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<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE TEI.2 SYSTEM "base.dtd">





<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




<recording dur="00:55:10" n="9308">


<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>



<langUsage><language id="en">English</language>



<person id="nm0187" role="main speaker" n="n" sex="m"><p>nm0187, main speaker, non-student, male</p></person>

<person id="sm0188" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm0188, participant, student, male</p></person>

<person id="sm0189" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm0189, participant, student, male</p></person>

<person id="sm0190" role="participant" n="s" sex="m"><p>sm0190, participant, student, male</p></person>

<personGrp id="ss" role="audience" size="s"><p>ss, audience, small group </p></personGrp>

<personGrp id="sl" role="all" size="s"><p>sl, all, small group</p></personGrp>

<personGrp role="speakers" size="6"><p>number of speakers: 6</p></personGrp>





<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Agricultural Botany</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ls</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG3/PG</item>

<item n="module">Methods &amp; developments in plant breeding</item>




<u who="nm0187"> so on the handout you've got this and i don't i'm not going to go through every lecture and and start talking about it but <pause dur="0.2"/> you have got this and hopefully you'll see this develops come along so we'll cover the <pause dur="0.2"/> the general introduction <pause dur="0.2"/> this week <pause dur="0.2"/> and then there's the main <pause dur="0.2"/> types of breeding schemes <pause dur="0.2"/> # and then <pause dur="0.2"/> some more of the of the techniques and backgrounds <pause dur="0.3"/> # and ending up <pause dur="0.3"/> with <pause dur="1.1"/> the releasing of varieties and all the things that go with that about patenting plant breeders' rights and <pause dur="0.5"/> a little bit about the ethics # <pause dur="1.0"/> particularly of course the <pause dur="0.2"/> G-M-Os and this sort of thing <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> so hopefully that sort of structure will make sense as we <pause dur="0.2"/> as we go along <pause dur="1.8"/> the <pause dur="1.3"/> the other side of your sheet is trash you can <pause dur="0.2"/> pretty well ignore <pause dur="0.2"/> it's about the # <pause dur="0.7"/> the posters and i've changed it slightly and i'll give you another sheet <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> just now <pause dur="0.2"/> but but basically <pause dur="0.2"/> you've got <pause dur="1.0"/> from this week after the lecture i'll <pause dur="0.2"/> give you a a a list and some information to pick a topic <pause dur="0.7"/> and you each pick one topic <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll

do your poster and your essay on that one topic <pause dur="0.4"/> you'll then <pause dur="0.2"/> prepare it during the time including using # <pause dur="0.2"/> the computers over in P-S-L to to produce the first draft <pause dur="0.3"/> and then in weeks eight and nine <pause dur="0.7"/> you'll present the posters <pause dur="0.5"/> before we'll ask you questions about and et cetera and hopefully learn from them <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> then <pause dur="0.3"/> week ten <pause dur="0.6"/> if there's anything to pick up we can do <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="1.0"/> yeah</u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> # so we <pause dur="0.3"/> give in the posters in week seven <pause dur="0.2"/> # </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> # yeah you'll need to give us the # the posters i'll explain on a disk <pause dur="0.2"/> in week seven so that we can <pause dur="0.7"/> get it # in a state <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> that you can <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>present it on the on the next week <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> and then the # <pause dur="0.3"/> the essays need to come in <pause dur="0.4"/> in week eight on the same subject area <pause dur="0.2"/> i'll go through it a bit more <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> just now okay <pause dur="0.3"/> we'll come back to that <pause dur="1.3"/> okay so that's the main <pause dur="0.9"/> outline of things <pause dur="0.7"/> what i want to do is to start off by giving you some <pause dur="0.3"/> of the <pause dur="0.6"/> general introduction to plant breeding itself <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> now if you do have questions then please do feel free to ask them as we <pause dur="0.2"/> go along and i will try and remember

at the end <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>of each <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> lecture if i don't shout at me <pause dur="0.3"/> to please ask whatever questions you want to okay <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> otherwise just ask as we go along <pause dur="8.9"/><event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="3.5"/> as i said i'm not sure if you were all here <unclear>when i said</unclear> <pause dur="0.2"/> what i'll try and do is to try and give you handouts of all the overheads so # so you shouldn't have to scribble them down too much but <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> you may want to add <pause dur="0.8"/> more information in various ways <pause dur="11.8"/> oh the other important thing to tell you despite what it says on your timetable <pause dur="0.7"/> next week the lecture is also here <pause dur="1.3"/> because they haven't finished the building <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>so next week turn up <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>here again <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="6.4"/><vocal desc="hum" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="1.0"/><vocal desc="hum" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="7.6"/> okay <pause dur="1.9"/> what i'd like to <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> start by doing and i hope you don't <pause dur="0.3"/> regard this as too trivial <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> just to put plants in context a little bit <pause dur="0.4"/> as i <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> as i see them <pause dur="1.0"/> certainly as far as <pause dur="0.3"/> humans are concerned <pause dur="1.5"/> what you have to remember is that we are completely dependent on plants <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> we're not completely dependent on animals we are completely dependent on plants <pause dur="0.6"/> we either eat <pause dur="0.3"/> them <pause dur="0.3"/> or eat <pause dur="0.5"/> the thing that ate them <pause dur="0.9"/>

okay <pause dur="1.3"/> so whatever happens <pause dur="0.3"/> and whenever we're talking about <pause dur="0.7"/> even growing crops or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> # or whether we're growing ornamental plants we are completely dependent on them in one one <pause dur="0.5"/> sense or another <pause dur="1.3"/> they are the only route <pause dur="0.4"/> or basically the only route that we can go <pause dur="0.2"/> from the inorganics <pause dur="0.4"/> C-O-two et cetera <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.3"/> the organic <pause dur="0.2"/> and use <pause dur="0.4"/> the products <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> so they're extremely important in their own right never mind what we're going to do or how we're going to exploit them <pause dur="1.0"/> and food is not the only product we get from <pause dur="0.4"/> from plants <pause dur="0.3"/> i tend to to talk quite a bit <pause dur="0.2"/> about <pause dur="0.4"/> food crops <pause dur="0.4"/> but that's not because they're the only ones it's just it's it's slightly easier to talk about and they're ones i'm more familiar with <pause dur="0.5"/> but of course there are all the ornamentals for a start which are <pause dur="0.3"/> important certainly commercially important <pause dur="0.4"/> but there are also a whole range of other things that we get from plants <pause dur="0.6"/> drugs for instance clothing <pause dur="0.7"/> paper rubber dyes <pause dur="0.2"/> all these sort of products <pause dur="0.4"/> are come from

plants and are ones which can be subject of course to plant breeding <pause dur="0.4"/> to crop improvement et cetera <pause dur="2.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> they're essential element to sustaining <pause dur="0.5"/> human life <pause dur="0.9"/> and although other organisms has various roles they really are <trunc>s</trunc> central <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> to what we're doing and for our survival <pause dur="2.4"/> so it's important when we go on to talk about <unclear>cropping</unclear> you do <pause dur="0.3"/> realize that central <pause dur="0.2"/> role and <pause dur="0.3"/> as i say a lot of the time we may be talking about quite narrow things <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> you need to bear in mind the broader context in which plants are <pause dur="0.3"/> are there <pause dur="0.7"/> and the ways that we're going to be exploiting them or could exploit them <pause dur="1.8"/> okay so having <pause dur="0.4"/> said that you'll not be <pause dur="0.5"/> surprised <pause dur="0.4"/> if <pause dur="0.3"/> when we ask the question how long has plant breeding been going on <pause dur="0.2"/> the answer is as long as we've been <pause dur="0.4"/> practising settled <pause dur="0.2"/> agriculture of any <pause dur="0.3"/> shape or form <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="1.0"/> <vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> so for instance if a farmer went out and collected seed <pause dur="1.1"/> grew them and they did relatively well <pause dur="0.3"/> the chances are he'd go back to the same place to collect seed or use the seed he'd grown <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="0.7"/>

if a neighbour <pause dur="0.4"/> had <pause dur="0.9"/> a crop that was growing particularly well you'd not be surprised if his neighbours <pause dur="0.2"/> had <trunc>a</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> acquired seed <pause dur="0.4"/> or were <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>given it<shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> by him in <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>one way <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> or another <pause dur="0.2"/> they would get it and particular types <pause dur="0.3"/> would therefore tend to be <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> multiplied <pause dur="0.7"/> and so by this picking of the best <pause dur="0.9"/> then <pause dur="0.6"/> you'd start to get <trunc>qu</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> fairly quickly at least over a reasonable <pause dur="0.2"/> times <pause dur="0.3"/> types that were different from the wild <pause dur="0.5"/> # ones growing around them <pause dur="0.2"/> in other words you'd start to get domesticated forms <pause dur="0.8"/> which were <pause dur="0.2"/> different from <pause dur="0.4"/> the general population of of the wild plants around <pause dur="1.6"/> and these would then start to form almost exclusively the basis for <pause dur="0.6"/> the <trunc>p</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> plants the crops that were cultivated <pause dur="0.2"/> they would only use those because they wouldn't get such a good yield or they wouldn't get the right sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> product from them <pause dur="0.7"/> from the the wild ones so they'd grow these <pause dur="1.2"/> so certainly before Mendel's experiments were reported most of the crop plants had been domesticated <pause dur="1.3"/> so most of the crops as we

