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<title>Introduction to the Laboratory</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>


<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any


<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>




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<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Biological Sciences</item>

<item n="acaddiv">ls</item>

<item n="partlevel">UG1</item>

<item n="module">unknown</item>





<u who="nm0253"> welcome # to the first year laboratory class <pause dur="0.3"/> as you know # biological sciences is an experimental science <pause dur="0.3"/> everything we know about biology we have learned either by <trunc>c</trunc> careful observation of living organisms <pause dur="0.4"/> or through experiments # experimental work in in biology <pause dur="0.6"/> what we are doing in this course of biological sciences is training you to become <pause dur="0.3"/> professional biologists <pause dur="0.3"/> so obviously that includes training you in laboratory methods <pause dur="0.4"/> more than that <pause dur="0.2"/> it involves training you in how to observe <pause dur="0.3"/> and how to report <pause dur="0.2"/> your observations <pause dur="0.4"/> so if you intend to become a professional biologist <pause dur="0.3"/> evidently <pause dur="0.3"/> # this laboratory course is extremely important to you <pause dur="0.6"/> even if you don't intend to become a professional biologist <pause dur="0.3"/> we all think that training in laboratory methods is very valuable to you <pause dur="0.3"/> in the sense of transferable skills <pause dur="0.2"/> because <pause dur="0.3"/> the skills of observing <pause dur="0.3"/> understanding and reporting are going to be useful to you in any profession whatever

profession you choose be it biology <pause dur="0.2"/> or being a policeman <pause dur="0.2"/> or being an accountant <pause dur="0.2"/> or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> so we think that these laboratory courses are extremely valuable and extremely important to you <pause dur="0.3"/> so you are now launched <pause dur="0.3"/> into your career as a professional biologist i should say <pause dur="1.0"/> there's a number of things that i need to talk to you about as a sort of introduction to the laboratory class <pause dur="0.3"/> # and they're all <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="indicates board" iterated="n"/> listed on this board here <pause dur="0.3"/> # which i will leave up for you to look at later on perhaps if you need to <pause dur="0.6"/> so the first <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> point i want to make the first thing i want to talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> is the staff <pause dur="0.3"/> who are going to be running this particular class <pause dur="0.6"/> # you know me i'm <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> my colleagues <pause dur="0.2"/> over there <pause dur="0.2"/> # there's <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> who will put his hand up <pause dur="0.5"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.6"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>sorry <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> she's recently changed her name which always confused me <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> he has a nickname <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="ss" dur="1"/> which i'm going not going to release <pause dur="0.2"/> to

you you may you may find out later <pause dur="0.5"/> and <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> the first three and <pause dur="0.2"/> and me <pause dur="0.2"/> will be <pause dur="0.4"/> most of the time in the laboratory working with you <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> # will be upstairs in the computer room <pause dur="0.3"/> where he will be offering you assistance in in working with P-Cs i'll come back to that in a moment <pause dur="0.4"/> so those are the staff the other extremely important member of staff whom i don't immediately see <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> there you are over there <pause dur="0.2"/> put your hand up <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> is the a member of the technical staff now her function is extremely important <pause dur="0.3"/> in that if equipment goes wrong or you don't have the right chemicals or something like that <pause dur="0.3"/> you go to <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> and she will always be able to sort you out she's much better at those sorts of things <pause dur="0.4"/> than the members of staff other members of staff are so <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> is the person to look after your <pause dur="0.3"/> technical problems <pause dur="0.2"/> and other problems i'm quite sure <pause dur="0.2"/> technical problems <unclear>here</unclear> <pause dur="0.9"/> right now you have in front of you been given a green folder <pause dur="0.5"/> now that green folder <pause dur="0.2"/>

contains <pause dur="1.0"/> one or two <pause dur="0.2"/> useful bits for you <pause dur="0.6"/> a floppy disk how about that <pause dur="0.6"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> a black marker pen <pause dur="0.3"/> these are things that you will be using throughout your laboratory class <pause dur="0.3"/> classes <pause dur="0.2"/> unfortunately if you lose them we shan't be giving you any others <pause dur="0.4"/> # there are other things in here <pause dur="0.4"/> # books about safety <pause dur="0.2"/> and little little # <pause dur="0.2"/> books leaflets about safety <pause dur="0.3"/> which you need to use which we'll have to use we'll talk about that again in a moment <pause dur="0.7"/> # and <pause dur="0.2"/> what else is there <pause dur="1.4"/> <unclear>hazards</unclear> related <pause dur="0.3"/> things like that <pause dur="0.7"/> little odds and ends <pause dur="0.2"/> so there's a few free free gifts that you might like <pause dur="0.2"/> not quite as grand as the free gifts you get when you open your bank account but they will be <pause dur="0.2"/> in this laboratory class perhaps more valuable <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.8"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> a daybook <pause dur="0.6"/> this is something that we talked about a little bit <pause dur="0.3"/> # when we talked to you initially with <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> you remember <pause dur="0.7"/> the purpose of a daybook <pause dur="0.6"/> is an extremely important

