> this kind of display letter <pause dur="1.4"/> this one is dated # eighteen-thirty-one and you see at the top <pause dur="0.5"/> we have a a fat face <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> the second line down is <pause dur="0.3"/> is a fat face but italic <pause dur="0.4"/> with <pause dur="0.2"/> an in-line in other words that white line that <trunc>come</trunc> decoration that comes down <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="2.3"/> here we have a fat face that's been shadowed to give it a three-dimensional look <pause dur="0.4"/> and the surfaces <pause dur="0.3"/> have been # <pause dur="1.8"/> have been decorated <pause dur="3.9"/> so that is a typical # <trunc>n</trunc> <pause dur="1.0"/> nineteenth century <pause dur="0.2"/> poster making use of some of the <pause dur="0.3"/> display faces that we've been discussing so far <pause dur="9.3"/> in eighteen-twenty-seven

there was a a a technical development that led to some new styles <pause dur="0.5"/> # a machine known as a as a a routing machine a mechanical routing machine was developed invented in America <pause dur="0.6"/> and it facilitated the making of large quantities of these letters <pause dur="1.6"/> although in some cases we find that the routing machine itself <pause dur="0.4"/> affected the shapes of the letters and # i'll show you one example of this <pause dur="0.9"/> general phenomenon <pause dur="0.3"/> where the <pause dur="1.2"/> oops <pause dur="5.4"/> this is a type specimen showing the different sizes of <pause dur="0.3"/> a letter <pause dur="0.4"/> where the <pause dur="0.4"/> the cutting implement of the router <pause dur="0.3"/> has this <pause dur="0.2"/> rounded shape <pause dur="0.5"/> on its blade and so <pause dur="0.2"/> that in this particular case <pause dur="0.3"/> the shape <pause dur="0.3"/> that naturally developed by this new tool <pause dur="0.3"/> has been built into the design of the letter <pause dur="10.0"/> the eighteen-thirties and forties saw a great deal more designs some of them were three-dimensional some of them were <pause dur="0.4"/> what's known as reversed out that's where <pause dur="0.2"/> instead of the normal black letter <pause dur="0.4"/> you got # a black background and the <pause dur="0.2"/> letter is reversed out in white <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> from this black

background <pause dur="0.6"/> a great deal of ornamentation you've already seen a little bit of it <pause dur="0.4"/> # and then the letters started to be <pause dur="0.3"/> either # elongated <pause dur="0.3"/> or perhaps <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>m</trunc> turned into rustic letters <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and here's an example <pause dur="0.4"/> # of a Figgins <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="3.7"/> type specimen of eighteen-fifty <pause dur="0.6"/> so that you see up the top you've got <trunc>a</trunc> an Egyptian that is put at a slant <pause dur="0.4"/> and # given a three-dimensionality <pause dur="0.4"/> you've got # a a fat face # Gothic <pause dur="0.4"/> you've got a reversed out <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> Egyptian <pause dur="0.6"/> another # <pause dur="2.2"/> # oh <pause dur="1.2"/> Egyptian <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> turned on an angle and # with the opposite of the word virtue but made three-dimensional again <pause dur="4.9"/> # an Egyptian # that # has been reversed out <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.2"/> outlined depending on how you <pause dur="0.3"/> how you want to # <pause dur="1.3"/> look at it <pause dur="0.4"/> # then Gothic <pause dur="1.1"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> down at the bottom <pause dur="0.3"/> our our classic <pause dur="0.2"/> Tuscan <pause dur="0.4"/> with ornamentation <trunc>o</trunc> on the surface <pause dur="6.9"/> and the eighteen-forties saw yet # another development <pause dur="0.6"/> which is known <trunc>a</trunc> <trunc>a</trunc> as the Clarendon <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> oh <pause dur="0.9"/> oh sorry <pause dur="2.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="throat" iterated="n"/> i've got this slightly out of order in in fact in the this this specimen <pause dur="0.3"/> shows a variety of sizes of sans of sans