recognize them today okay they may look <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.6"/> different to some extent but you'd recognize them as crop <pause dur="0.4"/> were all carried out before we had any knowledge whatsoever of genetics <pause dur="1.2"/> so this was basically a lot of it carried out <pause dur="0.2"/> by people who were simply growing producing things and knowing what they wanted to to grow and produce <pause dur="1.4"/> so i talk about plant breeding as a science and we do put science into it <pause dur="0.2"/> but you do <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>have to remember <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>that a lot of what was achieved <pause dur="0.2"/> was before we even recognized this so <pause dur="0.4"/> i mean that is is the case and i'm not <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> in any way belittling their contribution it's very very big <pause dur="0.7"/> and they did it without <pause dur="0.2"/> the sort of knowledge that mostly we're going to talk about <pause dur="1.8"/> so it kind of puts us in context a bit <pause dur="1.4"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so moving on from there <pause dur="0.5"/> to ask really the next <pause dur="0.2"/> general question you might ask what would be the objectives <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> the crop breeder <pause dur="2.0"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.5"/> well <pause dur="0.2"/> in many ways they're still the same objectives in broad terms that were originally the driving force <pause dur="0.6"/> and a major one is increasing

productivity <pause dur="1.0"/> certainly in most of the crop plants that is still a major consideration <pause dur="1.5"/> the desire and need to produce more <pause dur="0.4"/> per unit area <pause dur="0.8"/> is really just as it's always been <pause dur="0.7"/> in Europe <pause dur="0.4"/> we do get and in a number of the other developed countries <pause dur="0.4"/> we do get surpluses of some crops <pause dur="0.6"/> and we do get <pause dur="0.3"/> quite a lot of discussion about <pause dur="0.4"/> whether this means we should not <pause dur="0.3"/> produce <pause dur="0.8"/> cultivars or types that are more highly productive et cetera <pause dur="0.8"/> but if you think about it there's really no industry no <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> system <pause dur="0.3"/> by which <pause dur="0.4"/> increased <pause dur="0.2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>efficiency <pause dur="0.3"/> and productivity <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>is not sensible <pause dur="0.8"/> you'd be better to go for increased productivity <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.6"/> growing a smaller area than you would the other way around <pause dur="0.2"/> profitability et cetera is still an important consideration <pause dur="1.5"/> but i'm not suggesting that should be the only one i'm not suggesting that we should ignore things like the environmental impact that we're having <pause dur="0.5"/> this is something else that we have to consider <pause dur="0.5"/> but if we're talking for instance about low input <pause dur="0.2"/>

production <pause dur="0.3"/> then we do need to have cultivars which are suited <pause dur="0.3"/> to that <pause dur="0.5"/> there's no point thinking you can just take any cultivar and put it in a low input system <pause dur="0.6"/> you got to look for ones <pause dur="1.1"/> that grow well for instance <pause dur="0.5"/> without high nitrogen inputs <pause dur="0.6"/> that possibly do grow quite <pause dur="0.3"/> well competitively with weeds <pause dur="0.4"/> that are <pause dur="0.2"/> resistant to many of the pests and diseases if you're not going to control these <pause dur="0.2"/> by chemical means <pause dur="1.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so the need <pause dur="0.9"/> for <pause dur="0.4"/> the increase in production is still there and is still a major driving force <pause dur="0.3"/> the other thing which you need to bear in mind this is that much of the world this is not the case <pause dur="0.4"/> they do not have an over-production <pause dur="0.4"/> <unclear>that's absolutely</unclear> sure <pause dur="0.8"/> and you can talk about the total world production and if you spread it out what would happen but that's not reality <pause dur="0.9"/> most of the food crops have to be grown <pause dur="0.3"/> locally <pause dur="0.4"/> to be <pause dur="0.2"/> used effectively <pause dur="0.4"/> so many countries there's still a very real need <pause dur="0.2"/> to feed <pause dur="0.2"/> the people that are there <pause dur="0.9"/> and if you look at the projections for the world population you can see this is not something that's going to go away very quickly or very easily <pause dur="4.9"/>

so one of the objectives <pause dur="0.6"/> of plant breeding <pause dur="0.4"/> is really to produce lines cultivars or varieties and i use those <pause dur="0.4"/> terms interchangeably <pause dur="0.8"/> <reading>that are # better adapted <pause dur="0.2"/> to the particular <pause dur="0.3"/> environmental <pause dur="0.7"/> conditions under which they're expected to grow</reading> <pause dur="1.7"/> okay so there's not a universal <pause dur="0.3"/> type of cultivar it's got to be <pause dur="0.4"/> cultivars that are <pause dur="0.3"/> suited to the particular conditions under which they're going to grow <pause dur="0.9"/> now these might be climatic conditions which clearly <pause dur="0.3"/> vary quite dramatically <pause dur="0.5"/> around the world they might be <pause dur="0.3"/> # different day lengths <pause dur="0.3"/> they might be different temperatures <pause dur="0.3"/> and just as easily they might be different farming practices different husbandry techniques <pause dur="1.0"/> these are the sort of considerations <pause dur="0.9"/> that you need when you're thinking about <pause dur="0.3"/> what they're going to be adapted to <pause dur="2.4"/> so one of the questions that <pause dur="0.3"/> arises what <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> do i really mean by <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> better adapted <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> and mostly in plant breeding terms

this has tended <pause dur="0.5"/> previously <pause dur="0.3"/> to simply mean whether they produce more <pause dur="0.2"/> crude yield <pause dur="0.7"/> whether you get more <pause dur="0.3"/> tatties on the bottom of your plant whether you get more <pause dur="0.2"/> grains of wheat <pause dur="2.3"/> whether you get more <pause dur="0.4"/> tea leaves <pause dur="0.2"/> off the bushes et cetera <pause dur="0.3"/> but this has been modified <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/> recently to be <pause dur="0.3"/> much more sensible <pause dur="0.2"/> or at least i think <pause dur="1.0"/> it's more sensible <pause dur="2.8"/> first of all the main <pause dur="0.4"/> change has been much more <pause dur="0.3"/> towards usable yield rather than total yield <pause dur="1.5"/> so this is the amount <pause dur="0.5"/> that you can actually <pause dur="0.3"/> you get <pause dur="0.5"/> for the purpose that you're considering so <pause dur="0.2"/> the amount that you actually get to eat off it the amount you get <pause dur="0.3"/> processed from it <pause dur="0.8"/> the amount that you <pause dur="0.3"/> can actually use after storage <pause dur="1.3"/> these sorts of considerations <pause dur="1.2"/> so it starts bringing in <pause dur="0.3"/> important other factors like the nutritional <pause dur="0.4"/> # value <pause dur="0.5"/> of the product <pause dur="0.5"/> like <pause dur="0.5"/> the # ability to withstand storage diseases <pause dur="1.7"/> like the reduction in <pause dur="0.2"/> waste <pause dur="0.6"/> for example if you take potatoes if you peel them <pause dur="0.3"/> how much do you lose <pause dur="0.5"/> all these sorts of considerations <pause dur="0.3"/> now impose <pause dur="0.4"/>

themselves <pause dur="0.3"/> on usable yield <pause dur="0.4"/> rather than simply <pause dur="0.6"/> crude yield <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="1.8"/> the next consideration that has become <pause dur="0.4"/> much more recognized <pause dur="0.3"/> is the need for stability of yield <pause dur="1.7"/> now in countries like this mostly or quite a lot of this has been achieved <pause dur="0.3"/> by <pause dur="0.7"/> having inputs <pause dur="0.8"/> chemical inputs mostly by using fertilizers <pause dur="0.3"/> by using sprays <pause dur="1.2"/> so that is one way of stabilizing the the at least the gross <pause dur="0.2"/> yield <pause dur="0.5"/> on a year by year basis <pause dur="1.5"/> but the other <pause dur="0.4"/> way that's also been done is to look at the <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> plant breeding and the resistance to <pause dur="0.4"/> things like biotic and abiotic stresses <pause dur="0.5"/> to cut down the year to year <pause dur="0.3"/> variation <pause dur="0.6"/> i think it's fairly obvious particularly if you're depending on a crop if one year <pause dur="0.2"/> it yields a lot <pause dur="0.5"/> the next year it yields a lot and the one after <pause dur="0.8"/> not very much at all <pause dur="0.4"/> the average of those three years might look all right and you might say that's quite a good variety <pause dur="0.3"/> but in realistic terms if you haven't got anything to eat in the third year is is kind of a bit tricky <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> so although it