thing <pause dur="0.5"/> # because you <trunc>c</trunc> record in your daybook your immediate observations as you are making your observations so you're noting down data that you are generating <pause dur="0.4"/> and <trunc>i</trunc> more importantly <pause dur="0.4"/> you write down what you've actually done <pause dur="0.5"/> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> <trunc>i</trunc> in your experimental work <pause dur="0.8"/> your daybook has to be a working record <pause dur="0.2"/> of your experimental <pause dur="0.4"/> studies <pause dur="0.5"/> working record which has got to be sufficiently quality sufficiently good quality <pause dur="0.2"/> so that if i want to sit down and read it <pause dur="0.3"/> i can learn from that daybook what you have actually done <pause dur="0.6"/> now this is something that you must learn <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> our PhD stdents are obliged to do it even more so <pause dur="0.3"/> # post-doctoral research fellows as a scientist of course we all use a daybook and the daybook <pause dur="0.4"/> has to be <pause dur="0.3"/> so good that you can always know what you've actually done <pause dur="0.5"/> # and more importantly so that somebody else can know what you've actually done in the future <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so that's tremendously important <pause dur="0.3"/> it also <pause dur="0.2"/> is a check for us that you have actually attended the

class <pause dur="0.4"/> as <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> pointed out in the past some wicked people have come into the class <pause dur="0.3"/> signed on to the list <pause dur="0.3"/> and then gone <pause dur="0.2"/> and nicked the data from somebody else and written it up and got credit now that's obviously <pause dur="0.3"/> not allowed <pause dur="0.3"/> so the daybook <pause dur="0.2"/> has to be checked <pause dur="0.2"/> by a member of the staff before you leave the laboratory and signed <pause dur="0.4"/> now what i like <pause dur="0.4"/> people to do members of staff to do <pause dur="0.3"/> is actually run through the daybook what you've done <pause dur="0.4"/> and ask you <pause dur="0.2"/> # about it <pause dur="0.3"/> # and make sure that it is of a suitable standard and i prefer people not to leave the laboratory <pause dur="0.4"/> until the the staff member is satisfied that your daybook is adequate <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> if it's not adequate it won't be signed <pause dur="0.6"/> i think that's <unclear>actually</unclear> quite important <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's some # <trunc>s</trunc> something <pause dur="0.3"/> that you need to be trained in <pause dur="0.5"/> # in some <pause dur="0.2"/> laboratories particularly commercial laboratories <pause dur="0.3"/> # and particularly <pause dur="0.3"/> # laboratories in hospitals where diagnostic # work is being done <pause dur="0.3"/> the daybook <pause dur="0.5"/> takes on a particular importance for commercial

reasons <pause dur="0.4"/> or for or reasons to do with the the quality of diagnosis in the laboratory or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> so as a professional biologist you will always be using a daybook <pause dur="0.3"/> so get into the habit of using it properly now <pause dur="1.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> next point <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> that i want to talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> is the reports <pause dur="0.7"/> now i won't remind you of the biblical story about hiding your light under a bushel <pause dur="0.3"/> if you have done the most marvellous experimental work discovered the most important things in science <pause dur="0.3"/> but don't report it <pause dur="0.4"/> in a clear fashion so that other people can understand it <pause dur="0.3"/> you have been wasting your time <pause dur="0.5"/> so the importance of the report is communication <pause dur="0.5"/> if you don't write a good report you really are wasting your time <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> we <pause dur="0.2"/> want to train you again <pause dur="0.5"/> # in developing and producing a professional <pause dur="0.3"/> style <pause dur="0.5"/> report <pause dur="0.4"/> we model the laboratory reports on a scientific paper <pause dur="0.3"/> that is the way in which professional scientists report their work in the scientific literature <pause dur="0.6"/> now

