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<title>Alien Ecology</title></titleStmt>

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<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any

way</p>

<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>

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<u who="nm0240"> i've lectured <pause dur="0.3"/> to you lot <pause dur="0.2"/> most of you <pause dur="0.2"/> welcome <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> welcome <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> about <pause dur="0.8"/> real ecology <pause dur="1.6"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> it may come as a surprise to a lot of you that there are a lot of other real ecologies <pause dur="1.3"/> it is my belief that there are a lot of other real ecologies <pause dur="0.4"/> all over the place <pause dur="1.3"/> but they happen not to be on this planet <pause dur="0.3"/> but on other planets other aqueous planets <pause dur="0.3"/> around in the galaxy </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="slide projector is on showing slide" iterated="n"/> i don't think it's important <pause dur="0.6"/> that you should know about these <pause dur="0.4"/> because i think it highly unlikely <pause dur="1.2"/> as my <pause dur="0.8"/> slide three from the end will say <pause dur="0.5"/> that we're actually going to meet them or recognize them if they are actually here <pause dur="1.2"/> but i think it's a very good biological exercise and an exercise for your <pause dur="0.6"/> # understanding of <pause dur="0.7"/> this ecology <pause dur="0.5"/> to see it in a broader context and see what else might have happened <pause dur="0.9"/> i <pause dur="1.0"/> professionally <pause dur="0.3"/> design ecologies <pause dur="0.3"/> for science fiction authors <pause dur="1.1"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> i have to <trunc>des</trunc> i have to invent credible ones <pause dur="0.8"/> and credible means running by rules that everyone can see <pause dur="2.0"/> want to

come round <pause dur="0.3"/> 'cause you know <pause dur="0.5"/> you can't see the slides </u><u who="sm0242" trans="overlap"> no i'm fine </u><u who="nm0240" trans="overlap"> you're fine <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> this is a history of life on Earth <pause dur="0.6"/> four-and-a-half-thousand-million years ago <pause dur="0.4"/> the Earth was formed <pause dur="0.4"/> very soon after its formation as you now know <pause dur="1.4"/> life appeared <pause dur="0.3"/> which suggests that life is pretty easy to make <pause dur="0.5"/> well <pause dur="3.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> fine <pause dur="0.9"/> we ought to be able to know what pretty easy means <pause dur="0.7"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> to that purpose we use some mathematics now i'm delighted that as a reproductive biologist <pause dur="0.4"/> i find that mathematics is just as sexy as being in the Biology department <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but <pause dur="0.8"/> i want to <pause dur="1.4"/> talk <pause dur="0.4"/> just for a moment <pause dur="0.3"/> about ways of thinking <pause dur="1.2"/> Chip Delany science fiction author wrote a book called Empire Star <pause dur="0.2"/> in the nineteen-seventies <pause dur="0.5"/> and in this he invented <pause dur="1.3"/> a way of thinking about thinking <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> and i like <pause dur="0.5"/> and this <pause dur="0.2"/> is from <pause dur="0.4"/> the Collapse of Chaos book <pause dur="2.1"/> he says simplex thinking <pause dur="0.5"/> is what most people do most of the time <pause dur="0.3"/> if you say

to someone <pause dur="0.2"/> what's the most important thing about <pause dur="0.9"/> such and such <pause dur="0.4"/> and they answer you <pause dur="0.4"/> they're a simplex thinker <pause dur="2.0"/> if you say <pause dur="1.3"/> hang on Alec <pause dur="0.3"/> what's <pause dur="0.3"/> the most important thing in your life and he says <pause dur="0.3"/> just a minute there isn't a most important thing it depends where i am <pause dur="0.3"/> sometimes it's this and sometimes it's that <pause dur="1.7"/> and <pause dur="1.1"/> you have several axes on which you can go and you can find interesting things off those <pause dur="2.2"/> and most of you i'm pleased to say because we've been <pause dur="0.2"/> trying very hard to make you do this are complex thinkers <pause dur="0.7"/> but few of you are multiplex thinkers and a multiplex thinker according to <pause dur="0.8"/> Chip Delany is someone <pause dur="0.2"/> who not only takes into account what is <pause dur="0.3"/> and the different <pause dur="0.4"/> axes <pause dur="0.3"/> but also what could be the whole range of possibilities <pause dur="0.4"/> around what is <pause dur="1.4"/> and i suspect i'll be doing a lot of talking with you individually about this <pause dur="0.4"/> but i'm talking about the <trunc>fa</trunc> space of possibilities around what actually happens <pause dur="0.8"/> if you go to an historian an American historian <pause dur="0.2"/> and you

say tell me about Abraham Lincoln and what happened in the theatre <pause dur="0.5"/> and he says <pause dur="0.6"/> the bullet the calibre of the bullet was so and so the the assassin was called such and such <pause dur="0.3"/> this is what happened <pause dur="1.2"/> that's simplex <pause dur="1.5"/> if he says but the same time there were twelve other <pause dur="0.4"/> people trying to <pause dur="0.4"/> assassinate <pause dur="0.6"/> him <pause dur="0.4"/> and the security arrangements had been bunked up and the theatre had this <pause dur="0.3"/> you think okay that's pretty complex <pause dur="0.9"/> but if he then goes on to say <pause dur="0.4"/> but if Abraham <trunc>lin</trunc> if it had not been Abraham Lincoln who had been elected <pause dur="0.6"/> but somebody else <pause dur="0.3"/> this would have happened <pause dur="0.5"/> if Abraham Lincoln had not been shot <pause dur="0.3"/> then this <pause dur="0.2"/> is what i think would have happened to American history <pause dur="1.2"/> that's a bit of multiplex thinking <pause dur="2.2"/> i'm going to suggest to you <pause dur="0.4"/> that what we are talking about here <pause dur="0.7"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> multiplex thinking about ecology <pause dur="1.3"/> and it's difficult <pause dur="0.2"/> and enormous fun as so many difficult things are <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now don't pretend to understand everything about biology and you don't need to <pause dur="0.7"/> when <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> and i went

to Neufchâtel we saw <pause dur="0.2"/> in the <pause dur="0.3"/> museum there <pause dur="0.2"/> this which i thought was a myth <pause dur="0.7"/> the <distinct lang="fr">roi des rats</distinct> <pause dur="0.9"/> the king of the rats you've heard about it in in your <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> fairy stories <pause dur="0.8"/> rats found with all their tails tied together <pause dur="1.8"/> sometimes three <pause dur="0.3"/> sometimes fifty <pause dur="1.3"/> most of them starving some of them having been eaten by others <pause dur="0.6"/> now whether this is a peculiar cult that does this has been and has been doing it <pause dur="0.2"/> since <trunc>nineteen-twen</trunc> since # <pause dur="0.2"/> sixteen-twenty <pause dur="1.0"/> i have no idea <pause dur="0.6"/> but it is a terribly puzzling thing <pause dur="0.2"/> and i have no idea <pause dur="0.3"/> where to begin to ask questions about it <pause dur="0.4"/> so a lot of things that really happened that <pause dur="0.3"/> i don't have any <pause dur="0.6"/> i can't put it in any context at all <pause dur="1.6"/> that's called science <pause dur="0.4"/> you have <pause dur="0.6"/> contexts of ways of working <pause dur="0.9"/> and you know what to exclude <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that's a frog <pause dur="0.6"/> at the bottom of a seven-four-seven <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> for me exemplifies ambition <pause dur="2.6"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> even though there's lots i <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>don't know about <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> i'm nevertheless going to try and take on <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/>

what are other ecologies like even though i don't understand our ecology <pause dur="2.2"/> because i have one trick <pause dur="0.2"/> and the trick i invented back in the sixties <pause dur="0.2"/> and it seemed very persuasive to people and it goes like this <pause dur="0.9"/> here again is the history of our planet <pause dur="1.5"/> oldest rocks about four-and-a-half-thousand-million years ago and they've got life traces in <pause dur="1.4"/> i'm going to suggest to you therefore that <pause dur="0.4"/> because of <pause dur="0.2"/> our changed minds about chemistry <pause dur="0.3"/> life is downhill to chemistry <pause dur="0.6"/> and if you like i'll show you a B-Z reaction but i'm not going to do it now <pause dur="0.3"/> you've seen it before haven't you the the <pause dur="0.8"/> this <pause dur="0.4"/> self-complicating chemical reaction invented by Belousov and Zhabotinsky <pause dur="0.4"/> and refined and made robust by Winfree and me <pause dur="0.2"/> have you seen it have i shown it to you <pause dur="0.7"/> now i should have brought it down but it there isn't time in this lecture <pause dur="0.2"/> we'll do it <pause dur="0.7"/> perhaps i'll come down before lunch and and show it to you <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> it is <pause dur="1.6"/> <trunc>n</trunc> unlike all the chemistry you did at school all the