seems obvious it's not something that's been too highly <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> stressed before <pause dur="0.8"/> so as i say one of the ways round this is to look very much at things like disease <pause dur="0.4"/> resistance and <pause dur="0.2"/> tolerance to <pause dur="0.2"/> abiotic stresses temperature <pause dur="0.5"/> # drought <pause dur="0.4"/> water-logging <pause dur="0.2"/> any of these types of things <pause dur="3.2"/> the next thing that <pause dur="0.4"/> as i say has been having increasing emphasis is the quality of the product <pause dur="2.3"/> clearly one of the important parts in a food crop is the nutritional <pause dur="0.3"/> quality itself <pause dur="0.2"/> but also aspects like taste <pause dur="0.7"/> i'm sure you've all heard the stories of how the new <pause dur="0.5"/> varieties do not taste anything like the old ones and we've got rid of all the <pause dur="0.4"/> good qualities of these and to some extent it's it's true <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> but it's certainly something that is much more # <pause dur="0.3"/> focused on <pause dur="0.2"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> there's also things like <pause dur="0.2"/> the calorific value <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>co</trunc> protein content <pause dur="0.3"/> fat level vitamin concentration <pause dur="0.4"/> all these things are aspects <pause dur="0.4"/> that do vary <pause dur="0.4"/> between different genotypes and you can select for <pause dur="0.8"/> within the <pause dur="0.4"/> within the crop <pause dur="2.1"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.7"/> then there's the

environmental impact which we've <pause dur="0.3"/> touched on before <pause dur="2.9"/> agriculture <pause dur="0.3"/> when it's practised <pause dur="0.2"/> has raised <pause dur="0.5"/> quite a considerable debate in in quite a number of ways <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> in most developed countries we do the work for intensive <pause dur="0.5"/> agricultural production <pause dur="1.2"/> there is very little <pause dur="0.5"/> in this country which you could call a natural environment <pause dur="0.5"/> it depends # <pause dur="0.3"/> to a despite <pause dur="0.6"/> people protesting <pause dur="0.4"/> about <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> the effects on the countryside the countryside is almost completely agricultural <pause dur="0.2"/> production it's certainly <pause dur="0.3"/> framed and <pause dur="0.3"/> a product of agricultural production <pause dur="0.7"/> so we do <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>have to <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.2"/> to bear this in mind <pause dur="0.2"/> when you look at other countries and you talk about them <pause dur="0.3"/> not destroying their rainforests and all the rest of it which i <pause dur="0.6"/> fully sympathize with <pause dur="0.2"/> you have to remember that's exactly what we have done <pause dur="0.7"/> we have taken out all our forests <pause dur="0.4"/> and put in agriculture <pause dur="1.5"/> but it's something that # # say we need to to think <pause dur="0.4"/> carefully about we <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>need <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>to think about inputs <pause dur="0.4"/> such as do we need high fertilizer levels do we need

chemicals et cetera one of the answers <pause dur="0.3"/> is undoubtedly from plant breeding <pause dur="1.4"/> if we can produce yield without such a high level of <pause dur="0.2"/> fertilizer <pause dur="0.8"/> if we can stabilize yield without having to spray <pause dur="0.2"/> pesticides then clearly <pause dur="0.3"/> that is something we should <pause dur="1.4"/> or we could go for and to a certain extent it is being done <pause dur="2.0"/> again you have to <pause dur="0.3"/> look <pause dur="0.5"/> at it in the context that you expect the thing to be grown <pause dur="1.0"/> if it's going to be grown in a high input system then you will have <pause dur="0.8"/> cultivars that will respond and grow in that situation <pause dur="0.3"/> if you're looking at low input then it must be <unclear>in that</unclear> if you're looking in a developing country <pause dur="0.5"/> you have to look <pause dur="0.4"/> at what condition and husbandry practices they're going to do and what effect that's going to have <pause dur="7.3"/> as i said one of the primary aims <pause dur="0.4"/> is to produce varieties which are better adapted <pause dur="0.8"/> but the second part of that <pause dur="0.4"/> is to the particular environmental conditions under which they're expected to grow <pause dur="3.5"/> to produce varieties that <pause dur="0.6"/> are growing under <pause dur="0.5"/> these conditions

it's quite an easy thing to overlook <pause dur="0.7"/> you do have to think of a whole series of <trunc>th</trunc> of <pause dur="0.5"/> things depending on how broadly you expect the <pause dur="0.8"/> the two that you're producing to grow <pause dur="1.4"/> what are the soil conditions <pause dur="0.8"/> what sort of rainfalls <pause dur="1.5"/> what sort of <pause dur="0.4"/> basic environmental conditions such as # <pause dur="0.2"/> hours of sunlight <pause dur="0.5"/> are you going to <pause dur="0.3"/> be exposed to <pause dur="1.1"/> but very importantly is what type of <pause dur="0.4"/> husbandry practice what type of farming system <pause dur="0.5"/> basically is it going to be <pause dur="0.4"/> to be grown under <pause dur="0.7"/> mostly of course <pause dur="0.3"/> breeders are producing for <pause dur="0.2"/> large-scale <pause dur="0.2"/> production they are not usually <pause dur="0.3"/> selecting for smallholder production <pause dur="1.7"/> but nevertheless there are quite a variety <pause dur="0.3"/> of different ways <pause dur="0.2"/> in which <pause dur="0.5"/> you can grow crops <pause dur="1.5"/> okay so this <pause dur="0.5"/> is something which is important to bear in mind <pause dur="3.5"/> so the <pause dur="0.6"/> <reading>objectives of the plant breeder are to increase usable yield <pause dur="0.3"/> increase stability <pause dur="0.4"/> make the crop more nutritive reduce ecological disadvantages <pause dur="0.5"/> and produce types <pause dur="0.3"/> that basically suit <pause dur="0.2"/> the growing conditions and the needs of the

people who are growing them</reading> <pause dur="2.3"/> there are however as i <pause dur="0.4"/> pointed out at the start were the number of other factors that you need to worry about and the most difficult one <pause dur="0.5"/> as i said from the start is that you're going to have to predict <pause dur="0.6"/> what <pause dur="0.3"/> this is going to be like in the future not what it is today <pause dur="1.0"/> probably as i said to you the minimum is probably about seven years <pause dur="0.3"/> in the future <pause dur="2.3"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> in some ways environmentally <pause dur="0.4"/> that might not be too bad even with global warming <pause dur="0.2"/> seven years is a moderately short <pause dur="0.6"/> time scale so you could maybe <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> do a reasonable job on that <pause dur="1.6"/> but how are you going to predict what for instance the political situation is going to be <pause dur="1.0"/> what is going to be <pause dur="0.4"/> the position with regard for instance the subsidies or <pause dur="0.5"/> what have you <pause dur="0.2"/> what crops will <pause dur="0.3"/> farmers want to grow <pause dur="3.8"/> what will the end-user want <pause dur="2.0"/> you only have to think of the changes that have occurred in <pause dur="0.5"/> food consumption <pause dur="0.3"/> in this country or <pause dur="0.3"/> any of the developing ones to see what happens <pause dur="0.7"/> in the in the developed ones i mean in the

developing ones the same thing is true <pause dur="0.5"/> what <pause dur="0.2"/> is going to be the requirements when i started <pause dur="0.4"/> as a plant breeder <pause dur="1.0"/> as a potato breeder at least <pause dur="0.4"/> then <pause dur="0.4"/> the selection was all for a medium-size potato tuber <pause dur="0.2"/> that was what were required by the housewife and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.4"/> all the small ones used to throw away <pause dur="0.5"/> and the great big ones were useless and they were also <pause dur="0.3"/> given for <pause dur="0.2"/> animal feed <pause dur="0.8"/> because there was no <pause dur="0.2"/> real use for them so all the breeding was for <pause dur="0.2"/> this size tuber <pause dur="0.7"/> within a few years <pause dur="0.2"/> of course the big tubers <pause dur="0.3"/> started getting a premium because they're used for bakers <pause dur="0.6"/> and you can sell those and throw the rest away if you want to although you don't you use them so there's a premium on those <pause dur="0.3"/> and they even sell the small ones then they pretend they're Earlies <pause dur="0.3"/> and sell those at a premium <pause dur="0.6"/> so the whole thing reversed within <pause dur="0.2"/> really a few years <pause dur="0.2"/> now as a plant breeder adjusting <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>to that is really <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> quite difficult <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> so you have to do some crystal ball gazing and it's difficult