this <pause dur="0.2"/> style of reporting is probably rather different from the style of writing up experiments that you've learned at school <pause dur="0.4"/> we have to <pause dur="0.4"/> encourage you <pause dur="0.3"/> to unlearn <pause dur="0.2"/> what you've learned at school <pause dur="0.3"/> and relearn <pause dur="0.3"/> what you will do <pause dur="0.2"/> as a professional biologist <pause dur="0.4"/> so i <pause dur="0.2"/> sincerely hope that you have all read <pause dur="0.3"/> what is in the manual <pause dur="0.3"/> about how to write a report <pause dur="0.3"/> and i will repeatedly over the next few weeks <pause dur="0.3"/> be <pause dur="0.2"/> alluding to how to present your data and how to write the report because it is so important <pause dur="0.3"/> it's one of those transferable skills that i referred to at the beginning <pause dur="0.6"/> so we lay out the report <pause dur="0.5"/> fairly formally <pause dur="0.4"/> # as <pause dur="0.2"/> with a starting off with a summary which is a summary of the whole of your report <pause dur="0.6"/> all of it <pause dur="1.1"/> then the introduction the importance of the introduction is to set the background to the experimental work you're going to be describing a little bit of description <pause dur="0.3"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> previously understood facts or whatever <pause dur="0.5"/> then you # <pause dur="0.2"/> bring in a section which is <pause dur="0.4"/> talking about your methodology <pause dur="0.3"/>

now in general <pause dur="0.3"/> your methodology section in these reports doesn't need to be very long <pause dur="0.3"/> because as you know <pause dur="0.3"/> the methodology is all written down in in the green manual <pause dur="0.3"/> and there's no point <vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> no point at all <pause dur="0.3"/> in your copying out chunks of the green manual <pause dur="0.2"/> into your report <pause dur="0.3"/> so don't if there is material that's in the green manual <pause dur="0.3"/> just refer to the green manual <pause dur="0.3"/> for example <pause dur="0.2"/> methods were carried out <pause dur="0.2"/> just exactly as in the manual <pause dur="0.4"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> nothing to add <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> if you do actually design <pause dur="0.3"/> a little bit of <trunc>i</trunc> # methodology yourself which you will be expected to do to do increasingly <pause dur="0.4"/> or if the methodology is varied from what's in the green book <pause dur="0.4"/> obviously you do need to point out in the in in your <pause dur="0.2"/> # report <pause dur="0.2"/> that you have changed that bit of methodology or developed that bit of <trunc>methodo</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> methodology or invented whatever that methodology <pause dur="0.6"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.5"/> the next section of your report is the one that is really vital <pause dur="0.6"/> it is <pause dur="0.3"/> results <pause dur="0.2"/> your observation <pause dur="0.3"/> what

you have discovered from the experiments you have done <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.6"/> very many <trunc>st</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> students actually <pause dur="0.3"/> tend to skimp on this section <trunc>a</trunc> and write it very briefly perhaps they just present a table of data <pause dur="0.3"/> or a diagram and say these are the results full stop <pause dur="0.4"/> that is not adequate <pause dur="0.3"/> in your results section what you have to do is say in words in good concise literate scientific English <pause dur="0.3"/> say <pause dur="0.2"/> what you have observed <pause dur="0.6"/> and you use your diagrams your figures <pause dur="0.3"/> to support and illustrate <pause dur="0.3"/> what you have said in words <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> what <pause dur="0.2"/> i am trying to put over is that your results section must be an integration <pause dur="0.4"/> of <pause dur="0.6"/> English language description of what you've done <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.6"/> diagrams and figures <pause dur="0.2"/> which support your description this is very important to work the diagrams and your text together <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> what do you report <pause dur="0.3"/> very often people say to me well you know i haven't really <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.3"/> observed very much <pause dur="0.2"/> i can't there's not much to say <pause dur="0.6"/> # in fact in all these practicals these practicals that we're