chemistry you did at school had to finish in two hours <pause dur="0.7"/> yes <pause dur="1.2"/> God is not limited like that <pause dur="0.3"/> and nearly all of the chemistry that God does <pause dur="0.2"/> like ozone layers and clays <pause dur="0.3"/> takes millions of years and is very recursive <pause dur="0.7"/> it it is autocatalytic <pause dur="0.5"/> even something as simple as reacting hydrogen and oxygen together <pause dur="0.2"/> requires <pause dur="0.3"/> autocatalysis <pause dur="0.5"/> unless there's some water there it doesn't work <pause dur="0.8"/> and there are twenty-seven molecules on the way <pause dur="0.3"/> from H <pause dur="0.2"/> and O <pause dur="0.2"/> to water <pause dur="0.2"/> things like H-thirteen-three-O <pause dur="0.6"/> and lots of missing electrons <pause dur="0.4"/> it's a very very complicated recursive reaction <pause dur="0.3"/> even something that appears so simple <pause dur="1.2"/> and the living recursive reactions <pause dur="0.3"/> are <pause dur="0.4"/> it seems quite easy to get going the last three issues of nature <pause dur="0.3"/> have had <pause dur="0.3"/> big steps on the way <pause dur="2.1"/> what i want to talk about however is something different <pause dur="0.6"/> i want to say that <pause dur="0.4"/> many <pause dur="0.2"/> different <pause dur="0.3"/> creatures <pause dur="0.2"/> prokaryotes at this time <pause dur="0.4"/> invented photosynthesis <pause dur="0.3"/> now you know that three-quarters of the history of our planet <pause dur="0.6"/> has been <pause dur="0.6"/> prokaryote <pause dur="0.3"/> eukaryotes <pause dur="0.2"/> with nuclei <pause dur="0.2"/>

only appeared <pause dur="0.2"/> about a thousand-million years ago <pause dur="1.4"/> and <pause dur="1.0"/> that's to say if you say an Earth-like planet to a science fiction author <pause dur="0.3"/> what you're talking about is a planet with almost no life on the land <pause dur="0.2"/> just a few seaweeds <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> no not much oxygen in the atmosphere <pause dur="1.6"/> take the point <pause dur="0.8"/> for three-quarters of its life Earth has been like that <pause dur="3.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> only in the last <pause dur="0.4"/> six-hundred-million years or so has there been this great efflorescence <pause dur="0.7"/> of <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the # # has Earth been polluted by life <pause dur="2.0"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> now bear in mind this biggest <pause dur="0.5"/> distinction <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> these are my cheek cells <pause dur="0.2"/> and on them are bacteria <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> these are the nuclei <pause dur="0.2"/> of the cheek cells <pause dur="0.5"/> there is a contrast for you between <pause dur="1.0"/> a prokaryote <pause dur="0.5"/> a reasonable-sized <trunc>proka</trunc> a reasonable-sized eukaryote <pause dur="2.5"/> that <pause dur="1.0"/> thing that happened <pause dur="0.4"/> about <pause dur="0.3"/> a <trunc>thousand-mill</trunc> no probably longer two-thousand-million years ago <pause dur="0.4"/> the getting together of several prokaryotes into a symbiosis <pause dur="1.5"/> didn't happen only once <pause dur="0.3"/>

actinomycetes are another go <pause dur="0.3"/> several protozoa like giardia <pause dur="0.2"/> are other attempts to do this <pause dur="0.6"/> it isn't something that happened only once <pause dur="0.3"/> photosynthesis isn't something that happened only once <pause dur="0.4"/> therefore and this is the argument <pause dur="0.9"/> if you ran evolution again on this planet you'd get photosynthesis <pause dur="2.3"/> you'd get <pause dur="0.2"/> life because it's downhill to chemistry <pause dur="0.7"/> that's one kind of argument <pause dur="0.5"/> but having got <pause dur="0.5"/> chemical systems with the properties of living systems <pause dur="0.7"/> you will then get photosynthesis because <pause dur="0.4"/> there have been at least twelve attempts there are twelve attempts still with us <pause dur="0.9"/> never mind how many <pause dur="0.3"/> were <pause dur="3.1"/><event desc="tries to change slide" iterated="y" dur="1"/> oh great <pause dur="2.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> were tried and failed # sorry i can't go backwards on this machine <pause dur="3.3"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> we have a picture of an ecology <pause dur="0.8"/> and i want to <pause dur="0.3"/> take you away from having <pause dur="0.2"/> this kind of picture the picture of <pause dur="0.2"/> man managing it of all the organisms <pause dur="0.4"/> being so beautifully together <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm not talking about that <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm talking about the real

ecology as it is <pause dur="0.3"/> systems which rely on <pause dur="0.3"/> eating each other's babies <pause dur="1.9"/> we're talking the real nasty world here <pause dur="1.2"/> and in the real nasty world <pause dur="0.3"/> there are lots of attempts at <trunc>photos</trunc> photosynthesis <pause dur="0.4"/> there are lots of attempts <pause dur="0.2"/> at many of the things that have happened during <pause dur="0.2"/> our <pause dur="0.4"/> evolution <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> # <pause dur="2.1"/> we don't have to worry <pause dur="0.7"/> about the <pause dur="0.2"/> origin of life i think and i can argue this with you separately it's an hour's lecture by itself <pause dur="0.9"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> the whole idea of it being a miracle <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> is in the past because of reactions like this one the B-Z reaction <pause dur="0.7"/> you shake it up but it does it again you shake it up it have you not seen this <pause dur="0.8"/> oh well i'll bring it down after the talk <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> can film it as well <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="3.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now one of the things that's been invented a lot of times <pause dur="0.5"/> is sex <pause dur="1.9"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> this is God saying to <pause dur="0.8"/> Noah <pause dur="0.3"/> never mind the other amoeba <pause dur="0.2"/> and you know why don't you because <pause dur="0.6"/> amoeba porn <pause dur="0.3"/> flicks only have one actor <pause dur="2.1"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> yes <pause dur="1.0"/> # <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="1.4"/> sex

has been invented many independent times the ascomycete fungi the red algae have all got <pause dur="0.2"/> odd variations <pause dur="0.8"/> it seems to be very important and we don't understand why <pause dur="0.2"/> i think in general <pause dur="0.3"/> the argument for sex <pause dur="0.6"/> despite Graham <pause dur="0.5"/> Bell <pause dur="0.9"/> has not been well argued <pause dur="3.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but it's happened a lot of times <pause dur="0.2"/> another thing that has happened a lot of times is that creatures <pause dur="0.9"/> eukaryotes have become multicellular <pause dur="0.2"/> there's an example with volvox <pause dur="0.6"/> but there are other examples <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> the the multicellular seaweeds <pause dur="0.3"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> animals <pause dur="0.2"/> are all different attempts at going multicellular <pause dur="0.8"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> and this is the argument <pause dur="0.4"/> the default is that if i ran the system again <pause dur="0.3"/> you would get oxygen in the atmosphere because something will invent photosynthesis <pause dur="1.3"/> you would get <pause dur="0.4"/> eukaryotes <pause dur="0.2"/> because <pause dur="1.2"/> the symbiosis is driven by the presence of oxygen <pause dur="0.4"/> people try and cuddle up to mitochondria which are using a lot of oxygen <pause dur="0.6"/> because it's # a much more comfortable place than <pause dur="0.2"/> where there aren't any mitochondria <pause dur="0.3"/> and where

there's a lot of oxygen in the water <pause dur="1.2"/> and cuddling up to mitochondria you're very soon <trunc>in</trunc> having a <pause dur="0.7"/> eukaryote cell <pause dur="1.9"/> that will happen <pause dur="0.5"/> again if you ran evolution again on this planet <pause dur="0.3"/> therefore <pause dur="0.4"/> here's the jump <pause dur="0.4"/> on other aqueous planets it's going to happen <pause dur="1.7"/> i hope you <pause dur="0.4"/> take that argument <pause dur="0.3"/> something that happens many times here <pause dur="0.2"/> i call a universal <pause dur="1.2"/> universal meaning <pause dur="0.3"/> wherever <pause dur="0.7"/> life starts that is on every aqueous planet <pause dur="1.6"/> you're going to get photosynthesis <pause dur="0.2"/> flight <pause dur="1.2"/> well what i call the four Fs <pause dur="0.3"/> photosynthesis sorry about that <pause dur="0.4"/> flight <pause dur="0.5"/> fur <pause dur="0.2"/> fur on plants fur on bumblebees fur on mammals <pause dur="0.5"/> and mating <pause dur="2.6"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> right <pause dur="3.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now <pause dur="1.9"/> before the Burgess Shale <pause dur="0.3"/> some seven-<pause dur="0.8"/><trunc>thou</trunc> seven-hundred-million years ago <pause dur="0.3"/> there were a lot of <pause dur="0.2"/> Ediacarian <pause dur="0.4"/> Ediacaran <pause dur="0.3"/> creatures <pause dur="0.4"/> do you know about this <pause dur="0.5"/> people told you about the history of life no perhaps not <pause dur="0.4"/> which <pause dur="0.8"/> probably have resulted in today's coelenterates <pause dur="0.2"/> lots and lots of <pause dur="0.2"/> two layered