to get it right <pause dur="0.2"/> you have to bear that in mind so of course one of your strategies <pause dur="0.3"/> may be <pause dur="0.2"/> to put some adaptability into your breeding programme so that you can <pause dur="0.2"/> move in different directions not just <pause dur="0.3"/> selecting for a single <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> particular picture <pause dur="1.9"/> another question that you might <pause dur="0.4"/> # try and ask as a plant breeder is what is going to be the spectrum of <pause dur="0.4"/> pests and diseases <pause dur="0.4"/> in seven years' time <pause dur="0.3"/> and i can assure you these do <pause dur="0.2"/> move and do change <pause dur="0.5"/> quite a lot over <pause dur="0.4"/> time <pause dur="0.6"/> # certainly <pause dur="0.4"/> we produced varieties that by the time we got them to the field <pause dur="0.4"/> were susceptible to one of the most common diseases around and they were useless <pause dur="1.5"/> so <pause dur="0.6"/> the reality of predicting is difficult but you do need to do something about it <pause dur="2.3"/> okay so they're real problems in terms of <pause dur="0.2"/> the breeder defining <pause dur="0.4"/> the aims and objectives <pause dur="0.3"/> but if we ignore that <pause dur="0.9"/> the next question is <pause dur="0.3"/> really how do we go about <pause dur="0.3"/> trying to achieve these aims and objectives <pause dur="0.4"/> and that's really what what the course is about <pause dur="1.9"/> now i'm sure <pause dur="0.2"/> you've all

got some <pause dur="0.2"/> reasonable ideas from the lectures you've already <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> been to <pause dur="0.2"/> about the some of the general features of <pause dur="0.2"/> plant breeding <pause dur="1.2"/> but basically one of you can break it down <pause dur="0.4"/> into <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="8"/> really three steps <pause dur="3.2"/> and these are common <pause dur="0.6"/> to <pause dur="0.7"/> every breeding programme <pause dur="1.1"/> now the details of them may differ <pause dur="1.3"/> but <pause dur="0.4"/> nevertheless <pause dur="0.3"/> you require all these <pause dur="1.1"/> all these three steps to be able to <pause dur="0.2"/> to to carry out plant breeding <pause dur="6.3"/> the first thing <pause dur="0.3"/> you need to do is to either release or produce genetic variation <pause dur="0.6"/> if you want to select for something that's different <pause dur="0.3"/> you've got to have a difference there to start with <pause dur="0.9"/> if they're all the same then clearly <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>there's no point <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> doing anything <pause dur="1.2"/> now to do that as i say you need variation that is genetical <pause dur="0.2"/> you need things that are inherited <pause dur="1.2"/> the two things may look different <pause dur="0.3"/> and by that we say the phenotypes are different in other words their appearance is different <pause dur="0.9"/> but they need to be genetically different if it's going to be inherited by their offspring and therefore we make

progress with plant breeding <pause dur="0.8"/> so we need <pause dur="0.4"/> to be able <pause dur="0.2"/> to produce and release genetic variation <pause dur="2.2"/> and i'm sure you're <pause dur="0.3"/> all know <pause dur="0.8"/> very well what is the most <pause dur="0.6"/> obvious and straightforward <pause dur="0.3"/> way to produce <pause dur="0.2"/> genetic variation <pause dur="2.5"/> and it is <pause dur="1.2"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="2.6"/> no </u><u who="sm0189" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible"/></u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> sorry </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sm0189" trans="pause"> it's hybrids </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> sexual reproduction <pause dur="1.2"/> # <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> so yeah it is a very obvious answer <pause dur="0.4"/> so sexual reproduction <pause dur="0.3"/> is the most common <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> form of <pause dur="1.5"/> releasing variation in plant breeding <pause dur="0.4"/> and in <pause dur="0.7"/> virtually all plant breeding programmes that is the source <pause dur="0.8"/> of genetic variation <pause dur="1.5"/> so we take <pause dur="1.2"/> two lines <pause dur="0.3"/> which have <pause dur="0.2"/> between them the characters <pause dur="0.3"/> or the expressions of the characters we want <pause dur="0.3"/> we cross them <pause dur="1.1"/> we produce <pause dur="0.3"/> usually the first generation from that <pause dur="0.5"/> you then <pause dur="1.1"/> have various options but one of the obvious things to do is to sell <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.5"/> to produce <pause dur="1.0"/> segregation <pause dur="1.8"/> so we <pause dur="0.6"/> get the differences to segregate out and we try then to select the ones which have <pause dur="0.3"/> the right combination <pause dur="0.4"/> characters all the plus <pause dur="0.4"/> points together <pause dur="0.3"/> in one <pause dur="0.3"/> in one particular

genotype <pause dur="0.9"/> in other words we look for recombinants <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> it sounds i know very simplistic but that <pause dur="0.3"/> is basically <pause dur="0.4"/> in <trunc>w</trunc> in most plant breeding programmes what you're trying to do <pause dur="0.8"/> you're trying to put together the characters from different lines into one line <pause dur="0.4"/> you have to identify it <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and therefore do something with it <pause dur="1.7"/> okay so that covers the second part in a way <pause dur="0.3"/> we need to produce the variation we need to select amongst it <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="2.3"/> when we have selected amongst it we need to stabilize it to do something with it <pause dur="1.8"/> we're going back up to here <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on transparency" iterated="n"/> sexual reproduction is the commonest <pause dur="0.4"/> way of producing the variation <pause dur="0.3"/> but it's not the only way <pause dur="1.2"/> there are other possibilities <pause dur="0.6"/> one is to induce mutations <pause dur="0.4"/> and we'll talk a bit about <pause dur="0.3"/> that and you can do this <pause dur="0.3"/> in various ways mutations are naturally-occurring events <pause dur="0.3"/> but you can increase their frequency <pause dur="0.2"/> by using a mutagen <pause dur="0.5"/> ionizing radiation for example <pause dur="0.3"/> here's one <pause dur="1.0"/> and this is used in plant breeding in a number of crops quite a few of the clonally-reproduced

crops like apples for example <pause dur="0.6"/> mutations <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> are used and we'll discuss that a bit in the <pause dur="0.8"/> in the course <pause dur="1.3"/> we can also try <pause dur="0.3"/> and although it's in some ways it's sexual reproduction it usually needs some <pause dur="0.3"/> help <pause dur="0.2"/> we can use <pause dur="0.3"/> wild ancestors or related species <pause dur="0.2"/> to cross with our <pause dur="0.3"/> cultivated <pause dur="0.8"/> species to <pause dur="0.3"/> increase the amount of variation we have

available <pause dur="0.3"/> to try and perhaps <pause dur="0.2"/> introduce characters where we don't seem to have variation <pause dur="0.6"/> in the domesticated forms <pause dur="1.5"/> and the other possibility of course now is the newer techniques such as for instance genetic transformation <pause dur="0.6"/> genetic manipulation whichever you want to call it <pause dur="0.3"/> and of course that provides us another <pause dur="0.4"/> possibility <pause dur="0.4"/> in this release production of variation <pause dur="7.5"/> really whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> source of variation <pause dur="0.3"/> we use though the <trunc>im</trunc> or or <pause dur="0.2"/> probably the most important <pause dur="0.4"/> # criteria is the selection of the parents <pause dur="2.7"/> unless you selected what parents to start with <pause dur="0.3"/> you've already got <pause dur="0.3"/> a major uphill <pause dur="0.3"/> battle <pause dur="12.7"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="6"/> so on here <pause dur="0.2"/> i've written it as the critical factor <pause dur="1.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.8"/> so unless you have <pause dur="0.4"/> good starting point you're always going to be <pause dur="0.3"/> struggling <pause dur="0.3"/> so you need to choose <pause dur="1.4"/> the parent <pause dur="0.3"/> and that might sound <pause dur="0.5"/> relatively easy and it can be <pause dur="0.4"/> if for example <pause dur="0.2"/> you use a cultivar that's been widely grown so <pause dur="0.3"/> things are known about its performance <pause dur="1.5"/> because the difficulty and i hope this is

not <pause dur="1.6"/> a <pause dur="0.2"/> completely new concept to you you should have covered it before <pause dur="0.3"/> but what we see <pause dur="0.8"/> is the phenotype <pause dur="1.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so what i'm <pause dur="0.2"/> looking at in terms of seeing you is your phenotypes <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> it's what you see is the phenotype <pause dur="0.5"/> the phenotype <pause dur="0.8"/> is made up <pause dur="0.6"/> of <pause dur="0.6"/> the genotype <pause dur="0.7"/> what genes you've got <pause dur="0.3"/> and how they're being expressed <pause dur="0.4"/> in other words what's <pause dur="0.2"/> inherited <pause dur="0.5"/> from your parents <pause dur="1.0"/> is being <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> but it's also <pause dur="0.4"/> a product of your environment <pause dur="1.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.8"/> what conditions you grow in what food you've had all these things which determine <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> then <pause dur="0.2"/> how you appear <pause dur="1.0"/> you can easily for instance affect people's height <pause dur="0.4"/> by their nutrition or at least relatively easily so you only have to look at their <unclear>history</unclear><pause dur="0.8"/> the other complicated factor is that the genotype interacts with the environment <pause dur="0.6"/> different people given exactly the same food react differently <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> different conditions et cetera <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> when we look at something unfortunately <pause dur="0.3"/> we have this complex of underlying factors <pause dur="1.1"/> and the thing that's critical to