running initially <pause dur="0.4"/> are fairly simple and straightforward practicals and there's not <pause dur="0.2"/> one <pause dur="0.3"/> hell of a bundle of stuff that you can report <pause dur="0.3"/> but very often people leave out <pause dur="0.3"/> quite important little observations which actually are <pause dur="0.2"/> germane germinal whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> to to your observations to to your to your experiment <pause dur="1.1"/> and i shall bring those up as they come around can't talk about them in in advance 'cause that would of course be giving the game away <pause dur="0.7"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> your results report <pause dur="0.3"/> your observations <pause dur="0.4"/> and finally <pause dur="0.5"/> your discussions <pause dur="0.3"/> or conclusions whatever you like to call it <pause dur="0.3"/> what that section really must do <pause dur="0.2"/> is trying to draw out <pause dur="0.3"/> of your experimental work <pause dur="0.3"/> whatever new findings you have <pause dur="0.3"/> and relate them back to the background material <pause dur="0.3"/> you have presented in your introduction so that you go around the full circle <pause dur="1.2"/> now what i've been doing is really <pause dur="0.3"/> describing the ideal <pause dur="0.4"/> # and <pause dur="0.2"/> until you get a little bit more advanced as an experimental biologist <pause dur="0.4"/> # perhaps there won't be so

much to say <pause dur="0.4"/> don't worry about that but there is always something to say and that's something i shall be coming back to <pause dur="0.3"/> repeatedly <pause dur="0.4"/> so this skill <pause dur="0.5"/> of <pause dur="0.2"/> writing a scientific report <pause dur="0.3"/> is something that <pause dur="0.2"/> we hope very much will develop <pause dur="0.3"/> over the next <pause dur="0.3"/> weeks <pause dur="1.1"/> sooner the better <pause dur="0.4"/> i reckon <pause dur="1.4"/> so let me just go on <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> briefly to talk about <pause dur="0.3"/> personal computers P-Cs <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> as you have noticed <pause dur="0.7"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> excuse me <pause dur="1.2"/> around the university there are there are plenty of # I-B-M style P-Cs for your use <pause dur="0.3"/> there is in the room above this about twenty P-Cs <pause dur="0.3"/> which obviously <pause dur="0.2"/> are are for your use when <pause dur="0.2"/> when in in the laboratory <pause dur="0.3"/> and there are other rooms around the university <pause dur="0.8"/> you have to get used to using P-Cs to do your work on <pause dur="0.2"/> now <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm quite sure that nearly or most of you <pause dur="0.2"/> are already very familiar <pause dur="0.2"/> # with using I-B-M style P-Cs <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> i'm quite sure that everybody in the room <pause dur="0.3"/> let me let me just check <pause dur="0.2"/>

is there anybody that's never used <pause dur="0.2"/> a personal computer <pause dur="0.9"/> no <pause dur="0.5"/> course not <pause dur="0.9"/> are there people here who <pause dur="0.4"/> # prefer to work with Macs if so hard luck sorry <pause dur="0.6"/> 'cause you'll have to work with P-Cs 'cause that's what the university uses <pause dur="0.5"/> now <pause dur="0.4"/> most of you as i as i'm quite sure will be fairly familiar with P-Cs but there will be a few of you <pause dur="0.4"/> who are not that familiar <pause dur="0.3"/> or <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps having been brought up on Macs don't really understand P-Cs don't worry <pause dur="0.3"/> we have help in store <pause dur="0.4"/> as you know <pause dur="0.3"/> the information technology # whatever they call themselves <pause dur="0.2"/> # unit <pause dur="0.3"/> down the road there <pause dur="0.3"/> publish <pause dur="0.4"/> useful <pause dur="0.3"/> guidebooks <pause dur="0.4"/> # to the <pause dur="0.3"/> to the software that we have <pause dur="0.4"/> but more immediately <pause dur="0.4"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> the one member <pause dur="0.4"/> who is not going to be in the lab <pause dur="1.2"/> will be the guy <pause dur="0.2"/> who's going to be in the P-C room upstairs <pause dur="0.3"/> waiting for people to come along asking for help <pause dur="0.5"/> he is <pause dur="0.3"/> an expert <pause dur="0.4"/> he knows everything there is to be known about Microsoft and P-Cs and things like that <pause dur="0.4"/> so if you are uncertain how to use Excel to