creatures <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> whether <pause dur="1.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> they're <pause dur="0.3"/> two layered and they're easy to make and it's the easiest way to go multicellular <pause dur="0.5"/> if you're a <pause dur="0.2"/> i don't know <pause dur="0.2"/> i don't know i think it's just simply that these are easy <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> i have some nice hydra i don't have any upstairs because they'd die in the atmosphere of this place i brought some from home <pause dur="0.5"/> i've taken some over to the film people <pause dur="0.7"/> we've got some lovely ones the same ones as these <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> but they die in this place these are hydra <pause dur="0.4"/> some of you will have seen them around the place they're really rather pretty <pause dur="0.4"/> they are <pause dur="0.2"/> probably <pause dur="0.3"/> a simple animal to make <pause dur="0.3"/> and that general pattern <pause dur="0.2"/> has appeared several times <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now i want to take about the Burgess Shale <pause dur="0.7"/> i hope you all know about Burgess Shale <pause dur="0.8"/> i hope you know that <pause dur="0.3"/> six-hundred-million years ago or thereabouts <pause dur="0.5"/> many many body forms different body forms were tried <pause dur="1.2"/> and i'm going to go through them in a moment <pause dur="0.6"/> it isn't that we have a tree of

life <pause dur="0.4"/> that branches <pause dur="1.5"/> it's that we have lots and lots of little bushes <pause dur="0.2"/> and lots of grass <pause dur="1.2"/> things start <pause dur="0.2"/> and you they don't continue into the future <pause dur="0.8"/> and here are some of the things that <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> didn't continue into the future from there <pause dur="0.7"/> from there <pause dur="1.3"/> tail fins Amiskwia <pause dur="1.8"/> lots of <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> <trunc>goo</trunc> well preserved soft-bodied creatures <pause dur="0.2"/> some hard-bodied creatures <pause dur="0.5"/> Marrella <pause dur="0.3"/> it probably <pause dur="0.7"/> a very odd trilobite <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and we had other trilobites for a long time but we don't have any now <pause dur="1.0"/> Nectocaris <pause dur="0.7"/> with a looking like an arthropod in front and a chordate with the tail fin at the back <pause dur="1.0"/> lots of body plans tried out <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> there's a beast Anomalocaris <pause dur="1.0"/> few of them survive to now <pause dur="3.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> a polychaete <pause dur="0.5"/> Canadia <pause dur="1.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and that's one that we do have <pause dur="0.3"/> representative of now <pause dur="0.3"/> <sic corr="Hallucigenia">Hallucinogenia</sic> you probably know as a fairly ordinary trilobite but they got it the wrong way up <pause dur="0.3"/> because when you find a fossil it

doesn't say this way up on it <pause dur="1.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> often <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and this <pause dur="0.4"/> Pikaia the world's <trunc>fir</trunc> <pause dur="0.5"/> first known chordate <pause dur="1.1"/> okay that's a thing rather like amphioxus <pause dur="1.8"/> Branchiostoma which some of you may know amphioxus Branchiostoma <pause dur="0.5"/> but <pause dur="1.7"/> you should ask yourself the question what would have happened <pause dur="0.5"/> if Anomalocaris had lived <pause dur="0.2"/> and <kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> this thing had been killed because they were equally well <pause dur="0.9"/> designed presumably <pause dur="0.9"/> and these worlds with <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><event desc="holds up hands demonstrating tentacles in front of face" iterated="n"/> i be talking to you now with a pair of tentacles in front like this and all of you <pause dur="0.3"/> sitting there writing with <pause dur="0.7"/> tentacles you know <pause dur="0.8"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> yes and we wouldn't notice any difference <pause dur="0.2"/> and i could have i would be saying as Anomalocaris <pause dur="0.3"/> i wonder what would have happened if that funny little thing with the <pause dur="0.2"/> myotomes <pause dur="0.3"/> had lived instead of us <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> think about insteads <pause dur="0.5"/> complex thinking <pause dur="3.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now <pause dur="0.5"/> also realize that very nearly all of what we know is lies to children <pause dur="1.1"/> people explained the rainbow to you by saying well you see

raindrops are like <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> prisms <pause dur="0.6"/> and that <pause dur="0.4"/> but raindrops aren't like prisms they're spheres <pause dur="1.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> when two people are looking at <pause dur="1.5"/> rainbows we've talked about rainbows before they're looking at different rainbows <pause dur="1.7"/> realize that most of what you know about evolution <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> has that status it's lies to children <pause dur="1.7"/> i realized that most strongly when i was <pause dur="0.4"/> in <pause dur="0.4"/> Australia <pause dur="1.0"/> and <pause dur="0.7"/> in a a <pause dur="1.1"/> rainforest <pause dur="0.3"/> a temperate rainforest <pause dur="0.7"/> now you know i'm very full of <pause dur="0.2"/> how many sperms two-hundred-million at a time how many cod eggs forty-million in her life only two of them <pause dur="0.6"/> survive to breed <pause dur="1.1"/> under a tree <pause dur="0.2"/> i found this <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> which is <pause dur="0.4"/> i didn't know what they were for about they're stick insect eggs <pause dur="2.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now it so happens that all stick insect eggs pretty near <pause dur="0.6"/> look like seeds <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> look there it look at that <pause dur="0.3"/> absolutely like a little bean isn't it <pause dur="1.4"/> or snails <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> there's something here look like <trunc>s</trunc> look at that <pause dur="0.8"/> little snails <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that look at that one <pause dur="2.5"/> now what advantage can it be to the creature to <trunc>l</trunc> to

have <pause dur="0.4"/> eggs that look like seeds or little snails <pause dur="2.1"/> and at that time and and <pause dur="0.5"/> till two years ago i think it's the case that people genuinely didn't know <pause dur="0.4"/> they didn't know why stick insect eggs took so long to develop <pause dur="0.2"/> they take about six months so only a few of them get to stick insects <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> all of them <pause dur="0.8"/> not just the one not just the Indian stick insect the <pause dur="0.2"/> the parthenogenic one <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> these are all sexual forms <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> their eggs take six months to develop <pause dur="1.0"/> and until people were <pause dur="1.1"/> walking about after there had been the big fires <pause dur="0.3"/> two-and-a-half years ago in Australia <pause dur="0.8"/> they didn't realize <pause dur="0.5"/> what this was all about <pause dur="1.4"/> when the trees started to the the fire had burned everything above ground <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> what was happening the trees <pause dur="0.3"/> seemed to be <trunc>a</trunc> had deep roots <pause dur="0.3"/> and they'd put up little green shoots <pause dur="0.5"/> and these little green shoots were all covered in baby stick insects <pause dur="0.9"/> people said gosh what's happened there <pause dur="1.3"/> and they found out where the stick insect eggs were <pause dur="0.2"/> and where they were coming from <pause dur="0.3"/> they were coming from ants' nests <pause dur="1.5"/> because ants bury and store <pause dur="0.7"/>

seeds and little snails <pause dur="2.4"/> now the stick insect didn't know that it didn't think i'm going to get the ants to do this for me <pause dur="0.3"/> but it turned out that ones that the ants could <pause dur="0.2"/> mistake for seeds or snails <pause dur="0.3"/> got and then if they ate the odd stick insect egg it didn't matter did it it was the tree that was paying for it <pause dur="3.7"/> all right <pause dur="1.1"/> now that's a bit of <pause dur="0.4"/> ecology which <pause dur="0.3"/> i was completely ignorant about for a long time <pause dur="0.7"/> therefore it says to me i'm ignorant about most of <pause dur="0.4"/> adaptation of ecology on this planet <pause dur="0.8"/> nevertheless <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> i can talk about things on other planets <pause dur="0.6"/> because <pause dur="0.5"/> i can <pause dur="0.2"/> make a distinction <pause dur="0.2"/> i've talked to you about universals <pause dur="0.8"/> now i'm going to talk to you about the things that have happened in our evolutionary story which are the opposite of that <pause dur="0.4"/> parochials <pause dur="0.5"/> P-A-R-<pause dur="0.2"/>O-C-H-<pause dur="0.2"/>I-A-L <pause dur="0.3"/> only in this parish <pause dur="0.2"/> only local <pause dur="0.9"/> things that are <pause dur="1.9"/> simply <pause dur="0.8"/> here <pause dur="0.8"/> once only <pause dur="0.4"/> and won't happen again <pause dur="0.5"/> and the classic one <pause dur="2.3"/> is <kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> this fish that came out of the water <pause dur="1.8"/> whose descendants were