us as a plant breeder <pause dur="0.2"/> okay we can exploit the <pause dur="0.2"/> interactions <pause dur="0.3"/> <unclear>geno times env</unclear> <pause dur="0.2"/> but really what we're interested in is this part <pause dur="1.8"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on transparency" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="0.7"/> but these other things can be <pause dur="1.2"/> major and mask <pause dur="0.6"/> which bit is genetic and you don't know <pause dur="1.1"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> when we're talking about the choice of parent this is a complicating <pause dur="0.2"/> factor and it's a a factor that will come in <pause dur="0.3"/> elsewhere as well when we <pause dur="0.3"/> are looking at this # <pause dur="0.7"/> but this business of wanting the genotype <trunc>be</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> but only being able to <pause dur="0.3"/> observe the phenotype is a <pause dur="0.4"/> is a major drawback <pause dur="1.6"/> okay <pause dur="2.4"/><event desc="takes off transparency" iterated="n"/> so <pause dur="2.2"/> having done that we've chosen the parents we've <pause dur="0.2"/> done something about releasing the variation <pause dur="0.2"/> probably sexual reproduction but <pause dur="0.6"/> could be other things <pause dur="0.4"/> we now need to <kinesic desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/> select amongst the variation <pause dur="3.0"/> again <pause dur="0.5"/> on first thought that seems <pause dur="0.2"/> kind of easy <pause dur="0.3"/> just go and have a look see what's good and take it and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.7"/> but the first thing you need to decide is what characters <pause dur="0.3"/> are going to be selected <pause dur="2.2"/> again this seems fairly straightforward <pause dur="1.4"/> but first of all you have to realize

that many characters are actually quite difficult to measure <pause dur="0.8"/> they either take a lot of time a lot of energy <pause dur="0.5"/> expensive equipment <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> or really just a very difficult <trunc>t</trunc> to do the second <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> thing <pause dur="0.4"/> you need to bear in mind is that you've got a lot of material to look at <pause dur="0.4"/> a lot of different ones that you want to assess <pause dur="1.4"/> right something we'll come to again <pause dur="0.3"/> in the <pause dur="0.2"/> course <pause dur="0.5"/> and the other problem is that you usually have small quantities of it <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so for instance i mean taking the very obvious thing <pause dur="0.7"/> you might have two plants how are you going to assess yield <pause dur="1.3"/> yield of two plants grown by themselves doesn't # <pause dur="0.8"/> doesn't tell you anything very much it's nothing about <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> what it'll what it'll actually <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> grow like <pause dur="0.7"/> and also for disease <pause dur="1.1"/> for instance <pause dur="0.5"/> so quite often # <pause dur="0.4"/> for disease assessment they will take <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> detached leaves <pause dur="1.6"/> because there simply isn't enough material <pause dur="0.5"/> you cannot have different densities of sowing you cannot <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> plant material <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> that # <pause dur="0.3"/> can be grown exactly <pause dur="0.2"/> as you would like <pause dur="0.7"/> in agriculture <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.8"/>

the question is <pause dur="1.1"/> how are you going to reproduce the conditions of agriculture <pause dur="0.3"/> you can't totally so you have to pick a single condition <pause dur="0.5"/> and work on that basis and hope it's representative <pause dur="0.5"/> you cannot <pause dur="0.2"/> as i say grow large plots and see how they behave <pause dur="0.4"/> you've only got a small amount of material <pause dur="1.8"/> a small amount of material also means that you have questions about the relevance <pause dur="0.7"/> of what you're measuring <pause dur="0.3"/> and the characters you're assessing to agriculture itself <pause dur="0.9"/> so you can talk to pathologists and they can tell you how they can take <pause dur="0.4"/> single leaves from plants they can expose them to diseases <pause dur="0.6"/> and they get a reaction to it <pause dur="1.3"/> but this doesn't always tie up with field performance <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> the relevance <pause dur="0.2"/> of the characters as well <pause dur="0.3"/> as the effectiveness that you can measure them <pause dur="0.2"/> is extremely important <pause dur="4.5"/> the next problem we have <pause dur="0.8"/> is really the one that we were talking about a few minutes ago and i said it would come back up <pause dur="0.5"/> and that is the efficiency with which we can select <pause dur="2.1"/> so back to the

phenotype versus the genotype <pause dur="1.7"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="4.0"/> as i think is fairly obvious from <trunc>th</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> from the equation <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>the greater the environmental effects <pause dur="0.4"/> the more the phenotype <pause dur="0.8"/> will be a poor reflection of the underlying genotype</reading> <pause dur="1.1"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> so the more something's affected <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>by the <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>environment <pause dur="0.2"/> the less we <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>can do anything <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>about <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> picking it because we won't be picking the genotype at all we'll just be picking the effect of the environment all the time <pause dur="1.8"/> so this creates <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> a real problem particularly as <pause dur="0.2"/> many of the characters we're dealing with are not the simple ones that Mendel had you don't get <pause dur="0.5"/> tall and short <pause dur="0.4"/> pink or white <pause dur="1.3"/> these sorts of characters we get <pause dur="0.3"/> characters <pause dur="0.2"/> like yield <pause dur="0.3"/> like number of ears <pause dur="0.6"/> so if you think for instance <pause dur="0.2"/> the character that's similar in humans is height <pause dur="0.8"/> you are all different heights <pause dur="0.9"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> the fact there's not one of you here that's a major <trunc>g</trunc> has a major gene difference for height in other words there's no achondroplasic dwarves <pause dur="1.0"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> they do occur <pause dur="0.3"/> in the population there

are major genes for height <pause dur="0.4"/> but most of you differ <pause dur="0.3"/> for height <pause dur="0.6"/> by a lot of genes <pause dur="0.7"/> there's a lot of different genes will affect your height <pause dur="0.8"/> and so what we're <pause dur="0.3"/> seeing is the effect of all the genes okay plus the environment and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="0.6"/> there's a lot of genes there so it's not easy <pause dur="0.6"/> to say what's genotype and what's phenotype <pause dur="1.1"/> okay <pause dur="1.6"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="1.0"/> so to try and get out of some of those problem we have to find ways of trying to get some sort of assessment <pause dur="0.3"/> of what amount of the variation <pause dur="0.3"/> might be genetic and what might be <pause dur="0.4"/> # environmental <pause dur="0.2"/> and we can get a measure of something <pause dur="0.2"/> called the heritability again which we'll <pause dur="0.3"/> come to later <pause dur="0.4"/> in the lecture course <pause dur="0.3"/> which effectively just measures the proportion of the variation or tries to <pause dur="1.0"/> of the total variation that's genetic <pause dur="0.7"/> so it gives us some sort of estimate of how efficient <pause dur="0.3"/> or how effective our selection's going to be <pause dur="2.2"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="4.1"/> it's something i'll talk about when we talk about heritability <pause dur="0.3"/> and you get various discussions of this mostly in <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> not <pause dur="0.2"/>

perhaps quite so much recently but <pause dur="0.2"/> # not too long ago about I-Q in humans of what heritability was and <pause dur="0.3"/> what this meant and how this affected racism and all the rest of it <pause dur="0.6"/> the thing you have to remember is there's no such thing as the heritability <pause dur="0.4"/> the heritability is only estimated for a particular population a particular point in time <pause dur="0.6"/> # so there's no <pause dur="0.3"/> there's no general <pause dur="0.2"/> measure for it <pause dur="1.2"/> but it gives us some <pause dur="0.3"/> some idea about how <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> how we might proceed and the reason i'm stressing that it changes is because we can change it as plant breeders <pause dur="0.8"/> we change it because we're doing the selection but we can also change it by the way we carry out our trials <pause dur="0.6"/> if we replicate things <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> we replicate things we can take the mean <pause dur="0.3"/> if we take the mean we know it more precisely <pause dur="0.4"/> the more observations that go into the mean the more precisely we know <pause dur="0.3"/> and the more precisely we know it <pause dur="0.3"/> the more <pause dur="0.5"/> we can increase the heritability <pause dur="1.0"/> okay we reduce the environmental effects <pause dur="1.0"/> <trunc>compar</trunc> compared to