serifs <pause dur="2.3"/> # <pause dur="3.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but the development of the eighteen-forties that i just started to say was # <trunc>s</trunc> <trunc>th</trunc> the # <pause dur="0.4"/> family known as the Clarendons now this one is not on <pause dur="0.4"/> on your sheet <pause dur="0.4"/> # and it's not easy to see the impact that the Clarendons would have <pause dur="0.3"/> but they were like like the # <pause dur="0.5"/> very heavy Egyptian only in this case is <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>n</trunc> as i say you can't really see it from back there <pause dur="0.3"/> instead of having having your <pause dur="0.3"/> serif <pause dur="0.7"/> meet the a vertical at a at at a stiff right angle <pause dur="0.3"/> they <pause dur="0.2"/> added what's known as a little bracket you soften it you put a little <pause dur="0.3"/> curve between the <pause dur="0.3"/> the vertical and <trunc>th</trunc> and the serif <pause dur="1.3"/> and so you get <pause dur="0.2"/> a slightly more <pause dur="0.3"/> elegant letter <pause dur="0.4"/> that still has the # <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> the <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>a</trunc> ability for the <pause dur="0.3"/> density and impact of of the Egyptian <pause dur="6.1"/> now i i said that apart from type specimens the other source of information <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> that we have about these type faces <pause dur="0.5"/> display faces of the nineteenth century are the <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="3.9"/> artefacts that they printed themselves <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="2.5"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> # in a minute i'm going to show you some of the the <trunc>l</trunc> very <trunc>l</trunc> end of the nineteenth century's developments <pause dur="1.2"/>

well first i just <pause dur="0.4"/> mention some of the # <pause dur="0.4"/> influences behind these new letter forms <pause dur="1.8"/> # we know that there was # for instance a a <trunc>g</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> a growing interest <trunc>i</trunc> in the Middle Ages <pause dur="0.7"/> in the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> one of the reasons that they picked off the # Gothic or black letter <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/> shapes that had been around since the fifteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> and we will see # when we # in the lecture on on coloured printing <pause dur="0.4"/> # how some of the interest in the Middle Ages # <pause dur="0.5"/> # manifested itself <pause dur="0.4"/> there were also # <pause dur="0.3"/> a number of excavations <trunc>go</trunc> that had gone on in the in the eighteenth century <pause dur="0.4"/> that led to interests in in Rome # and and antiquity <pause dur="1.4"/> there were # <pause dur="0.2"/> excavations <pause dur="0.2"/> in Rome itself and in Herculaneum <pause dur="1.4"/> there was <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> interest in travel <pause dur="0.3"/> and and # <trunc>arc</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> other archaeological <pause dur="1.3"/> # expeditions <pause dur="0.9"/> that led us <trunc>mo</trunc> a greater familiarity with exotic languages <pause dur="1.0"/> for instance the Rosetta Stone was <trunc>d</trunc> # <pause dur="0.4"/> discovered around # <trunc>s</trunc> in seventeen-ninety-nine <pause dur="1.0"/> so # there were <pause dur="0.2"/> general influences from outside that were coming in <pause dur="1.1"/> and

that # the when they <pause dur="0.8"/> type founders did pick names like Egyptian <pause dur="0.4"/> or antique <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> it <pause dur="0.5"/> suggests <pause dur="0.3"/> that they were responding to some of these # outside influences <pause dur="1.2"/> a bit later in the century <pause dur="0.5"/> we find that there <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> may have been influence from the <pause dur="0.3"/> # flexibility <pause dur="0.2"/> that the lithographic <pause dur="0.3"/> printers # were developing <pause dur="1.8"/> and that the that their ability to # draw anything they liked <pause dur="0.4"/> in terms of shape # <pause dur="0.6"/> on to the lithographic stone <pause dur="0.3"/> was <pause dur="0.3"/> beginning to work backwards and have have effects on <pause dur="0.3"/> these much more rigid letter forms <pause dur="0.2"/> that are cast in metal or cut in wood <pause dur="3.4"/> # <pause dur="2.0"/> and i refer you in this case to some of the discussions in <pause dur="0.2"/> # Professor Twyman's book <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> which is # chapter five <pause dur="0.6"/> now i want <pause dur="0.2"/> just to finish off by showing you <pause dur="0.5"/> some of the # exuberant <pause dur="1.0"/> designs of the late <pause dur="0.2"/> nineteenth century and their use as posters <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> could i ask you to turn the <pause dur="0.3"/> projector off please <pause dur="1.8"/> first i'll start with some letter forms that were <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> probably <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>a</trunc> as developed as you could get # <pause dur="0.8"/> in terms of the <pause dur="0.2"/> # exploitation of the