the reptiles the amphibians the birds and the mammals <pause dur="1.4"/> all of whom cough <pause dur="1.8"/> because this <pause dur="0.4"/> fish <pause dur="0.3"/> is enormously badly designed its airway crosses its foodway <pause dur="1.6"/> there were lots of other fish out there in the sea <pause dur="0.6"/> whose airway didn't cross their foodway <pause dur="0.8"/> who had dorsal lungs <pause dur="0.5"/> and a separate pathway <pause dur="0.5"/> but it happened that <kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> this one came out <pause dur="1.4"/> i'm sure if you ran the <pause dur="0.2"/> # <trunc>f</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> evolution again for a start you wouldn't get fishes <pause dur="0.2"/> but you might get something like that <pause dur="0.7"/> and you probably would get things coming out on land because <pause dur="0.3"/> twenty-five different groups of animals have invaded the land so <pause dur="0.2"/> that's a universal <pause dur="0.9"/> certainly some groups would invade the land <pause dur="1.5"/> but <pause dur="0.8"/> no no stupid not that way i said she's telling him <pause dur="0.6"/> and i was asked at a <pause dur="0.4"/> science fiction convention by one of these ladies in a long dusty dress <pause dur="0.3"/><shift feature="voice" new="mimicking an other's voice"/> how do you know that it's <pause dur="0.8"/> her that's telling him <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.8"/> i waited just the right amount of time and said <pause dur="0.2"/> experience <pause dur="1.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/><vocal desc="groan" iterated="n" n="sf0243"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.6"/> and i didn't think they had an answer to that <pause dur="1.6"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/>

the other thing about this fish <pause dur="0.2"/> the other parochial thing as well as the very bad bit of design <pause dur="0.4"/> that its airway crosses its foodway <pause dur="0.4"/> and ours does because it did <pause dur="1.9"/> is that <pause dur="0.3"/> it mixes up its genital tract <pause dur="0.2"/> and its excretory system <pause dur="2.0"/> there are a lot of things out there the the teleosts and the <pause dur="0.2"/> elasmobranchs <pause dur="0.2"/> which have them pretty well separated <pause dur="0.2"/> different holes anyway <pause dur="1.6"/> but we mix them up and this fish mixes them up <pause dur="0.2"/> therefore its descendants who became extelligent <pause dur="0.6"/> like us <pause dur="1.2"/> have dirty books <pause dur="1.9"/> we wouldn't call them dirty books <pause dur="1.0"/> if we didn't think there was something dirty about sex <pause dur="0.3"/> because we mix up our excretory system <pause dur="0.5"/> with our <pause dur="1.1"/> sexual system <pause dur="0.4"/> yes <pause dur="1.2"/> that's unlikely to happen again aliens aren't likely to have novels that we would like reading <pause dur="3.1"/> you see the point <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/><pause dur="4.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> now <pause dur="0.9"/> that fish had very peculiar limbs <pause dur="1.2"/> it probably had eight digits <pause dur="0.4"/> it wasn't the fish that it <pause dur="0.2"/> that <pause dur="0.3"/> you start off from that it used to be thought to

be <pause dur="0.7"/> the origin of the land vertebrates when i was a kid <pause dur="2.0"/> and <pause dur="1.2"/> it probably had eight <pause dur="0.2"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> most of its descendants refined it to five digits the pentadactyl limb <pause dur="0.8"/> and you can do a lot of different things with it it's one invention <pause dur="0.8"/> it's very versatile <pause dur="0.8"/> but you won't find it anywhere else <pause dur="3.2"/> universals <pause dur="0.2"/> will happen in some form <pause dur="0.4"/> every time you run <pause dur="0.2"/> carbon based <pause dur="0.4"/> watery planets <pause dur="1.8"/> parochials <pause dur="0.6"/> won't happen anywhere else <pause dur="0.3"/> # they'll happen sporadically i suppose <pause dur="0.4"/> and they'll have their own parochials <pause dur="0.8"/> not ours <pause dur="3.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but <pause dur="0.7"/> mixing up <pause dur="0.7"/> parochials and universals is what most people get wrong <pause dur="0.5"/> when they invent alien ecologies <pause dur="1.6"/> here's one way of <trunc>mi</trunc> <trunc>me</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> messing up an ecology <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/><pause dur="3.6"/> oh this i thought i wondered if it was my Monica Lewinsky one it is <pause dur="1.4"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/># <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.6"/> he's missed with some you notice <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> the <pause dur="2.0"/> too many people who invent alien planets <pause dur="0.2"/> give them butterflies of course when i have <pause dur="0.8"/> pictures of butterflies they're screwing butterflies

but that's <pause dur="0.2"/> because i'm me <pause dur="0.8"/> and because i have most pictures like that <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and they have flowers <pause dur="1.4"/> i don't think flowers will happen elsewhere i think angiosperms and <pause dur="0.2"/> insects <pause dur="0.2"/> is one particular parochial thing that's happened here <pause dur="0.6"/> we don't have <pause dur="0.4"/> well we kind of do <pause dur="0.4"/> there are millipedes that help mosses get sex <pause dur="1.4"/> and there are some <pause dur="0.2"/> underwater ones that are a bit interesting <pause dur="1.9"/> and it <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> it somewhere between <pause dur="0.8"/> a <pause dur="1.0"/> which reminds me i haven't put in two slides that i should have done <pause dur="5.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/><vocal desc="gasp" iterated="n" n="su0252"/> we ought <pause dur="0.9"/> to <pause dur="1.8"/> ask <pause dur="1.7"/> for a list of <pause dur="2.8"/> universals <pause dur="0.3"/> okay i can give you that later <pause dur="0.6"/> and a list of parochials <pause dur="0.6"/> now is intelligence <pause dur="0.3"/> and particularly extelligence <pause dur="0.2"/> the culture that we pass on from generation to generation <pause dur="0.4"/> is this <pause dur="0.5"/> a universal or a parochial <pause dur="0.5"/> well we've only <pause dur="0.5"/> it's only us that have done it <pause dur="1.3"/> some other creatures <pause dur="0.6"/> have done it a bit <pause dur="0.6"/> and i was going to have pictures of <pause dur="0.6"/> of bonobos and # orangs i think i did not <pause dur="1.7"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> if you're going to have

intelligent <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/>life on a planet <pause dur="2.8"/> oh that says <pause dur="0.2"/> <reading>those with brains seem okay those with testicles i'm not too sure of</reading> <pause dur="1.8"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="2.7"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> are you going to get intelligence extelligence on a planet <pause dur="0.4"/> well on this planet we have octopuses <pause dur="0.4"/> dolphins <pause dur="0.4"/> mantis shrimps <pause dur="0.9"/> a lot of sporadic creatures that are a good deal more intelligent than their near relative <pause dur="0.4"/> it seems to me that intelligence is a universal <pause dur="1.2"/> but extelligence <pause dur="0.2"/> i don't know <pause dur="2.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the trouble is <pause dur="0.8"/> that too many people <pause dur="0.2"/> that's the least politically <pause dur="0.4"/> correct <pause dur="0.3"/> slide i had but there are some that are close <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> there are <pause dur="4.4"/> people <pause dur="0.2"/> make mistakes get things the wrong way round <pause dur="1.8"/> for example <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> they portray aliens <pause dur="0.3"/> let's build an extraterrestrial <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="1.1"/> but just a minute <pause dur="0.4"/> those legs <pause dur="0.5"/> and feet <pause dur="0.3"/> can only have been <pause dur="0.2"/> on this planet <pause dur="0.9"/> it's a pentadactyl limb <pause dur="0.8"/> unless you get fish and that very same fish coming out of the water <pause dur="0.5"/> you're not