draw diagrams uncertain how to use <pause dur="0.4"/> the World Wide Web <pause dur="0.3"/> to get useful scientific information or anything like that <pause dur="0.3"/> go and talk to <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> in the P-C room <pause dur="0.3"/> he'll be there basically from eleven o'clock to three o'clock <pause dur="0.2"/> with a lunch break <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="1.6"/> now <pause dur="1.2"/> next <pause dur="0.7"/> point <pause dur="0.5"/> extremely <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> important point that i want to make <pause dur="0.3"/> is this issue of safety <pause dur="0.6"/> # as <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> pointed out when we talked previously <pause dur="0.4"/> we haven't yet lost permanently <pause dur="0.2"/> an undergraduate through an accident in the laboratory <pause dur="0.3"/> and we never want that to happen obviously <pause dur="0.3"/> there have been occasions where people have been injured <pause dur="0.3"/> and have been hurt quite badly <pause dur="0.3"/> # so <pause dur="0.3"/> we have to be sure <pause dur="0.2"/> have to be very careful <pause dur="0.3"/> # that you are aware of <trunc>s</trunc> <trunc>ri</trunc> safety hazards risks in the laboratory <pause dur="1.2"/> now i do actually <pause dur="0.3"/> formally <pause dur="0.3"/> have to <pause dur="0.3"/> ask you <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.6"/> well <pause dur="0.9"/> let me go through in order i've got a number of points written down <pause dur="0.3"/> there is one absolute rule for insurance reasons <pause dur="0.3"/>

if there is no staff member in the laboratory <pause dur="0.3"/> you should not be here <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> because we have to supervise you and if there's no supervision <pause dur="0.4"/> the university's insurance policy is void <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> look out for somebody <pause dur="0.3"/> can be somebody in the prep room but always check <pause dur="0.7"/> that there is somebody to supervise you <pause dur="0.6"/> the next thing <pause dur="0.2"/> i have to ask you to do <pause dur="0.3"/> is to fill out <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="holds up leaflet" iterated="n"/> sorry <pause dur="0.2"/> is to read <pause dur="0.6"/> this little <pause dur="0.4"/> safety leaflet Health and Safety in Laboratories Instructions for Undergraduates <pause dur="0.5"/> you must read this <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> towards the back or the back page not quite sure <pause dur="0.3"/> there is a declaration <pause dur="1.3"/> i have read it <pause dur="0.2"/> signed <pause dur="0.3"/> okay you tear this thing off the end <pause dur="0.3"/> and put it in a basket at the back there <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> is the basket's ready <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nf0254" trans="overlap"> and # <pause dur="0.2"/> to write them in capital letters on the <unclear>front</unclear> </u><u who="nm0253" trans="overlap"> write your name in capital letters <pause dur="0.3"/> a squiggle a scrawl <pause dur="0.3"/> that's incomprehensible <pause dur="0.2"/> causes us all sorts of problems <pause dur="0.3"/> 'cause we have to check against the list of names that everybody <pause dur="0.3"/> has

actually signed this <pause dur="0.2"/> so sign it but also put your name in capitals please <pause dur="0.4"/> now if we don't have these declarations back <pause dur="0.5"/> # within a very short time <pause dur="0.2"/> we will be chasing you <pause dur="0.4"/> # and maybe even exclude you from the laboratory because this is an essential <pause dur="0.2"/> essential thing that you simply must do <pause dur="1.8"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> few points that i have to do a little bit like the <pause dur="0.4"/> # air hostess <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates fire exit" iterated="n"/> down there you have a fire exit <pause dur="0.7"/> down there <kinesic desc="indicates fire exit" iterated="n"/> you have a fire exit <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="indicates fire exit" iterated="n"/> down there you have a fire exit every public room has to have at least three fire exits and there they are <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> so if there's a fire alarm sounds as there was yesterday at half past three <pause dur="0.3"/> well then those are the ways out <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <pause dur="1.4"/> fire extinguishers are also located and fire is there a fire blanket <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> is there a fire blanket in the place </u><u who="nf0254" trans="overlap"> there's no fire blanket </u><u who="nm0253" trans="overlap"> there's no fire blanket <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> # but there are fire extinguishers and they <pause dur="0.2"/> likewise are located by the doors so just <pause dur="0.4"/> be aware that those things are available <pause dur="0.3"/> of course as you