surface of the fat face <pause dur="0.6"/> and these # <pause dur="1.4"/> are very large display letters done by a man named Pouché <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> that's P-O-U-C-H-<pause dur="0.5"/>E-acute <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> these have <pause dur="0.3"/> fairly recently been <pause dur="0.3"/> been published in full because they # <pause dur="0.2"/> original letter forms <pause dur="0.2"/> were discovered <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> the wood letters were not intended to be printed from directly but to cast # be cast as # <pause dur="0.4"/> electrotypes <pause dur="0.3"/> and and printed from <pause dur="0.2"/> the electrotypes <pause dur="0.5"/> but you can see # <pause dur="1.0"/> not only do they have # the the <trunc>sh</trunc> the shading <pause dur="0.4"/> which gives them this suggestion of three-dimensionality <pause dur="0.4"/> but the the # <pause dur="0.2"/> # floral and fruit patterns are are extremely elaborate <pause dur="3.0"/> that was <trunc>a</trunc> that is about as <pause dur="0.3"/> as beautiful as the letter form gets <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> i'll just show you two or three <pause dur="2.9"/> examples of how they're used <pause dur="2.6"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> at the top we have a <trunc>ha</trunc> have a sans serif <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> in the middle <pause dur="0.8"/> Tuscans <pause dur="0.5"/> these are Tuscans <pause dur="0.7"/> just some fat face <pause dur="0.3"/> here more Tuscans <pause dur="0.7"/> then # <pause dur="1.2"/> sans serifs <pause dur="0.4"/> that have been shadowed <pause dur="0.5"/> and # the rest is is largely in <pause dur="0.2"/> in sans serif <pause dur="14.3"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> these letter forms # <pause dur="0.3"/> which are done

in in this case on on <trunc>c</trunc> in a copper plate engraving <pause dur="0.4"/> you can see well <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm i'm not going to stand here and name them all to you but you can see Gothics <pause dur="0.4"/> you can see Tuscans <pause dur="0.4"/> you can see <pause dur="0.3"/> sans serifs <pause dur="0.2"/> fat faces <pause dur="1.1"/> really the lot <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> and and this is <pause dur="0.2"/> about # eighteen-seventy this particular <pause dur="0.2"/> image <pause dur="7.8"/> and finally <pause dur="0.3"/> even closer to the end of the century i'm sorry this <pause dur="0.6"/> this this new machine <pause dur="0.2"/> doesn't let you <pause dur="1.3"/> move it up <pause dur="3.9"/> but here you can see # a very <pause dur="1.3"/> interesting if odd way of of <pause dur="0.5"/> handling the letter form so that you're actually supposed to read the shadows that are cast by these individual <pause dur="0.5"/> # figures <pause dur="0.7"/> so the so word itself the letters themselves come up as as shadows <pause dur="0.9"/> and here # <pause dur="0.7"/> a Tuscan <pause dur="0.9"/> shadowed Tuscan <pause dur="0.3"/> up here <pause dur="0.5"/> letter forms that are made # out of # out of little people <pause dur="0.7"/> at the top # a reversed out # <pause dur="0.5"/>

sans serif <pause dur="2.3"/> so by the end of the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.3"/> # the letter forms <pause dur="0.5"/> # were completely transformed from # what we had <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> started with <pause dur="0.3"/> which were merely <pause dur="0.2"/> large sizes of of book faces <pause dur="0.4"/> that were # used occasionally for display <pause dur="0.3"/> at the beginning # <pause dur="0.2"/> of the nineteenth century <pause dur="0.6"/> now # i would <pause dur="0.2"/> recommend that you follow this up by having a good look at # <pause dur="1.0"/> Twyman <pause dur="0.3"/> chapter five and oner <pause dur="0.4"/> # or another of the books by Nicolette Gray <pause dur="1.8"/> # next week we have the demonstrations <pause dur="0.2"/> # on the monotype machine and we talk about <pause dur="0.5"/> type casting <pause dur="0.3"/> type making and type casting <pause dur="0.3"/> and the combination of those two <pause dur="0.5"/> now if any of the rest of you haven't signed the register <pause dur="0.6"/> or <pause dur="1.7"/> filled out one of these cover sheets for your essay <pause dur="0.8"/> please do that <pause dur="1.3"/> that's it

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