the genotypic effects <pause dur="1.3"/> now you can do this in various ways you can simply replicate the trials so that <pause dur="0.6"/> decreases the local environmental variation <pause dur="0.7"/> we could replicate it over different trial sites <pause dur="0.2"/> so we start to change <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.4"/> how sure we are about its repeatability <pause dur="0.3"/> over different regions we can do it in different countries we can do it in different seasons <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> so we can change <pause dur="0.8"/> the heritability <pause dur="0.4"/> and we can also change the repeatability of our measurements but <pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.1"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> the trouble is each time we do that we increase the workload <pause dur="1.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> if we have two replicates we've already doubled <pause dur="0.2"/> the amount of material we have to grow <pause dur="2.1"/> you then grow it at another site you've doubled it again <pause dur="1.7"/> usually there is a very <pause dur="0.5"/> real limit on how much you can cope with or how much you can grow or how much seed you've got <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> normally what it means is that you <pause dur="0.9"/> look at less material <pause dur="0.4"/> so if you double the number of replicates you halve the amount of <pause dur="0.6"/> lines you look at <pause dur="0.8"/> so you gain on one thing and you lose on

another <pause dur="1.1"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> so it's again it's something we need to consider as we <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> go through the course that this is a <pause dur="0.3"/> a problem we can increase precision in one way but if we do that <pause dur="0.4"/> we <pause dur="0.8"/> then reduce how much material we can look at and we then reduce the <pause dur="0.3"/> efficiency of selection <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="11"/> <vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="3.7"/><vocal desc="hum" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="2.7"/> okay but we carry out our selection in ways that we'll <pause dur="0.2"/> # see as we go through the course <pause dur="0.5"/> having done that <pause dur="0.6"/> you end up <pause dur="0.7"/> with an amount of material <pause dur="0.5"/> which you need to stabilize you need to be able to <trunc>repo</trunc> reproduce <pause dur="0.4"/> this material if it's going to be exploited in <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> any way at all <pause dur="1.3"/> and you need to multiply it <pause dur="0.8"/> so you'd need to multiply it stably <pause dur="1.7"/> okay otherwise <pause dur="0.3"/> i mean what's the point of having one seed which is just what you want what can you do with it <pause dur="1.1"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.0"/> now this is where the different types <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> crop plants <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> tend to be more different <pause dur="0.4"/> the main <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> criteria that are used for separating plants in terms of plant breeding <pause dur="0.3"/> are to do with their breeding system <pause dur="0.7"/> and three main <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> types <pause dur="0.4"/> that are recognized are <pause dur="0.8"/> inbreeding <pause dur="0.2"/> outbreeding and

vegetatively reproduced crops <pause dur="1.0"/> and we'll go into these in # <pause dur="0.2"/> in in the next lecture <pause dur="0.4"/> they <pause dur="0.2"/> i think are fairly self-explanatory <pause dur="0.8"/> inbred crops <pause dur="0.3"/> mean that they can be selfed <pause dur="0.4"/> you can <pause dur="0.2"/> therefore <pause dur="0.3"/> make them true breeding <pause dur="0.3"/> therefore of course you can multiply them without too much problem <pause dur="1.1"/> <trunc>vegeti</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> vegetatively reproduced crops <pause dur="0.4"/> are ones <pause dur="0.2"/> which you reproduce asexually <pause dur="0.3"/> and therefore you can multiply them up without changing their genotypes at all <pause dur="0.7"/> potatoes are a good example they produce tubers you plant a tuber you get more tubers <pause dur="0.3"/> they're all the same genotype <pause dur="0.9"/> so they're not too much of a problem <pause dur="0.5"/> the outbred ones <pause dur="0.3"/> <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> we need to talk <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>about as we go along <pause dur="0.3"/> # more these are really <pause dur="0.4"/> because they're all genetically different <pause dur="0.2"/> you need to treat them more as a population so you try and keep the population the same <pause dur="0.3"/> rather than the individuals <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so with inbreeders we can <pause dur="0.5"/> have <pause dur="0.2"/> individuals which are exactly identical <pause dur="1.0"/> for the outbreeders it's really the populations of the things that need to be

stable <pause dur="0.3"/> and you have to have ways of doing that <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/><pause dur="3.9"/><event desc="takes off transparency" iterated="n"/> okay so that's <pause dur="0.8"/> really i think <pause dur="0.5"/> as much as i want to say <pause dur="0.8"/> on that part i don't know if there are any questions <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> as you might <pause dur="0.2"/> guess now if you look back <pause dur="0.3"/> the next three weeks <pause dur="0.2"/> what i'll try and do is cover those three main groups to give you <pause dur="0.3"/> the basis <pause dur="0.2"/> of the breeding of the different <pause dur="0.6"/> groups and then we'll go on to other things <pause dur="1.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.7"/> so any <pause dur="2.1"/> questions i've <pause dur="0.5"/> completely confused you now <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="2"/><pause dur="2.1"/> no </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> # you have one question <pause dur="1.0"/> # can we just <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> last minute <pause dur="0.4"/> here's the wheat <pause dur="0.2"/> in Germany <pause dur="1.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> look like a grass but has roots <pause dur="0.9"/> and from the roots there comes another <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.4"/><u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> and then it's like a potato common crop right </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> yes <pause dur="0.4"/> yeah <pause dur="0.8"/> yeah i # <pause dur="0.3"/> </u><u who="sm0188" trans="overlap"> i know </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> i'm not sure whether it's it's wheat or not but i mean <trunc>i</trunc> it it can be from the same family but there are <pause dur="0.3"/> quite a number of plant species certainly a number of the grasses <pause dur="0.3"/> that reproduce by stolons <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the other way that you can get clonal crops of course is to take cuttings </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> just like apples yeah </u><u who="nm0187" trans="latching"> apples is a good example <pause dur="0.4"/> you take cuttings put it onto a rootstock <pause dur="0.7"/> and you can reproduce them <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> various ways as is say there are quite a lot of <pause dur="0.2"/> # things sugar cane <pause dur="0.7"/> you cut sugar cane down chop it into pieces plant the

pieces and they all grow <pause dur="1.3"/> yeah <pause dur="0.7"/> ornamental <trunc>c</trunc> # plants quite a lot of them are <pause dur="0.3"/> vegetatively reproduced <pause dur="1.5"/> yeah <pause dur="3.3"/> okay well if there are questions i mean <trunc>c</trunc> ask any time <pause dur="0.3"/> about them <pause dur="0.2"/> what i'd like to do <pause dur="0.7"/> then if we cover that is to tell you a bit more about the posters <pause dur="0.4"/> and this sort of thing <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> is that okay <pause dur="1.4"/>

right <pause dur="1.6"/> oh no one more thing <pause dur="0.7"/> sorry reading <pause dur="1.1"/><event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> list <pause dur="0.2"/> there's a list of # <pause dur="1.6"/> they're really there's just books 'cause these are <pause dur="0.6"/> are general <pause dur="2.2"/> i don't <trunc>s</trunc> suggest for one minute you have to go away and read all these books <pause dur="0.5"/> or you necessarily have to read <pause dur="0.3"/> one of them all the way through <pause dur="0.3"/> but if you're looking <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> to cover the more general things then <pause dur="0.7"/> books are about the best way of # <pause dur="0.3"/> of doing it <pause dur="0.3"/> # it's up to you <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>sh</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> i put all of these <pause dur="0.9"/> i think all apart from the first one on seven day <pause dur="0.6"/> loan that's not to <pause dur="0.3"/> restrict you and i hope it doesn't cause you too much problems but it seemed the fairest way of

making <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>sure <pause dur="0.3"/> people <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>could all access them otherwise the first person there takes the <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>books out and <pause dur="0.3"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>that's it for the term <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> and there are a number of copies of # a number of them <pause dur="0.7"/> it's it's really up to you which ones # you want if you want to talk about them at all i i can do but i i just tried to give you some of the general <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> books the book in fact by <pause dur="0.6"/> Bosemark is probably the more specific or the more # <pause dur="0.6"/> restricted <pause dur="0.2"/> of the other ones the other ones are more general than that <pause dur="0.7"/> and that's why it was written <pause dur="0.8"/> to be more restrictive <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="2.3"/> good right <pause dur="3.8"/><event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> more paper <pause dur="0.5"/> hopefully <pause dur="0.4"/> most weeks <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>there won't be so much <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>paper but <pause dur="5.6"/><vocal desc="hum" iterated="y" dur="3"/><pause dur="5.0"/> okay so the first thing <pause dur="0.8"/> that of course you need to do <pause dur="1.8"/> is to pick <pause dur="0.6"/> an area <pause dur="0.5"/> or a topic <pause dur="0.4"/> on which <pause dur="0.4"/> you're going to <pause dur="0.4"/> do the necessary reading find out about things and <pause dur="0.6"/> then <pause dur="0.9"/> produce <pause dur="0.2"/> your poster and essay <pause dur="2.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> now these are just ideas they're not <pause dur="0.4"/><shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> they're not the only