going to get a leg like that with a knee and an ankle <pause dur="1.5"/> got it <pause dur="0.6"/> you're going to get joints joints in limbs are universal <pause dur="0.9"/> but that particular pattern of limb <pause dur="0.9"/> is a parochial <pause dur="0.9"/> yes <pause dur="1.9"/> so and i bet his airway crosses his foodway looking at him <pause dur="0.8"/> yeah <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> and this one too <pause dur="1.3"/> people don't use enough imagination <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> like that <pause dur="0.4"/> and okay human beings are cheap <pause dur="0.3"/> to be aliens <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> if you want them on # <pause dur="0.3"/> but that's the only reason why you should use human beings <pause dur="0.5"/> # he's supposed to be half Vulcan and half human <pause dur="0.9"/> well i ask you <pause dur="0.3"/> what <pause dur="0.3"/> progeny would you <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates member of audience" iterated="n"/> get with a cow <pause dur="0.4"/> who is your cousin <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/><pause dur="1.0"/> as compared with something on the <pause dur="0.3"/> on the other <trunc>si</trunc> # <pause dur="1.3"/> no jokes about sheep <pause dur="0.5"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/># <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/><pause dur="0.6"/> we what progeny would you get with a bacterium <pause dur="0.8"/> who is closer related to you <pause dur="0.3"/> than something from another planet <pause dur="1.8"/> we've had stories <pause dur="0.8"/> invented by other people <pause dur="0.3"/> which say <pause dur="0.3"/> what are the homeoboxes in D-N-A in the <pause dur="0.3"/> these different aliens <pause dur="1.2"/> and that's such parochial thinking <pause dur="0.3"/> as if you've

got to have D-N-A there are about a hundred-and-fifty different compounds <pause dur="0.3"/> you can use <pause dur="0.3"/> to be your hereditary material <pause dur="0.9"/> but homeoboxes come on <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the same sequence being used <pause dur="0.7"/> that's Pine Lawn Fertility Clinic <pause dur="0.2"/> and you have an owl and a pussycat <pause dur="2.0"/> now we get some difficult ones but i haven't ever had that <pause dur="1.8"/> and # <pause dur="0.8"/> that is as <pause dur="0.2"/> i mean that's so much easier than Vulcans and humans <pause dur="2.2"/> got the point <pause dur="3.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and there are people who believe that aliens are just like humans and of course Gary Larson <pause dur="0.7"/> has it <pause dur="0.5"/> have you seen cars with fishes on <pause dur="2.3"/> have any Christian people who put a fish on their car well <pause dur="0.3"/> here's a spaceship look with <pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> a fish with four eyes <pause dur="5.1"/> this comes from <pause dur="0.2"/> selfish gene thinking it comes from the idea that <pause dur="0.2"/> we are our D-N-A made flesh <pause dur="0.3"/> that the way in which you <pause dur="0.2"/> make different kinds of creature <pause dur="0.2"/> is simply to <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/>fudge the D-N-A <pause dur="0.6"/> and and there have been a lot of science

fiction stories for example these Tom Easton's <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>tun</trunc> very tongue in cheek <pause dur="0.3"/> about the gengineers <pause dur="0.5"/> the people who take <pause dur="0.6"/> a <pause dur="1.0"/> the genes for the pouch of a kangaroo and put it into a stork <pause dur="0.4"/> genome <pause dur="0.4"/> and get airmail <pause dur="2.3"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> you can't do that you can't mix and match <pause dur="0.5"/> genes pick and mix <pause dur="0.7"/> and above all you can't <pause dur="0.3"/> lose the physics by having jellyfish flying up into the air <pause dur="1.6"/> or by writing it into the D-N-A <pause dur="0.7"/> any more than you can write into the D-N-A <pause dur="0.2"/> and when you made your sodium chloride crystal make it octagonal <pause dur="3.4"/> you're limited <pause dur="0.4"/> by the real world <pause dur="2.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but some people don't believe that <pause dur="1.4"/> you can't have a reptile that big <pause dur="0.4"/> you can't have a human being <pause dur="0.3"/> with <pause dur="0.7"/> haemocyanin in the blood instead of haemoglobin 'cause it doesn't work <pause dur="0.2"/> and we wouldn't develop like a human being if we had haemocyanin <pause dur="0.3"/> and anyway you can't get something as much like a human being <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> or at least an American <pause dur="0.3"/> as that <pause dur="1.8"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/> on another planet <pause dur="2.2"/> we won't get

molluscs we won't get fishes <pause dur="0.2"/> if we ran it again on Earth <pause dur="2.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> to find something like us on another planet is unbelievable <pause dur="0.8"/> so science fiction authors take great care <pause dur="0.5"/> to invent quite different kinds of creatures <pause dur="0.3"/> and then the artists give them pentadactyl limbs <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> airways that cross foodways <pause dur="4.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Gary Larson as always gets it right <pause dur="0.5"/> <reading>wonderful just wonderful so much for instilling them with a sense of awe</reading> <pause dur="4.3"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/> but look you <kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> this one up here's got his arms akimbo <pause dur="0.4"/> even though he hasn't got proper arms and <pause dur="0.2"/> you know <pause dur="0.6"/> it it he gets it right <pause dur="0.4"/> he's a good biologist is Gary Larson <pause dur="1.8"/> once again <pause dur="0.3"/> wonderful story Close to Critical by Hal Clement you're in a sulphuric acid atmosphere much like Venus' atmosphere he's got all the chemistry right everything's right <pause dur="0.3"/> they don't have eyes it's terrific <pause dur="0.5"/> but they do have knees and <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>elbows <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="3.0"/> and <trunc>i</trunc> knees and elbows won't be found anywhere else <pause dur="3.0"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> there

are some <pause dur="0.2"/> that get it right <pause dur="0.3"/> i <trunc>l</trunc> i like this one i like the idea the artist had of showing that <pause dur="0.3"/> this is a friendly alien 'cause it's got its hand on the guy's shoulder and the guy is old and <pause dur="0.3"/> isn't minding <pause dur="1.0"/> it's a nice trick <pause dur="3.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> that's another nice alien <pause dur="2.6"/> yeah <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> this one is much less likely in some ways than <kinesic desc="indicates point on slide" iterated="n"/> this <pause dur="5.4"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> these are rather poor <pause dur="1.3"/> E-T <pause dur="0.8"/> kids today all they want to do is go to Earth and become film stars <pause dur="2.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> and of course the other <pause dur="0.2"/> famous one <pause dur="0.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> Alien <pause dur="2.3"/> and they're <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>m</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> <reading>mummy Bobby Joe's playing in the turkey</reading> <vocal desc="growl" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="sl" dur="3"/><pause dur="0.9"/> that's <pause dur="0.2"/> all our fears put together E-T is all our cuddlies put together <pause dur="1.2"/> it's nothing to do with what might be <kinesic desc="indicates upwards" iterated="n"/> out there <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> nor are these Star Wars lot <pause dur="1.3"/> and i'm going to take some time now <pause dur="0.6"/> just five minutes <pause dur="0.4"/> to go through <pause dur="0.2"/> have i <pause dur="0.7"/> have i shown you those funny owls before <pause dur="1.8"/> no <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="nod heads" iterated="n" n="ss"/>

yes some of you are nodding some of you <pause dur="1.4"/> yes you're you're nodding <pause dur="0.9"/> let me make this point 'cause <pause dur="0.9"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s here and of course <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s here and of course <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> probably has # <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> has seen those funny owls yeah but they're good aren't they <pause dur="1.2"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> that's some editing for you i think <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="2.0"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="2"/> the <pause dur="2.5"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> the oddity <pause dur="0.5"/> for human beings is this <pause dur="0.6"/> we conduct we don't <pause dur="0.2"/> conduct our own development like other creatures do <pause dur="1.9"/> what we do <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and i hope you've seen <pause dur="0.2"/> have i shown you that cartoon before <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.5"/> there's a mum there's a baby teaching her mother to fetch <pause dur="1.6"/> just like a dog <pause dur="0.9"/> and rewarding the mother with smiles <pause dur="2.0"/> because we have a very integrated <pause dur="0.3"/> bringing up <pause dur="0.2"/> the parents are brought in by the child <pause dur="0.4"/> to help with the bringing up <pause dur="0.2"/> our extelligence <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> is given to children here's <pause dur="0.3"/> a bit of extelligence Red Riding Hood <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> bit of extelligence <pause dur="0.4"/> that we're getting wrong breasts and confectionery we're

showing <pause dur="0.8"/> people <pause dur="0.2"/> naked bodies now which i think ought to be discreetly veiled and and <pause dur="0.3"/> exposed only at the proper time <pause dur="3.1"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> we're <pause dur="1.9"/> there's a very nice comic called Elf Quest <pause dur="0.2"/> the taste of fresh blood shared with our forest <pause dur="0.3"/> brothers <pause dur="0.3"/> i guess those kids are less likely to become vegetarian <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and this fox that i shot about five minutes after the <pause dur="0.3"/> this was <pause dur="0.8"/> taken <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="0.4"/> he's blind in one eye he's got no teeth <pause dur="1.3"/> but people get upset because they think about the fox they heard about in the nursery <pause dur="0.7"/> the fox in the waistcoat <pause dur="0.2"/> the fox who was sly and cunning <pause dur="1.6"/> he isn't that <pause dur="1.1"/> i say to you you know what <trunc>k</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> adjectives do you have for the fox it's always sly and cunning <pause dur="0.4"/> in the West <pause dur="0.9"/> if i asked an Inuit audience <pause dur="0.7"/> they would say brave and fast <pause dur="0.3"/> because the fox is the hero in their stories <pause dur="1.0"/> i'm trying to expose to you the way in which your brains have been made <pause dur="0.9"/> and your <pause dur="0.2"/> prejudices about the organisms we have on Earth <pause dur="0.5"/> have been made <pause dur="1.5"/> so that when you see

the Star Wars bar scene <pause dur="0.6"/> and you see the <pause dur="0.3"/> alien who looks like a fox <pause dur="0.2"/> if you're of Western mind you'd think ooh i wouldn't trust him <pause dur="1.1"/> but of course if you're an Eskimo you'd say <pause dur="0.2"/> he's the one i'd go to if there's any trouble <pause dur="1.4"/> he's the hero <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> so when you're designing aliens it's very important to get it right <pause dur="1.3"/> to to avoid the things that you've learned about kinds of animals now <pause dur="0.7"/> you've all learned that owls are wise <pause dur="1.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> when we look at this <pause dur="2.0"/> daft owls <pause dur="1.0"/> just don't come into it <pause dur="1.5"/> you don't like seeing owls that are daft <pause dur="1.6"/> because <pause dur="0.3"/> it seems to you wrong that they should be you've populated <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> your mental universe with different kinds of things <pause dur="0.6"/> have you seen i don't know if you've seen this cartoon </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm0244" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> <reading>Andrew is hesitant remembering his fiasco with the car of straw</reading> <pause dur="0.3"/> have i shown you that one the car of straw <pause dur="0.6"/> yes <pause dur="1.5"/> yes </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sm0245" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm0246" trans="pause"> yeah </u><u who="nm0240" trans="latching"> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> you know about straw <pause dur="0.3"/> one was a car of wood <pause dur="0.2"/> bricks <pause dur="0.4"/> a

car of bricks isn't going to go very well is it <pause dur="0.7"/> but the whole one two three business is <pause dur="0.2"/> built in <pause dur="0.3"/> to the way we think <pause dur="0.4"/> and will not be built into the way aliens think <pause dur="3.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> but i guess aliens will have <pause dur="1.4"/> will use their local version of nature they <trunc>u</trunc> their local kinds of creatures <pause dur="0.2"/> if they have an extelligence <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> because it's the kind of thing that mothers tell children in the nest anyway <pause dur="1.0"/> whether they will have puberty rituals this is a Jewish kid <pause dur="0.5"/> at its bar # his bar mitzvah <pause dur="0.8"/> whether they will have puberty rituals which i think are one of the really important ways <pause dur="0.3"/> in which we developed ourselves we evolved ourselves <pause dur="0.5"/> by choosing <pause dur="0.7"/> those of us <pause dur="0.2"/> who were acquiescient <pause dur="0.9"/> who said yes to what the elders told us to do <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm going to put you down here i'm going to <pause dur="0.4"/> tie you up <pause dur="0.2"/> but don't tie you i just <pause dur="0.4"/> put ropes over your hands and feet <pause dur="0.5"/> and your terror keeps you down there your terror of me <pause dur="0.6"/> because when i get a <pause dur="0.2"/> a branding iron <pause dur="0.2"/> and heat

it in the thing <pause dur="0.3"/> to <pause dur="1.0"/> put on your cheeks <pause dur="0.3"/> you don't leap up and run away <pause dur="0.7"/> you're proud to get your cheeks branded or your little penis <pause dur="0.5"/> circumcized <pause dur="0.3"/> or whatever <pause dur="0.7"/> and the ones that weren't proud and jumped up and ran away <pause dur="1.3"/> didn't breed <pause dur="1.5"/> so our ancestors our male ancestors were those <pause dur="0.3"/> who <pause dur="0.8"/> were obedient to authority <pause dur="1.4"/> this is a view of <pause dur="0.2"/> our evolution <pause dur="0.3"/> our extelligent evolution <pause dur="0.4"/> which doesn't only explain Einstein <pause dur="0.3"/> you know once upon a time there was a nerve cell <pause dur="0.3"/> then more and more and more nerve cells they got cleverer and cleverer and then we got Einstein <pause dur="0.5"/> it also explains Eichmann <pause dur="1.1"/> why he can say <pause dur="0.5"/> look how effectively i killed all those Jews <pause dur="0.3"/> they didn't worry at all i put them <pause dur="0.2"/> they thought it was a shower room and <pause dur="0.4"/> gas came out of the <pause dur="0.5"/> the showers <pause dur="1.5"/> and he expected not to be punished <pause dur="0.2"/> for it <pause dur="0.2"/> because he'd been doing what he was told <pause dur="2.4"/> i recommend you read a book called Obedience to Authority by Milgram <pause dur="0.4"/> published in the middle seventies <pause dur="0.5"/> he <pause dur="0.8"/> got <trunc>pe</trunc> he wore a white coat

and he told people to torture other people and they did <pause dur="3.3"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> the deep business <pause dur="1.1"/> is <pause dur="2.4"/> if you're going to invent <pause dur="0.2"/> another <pause dur="0.6"/> ecology <pause dur="0.5"/> another ecosystem you must get out of most of the assumptions <pause dur="0.4"/> that you make without being conscious of it <pause dur="0.3"/> about this one <pause dur="0.4"/> like <pause dur="0.5"/> that there are going to be <pause dur="0.8"/> vertebrates <pause dur="1.1"/> like that they are going to be flying forms yes of course there are going to be flying forms <pause dur="0.5"/> but they're not going to be our flying forms <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> or even like them <pause dur="0.5"/> there might even be a different chemistry <pause dur="2.2"/> here he is saying ammonia ammonia <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n" n="sm0247"/> in the desert <pause dur="10.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> now the question is have they visited us <pause dur="7.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="11"/> it says <reading>i am not a scale i am a Martian you are standing on my testicles</reading> <pause dur="0.8"/><vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> i don't know <pause dur="1.2"/> but the point is this i do know that if they had visited us and they didn't want us to know we wouldn't know <pause dur="0.9"/> if they're <pause dur="0.4"/> capable of

crossing between <pause dur="0.4"/> solar systems <pause dur="0.9"/> they're going to be so much better at disguise for all we know we have one here <pause dur="3.7"/> see the point <pause dur="1.8"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> too many people and you've seen this before but i cannot overuse this <pause dur="1.5"/> too many people have <pause dur="0.9"/> the Hindu view <pause dur="2.0"/> they say ah we're going to put things on other planets well we're going to put herbivores and we're going to put carnivores and we're going to put grass and we're going to put lakes <pause dur="0.7"/> let's <trunc>dra</trunc> draw some <pause dur="0.7"/> herbivores and some carnivores <pause dur="0.8"/> and the slides i've left out <pause dur="0.9"/> are a picture of a <pause dur="0.2"/> heavy <pause dur="0.2"/> planet <pause dur="0.2"/> alien which has got six legs <pause dur="0.6"/> and horns <pause dur="0.6"/> and a trunk <pause dur="1.4"/> a trunk <pause dur="2.6"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> it's a very good <pause dur="0.8"/> picture of an alien <pause dur="0.3"/> very well designed and it's got eyes that don't work like ours <pause dur="0.6"/> and it's altogether a very good one but it's got a trunk <pause dur="0.9"/> and the trunk <pause dur="0.2"/> is an odd thing to think about <pause dur="0.6"/> is it a parochial <pause dur="0.2"/> or is it a universal <pause dur="0.7"/> i want you to realize that it's not simply <pause dur="0.3"/> did it happen several times here <pause dur="0.5"/> let me give you the argument about a