things <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> you can do but i thought rather than <pause dur="0.4"/> present you with a <pause dur="0.2"/> you know it's like at school they tell you can write an essay on anything and that's the worst <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>possible <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.2"/> situation <pause dur="0.4"/> so these are ideas clearly it's got to be a restricted area i mean you know you can't talk about # <pause dur="0.3"/> you know <pause dur="0.3"/> plant breeding in general or # <pause dur="0.5"/> micropropagating plants in a you need to to talk about say micropropagation of strawberries or <pause dur="0.4"/> you know <pause dur="0.5"/> breeding <pause dur="0.5"/> sugar cane for <pause dur="0.3"/> drought tolerance <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>y</trunc> <trunc>y</trunc> you need a fairly restricted area <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's why i want to agree with you what the topic is so that A it's not impossible for you to do <pause dur="0.3"/> for being too <pause dur="0.3"/> wide <pause dur="0.3"/> but on the other hand <pause dur="0.3"/> there's enough chance of you finding some <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>literature <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> and something to say about it a <pause dur="0.4"/> kind of <pause dur="0.3"/> blank at the end is not going to <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>be very useful <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> have a think about it i mean clearly to to a certain extent it depends on what your interests are <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> and what have you <pause dur="0.2"/> and hopefully we can come

to <pause dur="0.2"/> an even better topic which you can find enough about <pause dur="0.3"/> you can present it and i say what <pause dur="0.4"/> # we want you to do is to produce the poster and the essay which okay <pause dur="0.3"/> is part of the assessment <pause dur="0.3"/> but also <pause dur="0.3"/> other people can look at you can answer <pause dur="0.3"/> questions about it and <pause dur="0.4"/> all learn from each other <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="1.5"/> so to do that <pause dur="2.3"/> just so that <event desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> i can <trunc>th</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> also remember what the <pause dur="0.4"/> there was happening <pause dur="0.3"/> there's # <pause dur="1.1"/> you need to <pause dur="1.0"/> fill in a form one part <pause dur="3.2"/> i'll keep and one part you'll keep <pause dur="0.2"/> so we need to do that probably <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> whenever you wish but by <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> certainly by the end of next week <pause dur="0.7"/> need to not because i want to press you about it but clearly <pause dur="0.3"/> if i leave it long making the decision then you're not going to have much time to actually do the <pause dur="0.5"/> to do the # <pause dur="0.2"/> research and produce the material <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.8"/> so we need to decide fairly <pause dur="0.6"/> fairly quickly if you want to come and see me in the week or anything that's fine <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> but have a <trunc>s</trunc> about it <pause dur="0.3"/> have quick <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> chat and if it's okay then you can go ahead on it <pause dur="0.8"/> all right</u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm0189" trans="pause">

so any of these # <pause dur="0.3"/> categories here you can just see just select this the number of these <pause dur="0.2"/> categories</u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> yeah you <trunc>cou</trunc> <trunc>y</trunc> yes </u><u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="4 secs"/> </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> i mean it's just to give you a yes yeah yeah so i mean you can just pick on to know for instance <pause dur="0.2"/> transformation for drought resistance or # </u><u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> yeah so you wouldn't use a number you'd just use one of them or <gap reason="inaudible"/></u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> you'd use one of them or part of them i mean <trunc>s</trunc> <trunc>s</trunc> silly i mean <pause dur="0.2"/> you know a <pause dur="0.2"/> a a topic called storage </u><u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> right okay </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> is much too wide you know storage of apples or <trunc>stora</trunc> </u><u who="sm0189" trans="latching"> yeah</u><u who="nm0187" trans="latching"> i <pause dur="0.5"/> i just put down ideas to give something to to to start with </u><u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> yeah <pause dur="1.0"/> i mean do think about the reality of <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>how much <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> you're going to read about this and how much you're going to get written down </u><u who="sm0189" trans="latching"> yeah </u><u who="nm0187" trans="latching"> to make it sensible <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> now to go a bit further 'cause in fairness to you <pause dur="1.0"/> you need to know <pause dur="0.6"/> what's <pause dur="0.3"/> important in <pause dur="0.7"/> producing your <pause dur="0.3"/> poster <pause dur="0.7"/> and i'd

rather tell you about it <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> so that you know when you're doing it <pause dur="1.7"/> rather than <trunc>spe</trunc> <pause dur="1.3"/> spring it on you at the end <pause dur="1.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> as i say you'll present your <pause dur="0.2"/> poster <pause dur="0.2"/> to all the other people i want each of you <pause dur="0.2"/> then to mark <pause dur="0.8"/> or give assessments of everybody else's things <pause dur="0.3"/> now this is not for you to be nasty to each other <vocal desc="laughter" n="sl" iterated="y" dur="1"/> and it's no good then saying everybody's <trunc>i</trunc> is an A <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> i want you to <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>be realistic <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>obviously <pause dur="0.2"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> i've suggested here the criteria that we'll use for this <pause dur="1.2"/> there are <trunc>th</trunc> <sic corr="really">beally</sic> three <pause dur="0.2"/> parts to <pause dur="0.4"/> the poster <pause dur="0.5"/> first of all is the general appearance and presentation of it <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> if you ever go to or you probably will start going to scientific meetings <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> the first thing is there's you know there may be a hundred of them there <pause dur="0.5"/> you're not going to look at all of them so the first thing you do is just got to see which ones look nice or pretty <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>or <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.2"/> something you know anything <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>which will <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.2"/> which will

attract you <pause dur="0.2"/> and so you go to it <pause dur="0.2"/> okay so <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>i</trunc> you know they don't have to be pretty pretty or they don't have to be wild or anything but they must be <pause dur="0.3"/> visually <pause dur="0.4"/> reasonable and <trunc>p</trunc> have some reason for you would want to read it <pause dur="0.2"/> you know there's lots of tiny little writing and nothing much there you you actually don't spend much time with them <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> then <pause dur="0.2"/> when you get that far the next important thing is the content and the information that it <pause dur="0.8"/> gives to you <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> now you should remember with a poster <pause dur="0.3"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is the difference between your poster and your essay <pause dur="0.5"/> the poster should be enough to interest people <pause dur="0.2"/> and to make them want to ask you some more questions and be intelligible <pause dur="0.3"/> they don't necessarily cover every last bit of the subject <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> because there really is a limit to how many words and things you should put on the poster <pause dur="0.4"/> it really should be <pause dur="0.2"/> something that visually interests people and <pause dur="0.4"/> gets them interested <pause dur="0.4"/> rather than answer every question <pause dur="0.6"/> okay so don't be tempted to try

and <pause dur="0.6"/> cover every possible thing you found out about the subject cram it on to your poster <pause dur="1.1"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/> yeah <pause dur="2.1"/> then <pause dur="0.3"/> the next part or the last part is is background knowledge and this is where <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> really <pause dur="0.2"/> i say <pause dur="0.2"/> i want <pause dur="0.5"/> the rest of you to ask questions # but not <trunc>t</trunc> to try and catch them out <pause dur="0.3"/> but just to make sure you've understood what they've said <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps because <pause dur="0.3"/> what they said is quite interesting and all the rest of it and so <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> that's what that part is so that's the three <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> major <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> parts that will be <pause dur="0.8"/> assessed and i tried to <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> on the back of the sheet <pause dur="0.4"/> take out the assessment criteria so that <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> you go from A to E all the time so we keep it fairly consistent and give some ideas <pause dur="1.1"/> so for appearance and presentation A represents an excellent well presented poster <trunc>wherea</trunc> E one is untidy poorly conceived with little appeal <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> i mean it's <trunc>perf</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>i mean they're not <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> these are not strictly defined criteria but to give you a kind of idea so the same for <pause dur="0.2"/> content

and information <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>A is an informative poster which you gained an interest with a satisfactory amount and level of information</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> whereas <reading>E is a poster from which you gained little <pause dur="0.2"/> if any useful information and not really any interest</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/> yeah <pause dur="1.2"/> and for the background knowledge <pause dur="0.3"/> represents a well informed presenter whereas the presenter that has very little background knowledge <pause dur="0.6"/> so okay they <pause dur="0.4"/> put the things down on the poster but <pause dur="0.2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>that's about <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> all they can manage <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.7"/> yeah <pause dur="0.6"/> is that <pause dur="0.3"/> okay i know it sounds a bit crude but <trunc>i</trunc> it's it's a <pause dur="0.4"/> if you <trunc>s</trunc> bear that in mind as a sort of criteria i think it'll become fairly obvious and <pause dur="0.5"/> it'll be fairly <pause dur="0.6"/> easy to do it yeah </u><pause dur="1.3"/><u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> going to be a question about the poster </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> about the what </u><pause dur="0.3"/><u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> about the poster </u><u who="nm0187" trans="latching"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="2.8"/> could be # <pause dur="0.3"/> like a <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> # <pause dur="3.1"/> but it's not # <pause dur="0.4"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> for example there is <pause dur="0.9"/> there's a breeding sheep on it and <pause dur="0.2"/> afterwards you tell people how it's going or </u><pause dur="1.5"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> well that's part of how <pause dur="0.2"/> and what i want you to think about about designing the the poster <pause dur="0.9"/> if you just put on something with no explanation <pause dur="1.4"/> people are not going to get anything from it <pause dur="0.2"/> i mean you've got okay you're going to be