trunk <pause dur="0.3"/> and as i haven't got a slide <pause dur="0.5"/> to put on <pause dur="0.5"/> i'll put that there <pause dur="0.5"/><event desc="puts down slide changer" iterated="n"/> and then i can wave my arms <pause dur="1.9"/> think about a giraffe <pause dur="1.5"/> what <pause dur="0.7"/> think about a giraffe walking <pause dur="1.9"/> you've all heard the Kipling business about how did the giraffe get its long neck yeah how did the elephant get its trunk <pause dur="3.4"/> that's deeply embedded in your psyche <pause dur="0.2"/> get away from it <pause dur="0.4"/> think of what the giraffe really is <pause dur="0.3"/> the giraffe is <pause dur="0.2"/> a <trunc>s</trunc> a pacing <pause dur="0.2"/> animal <pause dur="1.0"/> pacing is something that most mammals don't do <pause dur="0.2"/> the two legs on the same side <pause dur="0.2"/> at once <pause dur="1.8"/> yes <pause dur="0.7"/> like llamas but unlike <pause dur="0.3"/> cheetahs <pause dur="1.1"/> greyhounds all the dogs even the bears <pause dur="0.3"/> who use their bottom muscles <pause dur="0.4"/> their back legs <pause dur="0.3"/> to get <pause dur="0.6"/> to locomote <pause dur="1.9"/> what the <pause dur="0.3"/> giraffe does is goes along <pause dur="0.2"/> with his legs like a man with a pair of crutches <pause dur="1.6"/> the the back muscles and the bottom muscles are very small the back legs are very small <pause dur="0.2"/> his front legs are what are taking him along <pause dur="0.9"/> the giraffes that escape from lions are the ones with the longer front legs <pause dur="0.6"/> now that also takes them

up into <pause dur="0.4"/> eating higher things <pause dur="1.1"/> but if they've got long legs and not a long neck <pause dur="0.8"/> they have a problem <pause dur="0.8"/> what's the problem </u><pause dur="2.4"/> <u who="sf0248" trans="pause"> they can't get </u><u who="nm0240" trans="overlap"> they can't get water <pause dur="1.3"/> without kneeling <pause dur="0.7"/> now the okapi is an amateur giraffe with long front legs <pause dur="0.2"/> and a short neck <pause dur="0.3"/> and it has to kneel to drink <pause dur="1.8"/> now if you kneel somebody gets you <pause dur="0.7"/> what the giraffe has done it's got its long neck <pause dur="0.9"/> and if you see a giraffe drinking it does this <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="demonstrates giraffe bending down" iterated="n"/> and it can just about get down <pause dur="2.4"/> now what the giraffe has done the elephant has done <pause dur="0.5"/> the elephant leaves its head behind the tube for eating <pause dur="0.4"/> the giraffe has got its head on the end of the tube for for drinking <pause dur="1.5"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> the giraffe and the elephant have solved the same problem <pause dur="0.3"/> how to drink without <pause dur="0.2"/> kneeling <pause dur="1.7"/> and as soon as you see that <pause dur="0.3"/> you see it's a universal problem <pause dur="0.6"/> and that this heavy planet alien is likely to have a trunk <pause dur="1.0"/> 'cause it's a way of getting water without kneeling <pause dur="1.9"/> yes <pause dur="0.7"/> and it is contrary to <kinesic desc="indicates slide" iterated="n"/> this philosophy <pause dur="0.6"/> that <pause dur="1.6"/> you

tell me about these things you send the <pause dur="0.2"/> the your blind servant off and they say it's a leaf <pause dur="0.2"/> it's a wall and you say <shift feature="loud" new="f"/>aha it's an elephant <shift feature="loud" new="normal"/><pause dur="1.4"/> i can't be told anything like that <pause dur="0.4"/> about a <pause dur="0.5"/> another ecology i can't really be told it about this ecosystem <pause dur="0.3"/> i don't understand it well enough <pause dur="0.4"/> if somebody comes along and says there's some stick insect eggs that take a long time to hatch <pause dur="0.3"/> and here is a giraffe and here is a <unclear>such and such</unclear> <pause dur="0.7"/> i'm not going to be able to make sense of that ecology <pause dur="2.9"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> as always <pause dur="0.6"/> it's much more like <pause dur="3.4"/> the one i follow on with <pause dur="1.7"/><kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/> go on <pause dur="2.0"/> you have to construct <pause dur="0.8"/> what you understand <pause dur="1.7"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> it probably isn't helpful having the idea of a an elephant in the background <pause dur="0.2"/> either <pause dur="1.1"/> let's be rude about this one <pause dur="0.6"/> this is the people who say <pause dur="0.2"/> ah well we want <pause dur="0.3"/> # some <pause dur="0.3"/> intelligent people <pause dur="0.2"/> let's use Mr Spock <pause dur="2.2"/> let's design an alien which is terrifying <pause dur="0.4"/> let's design an alien which is cuddly <pause dur="0.6"/> they're the things we know about <pause dur="3.8"/> if you go to another planet and you think <pause dur="0.6"/> here is the so and so these are the

molluscs these are the <pause dur="0.7"/> which is what they're doing <pause dur="0.5"/> you probably won't get it right <pause dur="0.4"/> and i might just as well stop there i i will show you the <pause dur="0.3"/> B-Z reaction if you haven't seen it <pause dur="0.9"/> i'll go up and get it from my room now <pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="3.7"/> i make a lot of money by designing <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.6"/> aliens and alien ecologies for science fiction authors <pause dur="0.3"/> have any of you read any of my things read <trunc>a</trunc> any of the West of Eden series by Harry Harrison <pause dur="1.2"/> how many of you read science fiction <pause dur="0.9"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> few of you <pause dur="0.8"/> but # you don't know the <pause dur="0.4"/> the # <pause dur="0.2"/> West of Eden <pause dur="0.3"/> series that's a world <pause dur="0.2"/> where the <trunc>k</trunc> the meteorite didn't hit <pause dur="1.2"/> and # <pause dur="0.3"/> Legacy of Heorot <pause dur="0.2"/> and The Dragons of Heorot is my is my best one <pause dur="0.4"/> # David Gerrold's Chtorr worlds <pause dur="0.6"/> i counted up the other day if someone had asked me to guess i'd have thought i had about a dozen books <pause dur="0.4"/> but i counted up and it's much nearer fifty i counted forty-one <pause dur="0.7"/> without too much trouble <pause dur="4.2"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> i've done a lot of this fun <pause dur="0.5"/> inventing other ecosystems which <pause dur="0.4"/> to my untutored eye would probably

work <pause dur="1.2"/> so i'm going to go now get this <pause dur="1.0"/> B-Z reaction <pause dur="0.4"/> and we can have a play with it </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="slide projector is on showing slide" iterated="n"/> there's the heavy planet alien <pause dur="2.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> and you can see <pause dur="0.2"/> universals <pause dur="0.7"/> and the question is is the trunk a parochial <pause dur="1.3"/> 'cause it only happens once <pause dur="0.5"/> answer no it's a universal <pause dur="0.5"/> because <pause dur="0.8"/> <kinesic desc="changes slide" iterated="n"/>here's two elephants one of whom is being a giraffe <pause dur="3.9"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> i'm very lucky to get that shot # in <pause dur="0.6"/> # the zoo in Israel in near Tel Aviv <pause dur="0.8"/> and i <pause dur="0.2"/> that's why you should always take your camera with you <pause dur="1.9"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="1.8"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> having <pause dur="0.5"/> done that we should now do the B-Z <pause dur="0.5"/> reaction </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="demonstrates Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction" iterated="y" dur="9:00"/> Belousov <pause dur="0.2"/> in nineteen-fifty-six <pause dur="0.6"/> tried to get a paper published in Nature <pause dur="0.4"/> which said <pause dur="1.6"/> i'm <pause dur="3.0"/> i tried this iodine starch <pause dur="0.2"/> system <pause dur="1.1"/> and a very strange thing has happened which according to the second law of <trunc>therm</trunc> thermodynamics shouldn't be able to happen <pause dur="0.7"/> it's gone <pause dur="0.3"/> blue and then brown and then blue

and then brown and then blue and then brown <pause dur="1.6"/> and you see chemistry should only go in one this the the orthodoxy was chemistry should only go in one direction <pause dur="2.3"/> and the <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="2.7"/> and this this seemed totally wrong <pause dur="0.5"/> and nobody would publish it it took him four years to get it published <pause dur="2.1"/> and <pause dur="0.9"/> when he got it published <pause dur="1.3"/> # <pause dur="1.7"/> another paper appeared some time later by <pause dur="0.2"/> Zhabotinsky <pause dur="0.8"/> saying <pause dur="0.2"/> if we have <pause dur="0.5"/> # a system with an oxidizing agent like bromate <pause dur="0.8"/> and a reducing agent <pause dur="0.5"/> like <pause dur="2.5"/> malonic acid <pause dur="0.8"/> i think he used acetic acid not malonic acid <pause dur="2.0"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>ho</trunc> and then you have <pause dur="0.2"/> a # <pause dur="3.8"/> # something which is an electron donor and acceptor <pause dur="0.5"/> like # a ferrous dye <pause dur="0.2"/> or even <pause dur="0.2"/> even if you have <pause dur="0.2"/> ferric chloride <pause dur="0.3"/> it works <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.5"/> the <pause dur="1.3"/> whole solution <pause dur="0.8"/> turns <pause dur="0.3"/> blue and then red and then blue and then red and then blue and then red <pause dur="1.9"/> and <pause dur="4.0"/> that can last now while i tell you about it <pause dur="0.6"/> that will be about five minutes till it gets clear colourless <pause dur="1.2"/> and # <pause dur="1.6"/> what we have here is bromate an oxidizing agent <pause dur="0.7"/> and <trunc>malo</trunc> malonic acid which is a

reducing agent <pause dur="0.5"/> it's going to give off carbon dioxide <pause dur="0.3"/> we've got this <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="indicates indicator" iterated="n"/> indicator <pause dur="0.2"/> which is an electron donor and acceptor <pause dur="0.6"/> goes <pause dur="0.3"/> have we got an overhead projector that's the important thing yes we have <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> that <pause dur="1.2"/> goes blue when oxidized red when reduced <pause dur="1.2"/> and <pause dur="0.8"/> this reaction <pause dur="0.3"/> stops itself by producing carbon dioxide <pause dur="1.6"/> so that like a forest fire <pause dur="0.2"/> or a fairy ring <pause dur="0.5"/> it can only go in one direction it can't go back on itself <pause dur="0.4"/> or a nerve impulse <pause dur="0.6"/> it's got to go one way <pause dur="0.9"/> yes <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> what we're going to find is that <pause dur="2.0"/> this will <pause dur="2.1"/> reduce <pause dur="2.4"/> let's have a look at it on the <pause dur="0.5"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><pause dur="0.6"/> a few little spots of blue will appear <pause dur="13.9"/><kinesic desc="puts petri dish on overhead projector" iterated="n"/> oh i need <pause dur="0.4"/> something to measure out one ml <pause dur="0.6"/><event desc="gets equipment" iterated="n"/> excuse me </u> <u who="om0241" trans="overlap"> sorry </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> now when i put one ml of this in <pause dur="0.5"/> it should go blue and then red <pause dur="1.3"/> Art Winfree <pause dur="0.3"/> who is # <pause dur="1.7"/> a very well known chronobiologist <pause dur="2.2"/> was working with this reaction <pause dur="0.6"/>

in the early nineteen-seventies <pause dur="0.4"/> and we were both at a meeting together <pause dur="0.3"/> in <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> as it happened <pause dur="1.2"/> it ought to go blue <pause dur="3.9"/> and <pause dur="7.4"/> we agreed <pause dur="0.2"/> that this is such a beautiful system <pause dur="1.1"/> that we ought to get it to work for teachers <pause dur="0.4"/> and the important thing for teachers <pause dur="0.3"/> is that the chemicals last for a year <pause dur="0.7"/> they can make it up again <pause dur="0.8"/> but if they've left it from last year and it doesn't work <pause dur="0.4"/> they'll get peed off with it and they won't think of <pause dur="0.2"/> doing it again <pause dur="1.3"/> so this the stuff has got to <trunc>l</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> to last a year see it working </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sm0249" trans="pause"> yeah </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> there are little <pause dur="1.1"/> spots of the liquid <pause dur="1.0"/> are <pause dur="0.9"/> appearing and as soon as a spot appears it can only go outwards <pause dur="0.4"/> because it produces carbon dioxide so it can't go back on itself <pause dur="0.3"/> until the carbon dioxide has <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> #

# <trunc>evapora</trunc> # <trunc>s</trunc> has diffused out of the liquid </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> i <pause dur="0.4"/> debated opposite the president of the Creation Research Society <pause dur="0.9"/> at Birmingham University in the Students' Union <pause dur="0.5"/> and all the the these creationists were there <pause dur="0.3"/> and he was saying you can't get pattern from nothing <pause dur="0.9"/> you can't get complexity from simplicity <pause dur="1.8"/> and i'm saying yes you can here it is doing it <pause dur="1.0"/> and i say look it it's very robust <pause dur="0.5"/> you can kill it <pause dur="4.2"/><event desc="shakes liquid" iterated="n"/> and it'll do it again <pause dur="10.4"/> sorry it's got these things underneath the the <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> it's going to go rather different to this time it's going to do it like # Zhabotinsky's original it's going to all go blue <pause dur="1.1"/> i think <pause dur="1.2"/> maybe not </u><pause dur="4.7"/> <u who="sm0250" trans="pause"> isn't that why <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> creation side of something <pause dur="0.2"/> where the things begin </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause">

i'm sorry </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm0250" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nm0240" trans="pause"> they're they're little probably little <pause dur="0.2"/> thermal accidents <pause dur="0.3"/> it's very close to the threshold <pause dur="0.5"/> so just by chance if a few molecules are going just that little bit <pause dur="1.1"/> # more <pause dur="0.2"/> what i don't understand and what is not understood we have the expert on this reaction in our department <pause dur="0.3"/> in Maths <pause dur="0.5"/> is why it starts again in the middle <pause dur="5.2"/> but # Art Winfree and i spent a week <pause dur="0.4"/> getting it to be as robust as this just mixing four chemicals <pause dur="1.3"/> and working on a <pause dur="3.7"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> what i the point i'm making is that most chemistry is like this <pause dur="0.5"/> most chemistry is recursive most chemistry is autocatalytic <pause dur="0.6"/> most chemistry goes on and the things you do in school <pause dur="0.2"/> are a very small subset of chemistry <pause dur="1.0"/> which gives you the wrong impression about how simple it is <pause dur="2.4"/> look incidentally that in the same dish <pause dur="0.4"/> you have different oscillation frequencies <pause dur="2.8"/> yes <pause dur="1.7"/> but isn't it pretty <pause dur="0.8"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="sl" dur="1"/><pause dur="0.5"/> i thought i'd shown you

before <pause dur="1.1"/> as a <pause dur="0.7"/> an example of a very simple chemical system <pause dur="0.4"/> and doing its life bit <pause dur="1.0"/> it's not bad <pause dur="1.3"/> and # <pause dur="0.9"/> but of course you do realize that <pause dur="1.0"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> second law of thermodynamics is actually not involved here <pause dur="0.7"/> when it goes blue and then red and then blue and then red it's not going there and back <pause dur="0.3"/> it's going downstairs <pause dur="0.8"/> the oxidizer is <pause dur="0.4"/> oxidizing and the reducing thing is being reduced <pause dur="0.9"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> we wound up the spring to start with and it's going downhill <pause dur="3.0"/> on the tread <pause dur="0.2"/> it's blue <pause dur="0.2"/> on the <pause dur="0.2"/> riser it's red <pause dur="1.7"/> okay </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm0251" trans="pause"> how long does it keep going for </u><u who="nm0240" trans="latching"> half an hour <pause dur="3.7"/> but isn't it pretty <pause dur="1.5"/> and i <trunc>m</trunc> i've always got some in the fridge if you want to show it to your friends take it to the park <pause dur="2.4"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="3"/><event desc="shakes liquid" iterated="n"/> you can always # <pause dur="4.5"/> there we go again <pause dur="4.5"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> but # as i say Art Winfree

and i were playing with <trunc>sta</trunc> iodine and starch and chlorates and iodates <pause dur="0.3"/> and # <pause dur="0.2"/> acetic acid and malonic acid and malic acid <pause dur="0.5"/> and # <pause dur="1.1"/> we've had an excursion into aspirin <pause dur="0.4"/> for a <pause dur="0.9"/> for a while because salicylates # do <pause dur="0.2"/> fairly odd things <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="4.2"/> if you believe that <trunc>go</trunc> a God is necessary <pause dur="0.3"/> for making pattern <pause dur="0.3"/> that's to say you believe in conservation of complexity <pause dur="0.8"/> read <pause dur="0.2"/> Collapse of Chaos <pause dur="3.3"/> the the # <pause dur="0.4"/> the formula for this <pause dur="0.2"/> is in both of those books <pause dur="2.7"/> 'cause when i do something i use it to death <pause dur="0.3"/> like <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>so many of these cartoons <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> <pause dur="1.3"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="3.1"/> but if you've not seen it <pause dur="0.4"/> there we are <pause dur="1.2"/> leave it to you

</u></body>

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