there to answer questions but the poster has got to be free-standing <pause dur="0.9"/> it's going to be there and people can look at it and say oh yes you know that's u-huh <pause dur="0.3"/> i see that's interesting i wonder what <pause dur="1.5"/> et cetera <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> it's getting a balance between having it <pause dur="0.3"/> attractive enough to look at and enough information <pause dur="0.6"/> to convey to people the basics of the subject area what it's about <pause dur="0.3"/> what happens what's achieved <pause dur="1.5"/> yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> but not necessarily covering <pause dur="0.7"/> all the things it doesn't matter that you <pause dur="0.5"/> need to produce twenty lines to do this the fact that you've used some lines is okay rather than <pause dur="0.4"/> specifically twenty <pause dur="1.8"/> <trunc>i</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> it's something i think we'll have to see a little bit as it goes along you've got a <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>few weeks to <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> to do it till you get some help but it <pause dur="0.2"/> it is that balance is the difficult thing between <pause dur="0.2"/> just providing loads and loads of information which <trunc>i</trunc> is very relevant but is <pause dur="0.3"/> usually boring and not very # <pause dur="0.8"/> easy to take in <pause dur="0.5"/> and providing something which

is just one colourful picture and actually <pause dur="0.4"/> you've really got no idea till somebody tells you what it's about and what's achieved and how it gets done </u><pause dur="0.5"/><u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> is it a little bit like # produce <pause dur="0.2"/> this <pause dur="0.3"/> for example with Powerpoint </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> you are going to use <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>Powerpoint <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> <trunc>t</trunc> to produce it so <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> # but it'll be a single <pause dur="0.3"/> it'll be a single page with images on it <pause dur="0.2"/> if you imagine <pause dur="0.4"/> at least a <trunc>me</trunc> we will actually or i'll <trunc>t</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> try <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> to get them printed <pause dur="0.5"/> # for you so you've got a printed poster at the end <pause dur="0.3"/> and if you think of them <pause dur="0.3"/> basically well we'll tell you in the next few weeks but basically like that <kinesic desc="indicates board on wall" iterated="n"/> one board on the wall <pause dur="0.9"/> you have to produce something which has the images and writing on it that's that size <pause dur="0.6"/> including the title your name and <pause dur="0.5"/> you know these sorts of things <pause dur="1.1"/> yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> so what you're aiming to do is produce something physically <pause dur="0.3"/> like that <pause dur="0.2"/> okay quite a lot of the time you'll do it electronically but <pause dur="0.2"/> you've got to see it <pause dur="0.6"/> as that <pause dur="0.8"/> and what we'll basically do is produce that # <pause dur="0.2"/> and also probably

what we'll do is put it onto an acetate sheet so you'll <pause dur="0.3"/> blow it up like this actually to to talk to <pause dur="0.2"/> because it's a bit easier for me to handle it this way </u><u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> have you got an old one of these posters just so we can have a look at it and so </u><u who="nm0187" trans="latching"> yeah </u><u who="sm0189" trans="latching"> is that all right </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> and we did say we'd give you numbers </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> yeah </u> <u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> and then <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u> <u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> yeah <pause dur="0.9"/> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> # what i've <pause dur="0.2"/> <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.4"/> what i've <trunc>do</trunc> i'll let me hand out this <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="passes out handouts" iterated="n"/> it'll be easier if i <trunc>t</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> talk about what i'm <pause dur="0.8"/> really thinking about <pause dur="0.2"/> doing <pause dur="0.7"/> this is the timetable <pause dur="0.3"/> # so <trunc>f</trunc> forget the other one this is what i'm <pause dur="1.1"/> we shall be working to <pause dur="2.3"/> so this week i've <pause dur="0.3"/> done a bit of handing out the <pause dur="0.3"/> the lists and the forms and you've got them and you need to start thinking <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> next week <pause dur="0.3"/> if you've made the choice <pause dur="0.2"/> then you can start doing <pause dur="0.3"/> some background <pause dur="0.5"/> reading and thinking about the subject area <pause dur="0.8"/> the week after that <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> then in lab A in P-S-L <pause dur="1.3"/> yeah <pause dur="0.7"/> where the computers are </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm0189" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> then <pause dur="0.3"/> i've got two people <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> and # <pause dur="1.1"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.7"/> who <pause dur="0.4"/> will help with the <pause dur="0.4"/> technical parts of the computer side of things and answer questions and they've also got a sheet about producing the <pause dur="0.2"/> posters and a few tips and these

sorts of things <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and that's where you'll start actually <pause dur="0.6"/> producing and that's where also <pause dur="0.3"/> we'll try and get <pause dur="0.3"/> # and # i will remember <pause dur="0.2"/> to bring down copies of previous ones so that you can </u><pause dur="0.5"/><u who="sm0189" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> have a look and <pause dur="0.7"/> see <pause dur="0.4"/> yeah in fact # i only if i remember i'll bring them with me next week 'cause i've got some <pause dur="0.2"/> on acetate </u><u who="sm0189" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> so we can just <pause dur="0.4"/> quickly look at them here </u><u who="sm0189" trans="latching"> yeah</u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> # </u><pause dur="0.2"/><u who="sm0188" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/></u><u who="nm0187" trans="latching"> yeah <pause dur="0.9"/> but if you go to the <pause dur="0.2"/> P-S-L if you walk around the corridors </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm0189" trans="pause"> yeah </u><u who="nm0187" trans="overlap"> the things that are on the walls <pause dur="0.4"/> are what i'm <pause dur="0.3"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>talking about you producing <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> so that probably would be the best thing if you had a look at that and i'll try and remember to bring some but if you look at those <pause dur="0.4"/> posters they're exactly the sort of thing <pause dur="0.7"/> you know i don't say all of them are good <pause dur="0.6"/> so don't <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>take it from me <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/><vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="2"/> that i'm saying they're the models for it but then <pause dur="0.2"/> they're the sorts of things that you're aiming for the sort of thing that we expect # <pause dur="0.6"/>

people to do <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> after week three <pause dur="0.2"/> and from week three onward there is <pause dur="0.3"/> there are computers booked <pause dur="0.3"/> in lab A so that you get priority on them <pause dur="0.7"/> and the software's there <pause dur="0.2"/> what we'll do is # <pause dur="1.0"/> give you each a zip well <pause dur="0.2"/> you'll have to give us a deposit but we'll give you a zip disk each so you've got something to work on <pause dur="0.5"/> the software's there <pause dur="1.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> and then <pause dur="0.4"/> you start to go from there <pause dur="0.2"/> and we'll give you what help and advice we <pause dur="0.6"/> we can on you know presentation and things like that <pause dur="0.5"/> come to week eight <pause dur="0.4"/> well week seven you need to hand it in week eight <pause dur="0.4"/> we'll then start <pause dur="0.3"/> presenting it <pause dur="0.3"/> it depends how many there ends up on the <pause dur="0.4"/> course last year i only had <pause dur="0.3"/> about this number when i started by the next week i had nineteen so <pause dur="0.4"/> <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> we'll see how <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> how many we've got we might <pause dur="0.3"/> just do it in one week or two <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so as i say please don't feel <pause dur="0.2"/> nervous about presenting it <trunc>y</trunc> you know it <pause dur="0.2"/> it <pause dur="0.3"/> just <pause dur="0.3"/> the poster up there <pause dur="0.2"/> tell people a little bit about it and they'll ask you questions

it's the same for everybody and it's really not a <pause dur="0.8"/> a big problem okay <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> and then <pause dur="0.2"/> i say we'll make the assessment of it and that's <pause dur="0.6"/> that's it <pause dur="0.3"/> and this your essay will be on the same <pause dur="0.5"/> subject area so you don't have to go <pause dur="0.4"/> revise the whole or you could look up <pause dur="0.2"/> information on anything else <pause dur="1.0"/> yeah <pause dur="1.4"/> is that okay anybody got any </u><pause dur="1.3"/> <u who="sm0190" trans="pause"> when does the essay have to be in</u> <pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nm0187" trans="pause"> # in week eight <pause dur="5.7"/> i'm doing that not <pause dur="0.2"/> to make you have a short time doing it but <pause dur="0.4"/> as you know most assessments <pause dur="0.9"/> start piling up at the end of term <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.5"/> A because we need the posters in then <pause dur="0.4"/> i was <pause dur="0.5"/> trying to make it so that the essay <pause dur="0.3"/> in at the same time <pause dur="0.8"/> yeah <pause dur="5.1"/> all right <pause dur="2.5"/> okay <pause dur="1.7"/> excellent well if there are any questions <pause dur="0.5"/> well most of you do you know where i am in <pause dur="0.3"/> P-S-L <pause dur="0.6"/> on the <pause dur="0.2"/> first floor anyway you'll find me if you ask okay if you want to come and see me <pause dur="0.7"/> okay