know if a fire starts in the laboratory <pause dur="0.3"/> # you <trunc>evac</trunc> we evacuate the laboratory <pause dur="0.3"/> and we only <pause dur="0.8"/> fight the fire if that is <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> doesn't risk our safety <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> i need i have to tell you that <pause dur="0.9"/> be absolutely clear that you understand these issues <pause dur="1.7"/> now <pause dur="0.8"/> you wash yourselves on the way out that's a standard safety regulation <pause dur="0.5"/> so that you aren't <pause dur="0.2"/> carrying contamination on your hands <pause dur="0.4"/> if by accident you get something in your eye there is an eyewash <pause dur="0.3"/> down there <pause dur="0.3"/> okay by the <pause dur="0.3"/> handwash so <pause dur="0.4"/> anything in your eye <pause dur="0.3"/> go down there and <pause dur="0.2"/> wash out your eye and you obviously a member of staff will be <pause dur="0.4"/> on top of you very quickly to help you <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> i should say <pause dur="0.5"/> that you should treat all chemicals as dangerous within reason <trunc>o</trunc> obviously not H-two-O i mean don't worry too much about that but concentrated H-C-L <pause dur="0.6"/> # and other suchlike chemicals <pause dur="0.2"/> you should treat <pause dur="0.2"/> with respect <pause dur="0.2"/> you know that from school i'm quite sure <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> you should <pause dur="0.4"/> treat <pause dur="0.4"/> all micro-organisms that we use in the laboratory <pause dur="0.2"/> as potential pathogens now we

do not give you pathogenic micro-organisms to work with should we be so foolish no we'd lose all our undergraduates wouldn't we <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>path</trunc> <trunc>mi</trunc> micro-organisms we give you to work with <pause dur="0.4"/> are are not pathogenic <pause dur="0.3"/> but we want to train you in the handling <pause dur="0.4"/> of pathogenic organisms <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="0.4"/> if you're asked to work with <pause dur="0.4"/> # what is it <pause dur="0.6"/> that yeast whose name always escapes me saccharomyces <pause dur="0.5"/> it's not cerevisiae is it it's carlsbergensis that's right <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> if you're asked to work with that yeast it is completely harmless you can make bread with it if you really want to <pause dur="0.4"/> # but you should treat it <pause dur="0.3"/> # as <pause dur="0.2"/> a potential pathogen and handle it as such <pause dur="0.2"/> this is part of your training <pause dur="1.7"/> right <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm <pause dur="0.4"/> coming <pause dur="0.4"/> to an end now all these things you will immediately forget i'm quite sure but you will be reminded don't worry <pause dur="1.2"/> so i'm coming <unclear>close again</unclear> and <kinesic desc="indicates board" iterated="n"/> there are these headers here <pause dur="0.6"/> # the lab routines <pause dur="1.7"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> you will find usually <pause dur="0.7"/> the # necessary equipment and <trunc>men</trunc> sometimes the chemicals that you need to work with on the bench in front of you <pause dur="1.8"/>

additional materials are over there <pause dur="0.4"/> sometimes over here <pause dur="0.4"/> so if you want need to get any additional materials you go <trunc>o</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> go and get them bring them to your bench <pause dur="0.9"/> when you finish for the day <pause dur="0.2"/> you leave the lab clean and tidy or at least as clean and tidy as you possibly can <pause dur="0.3"/> so that means <pause dur="0.3"/> get rid of <pause dur="0.2"/> glassware that you've used there is always going to be # <pause dur="0.2"/> bins for glassware over there <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates bins" iterated="n"/> yes <pause dur="0.3"/> # we will tell you in more detail as we go around what to do with glassware <pause dur="0.3"/> but basically everything you've used must be put back <pause dur="0.6"/> # everything that you use <pause dur="0.5"/> sorry well <pause dur="0.2"/> rephrase that <pause dur="0.3"/> everything that is <pause dur="0.3"/> reusable should be back <pause dur="0.2"/> put back where you got it <pause dur="0.4"/> # like pipette holders or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> everything that needs to be washed <pause dur="0.3"/> needs to go into one of the bins <pause dur="0.5"/> to be taken away and washed for you <pause dur="0.2"/> so leave your bench clean and tidy turn off anything electrical <pause dur="0.5"/> make sure that you don't leave any spillages on the bench and that sort of thing <pause dur="0.4"/> okay just as though you were working in your kitchen

at home or whatever leave it <pause dur="0.4"/> in a decent state <pause dur="2.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="clears throat" iterated="n"/> now that's actually a lot of information <pause dur="0.5"/> that i've given in a short time <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> <trunc>s</trunc> a lot of these points i shall be coming back to later <pause dur="0.3"/> # there will be specific <pause dur="0.2"/> # points made about specific safety hazards for example <pause dur="0.4"/> # and i shall be talking again about reports <pause dur="0.4"/> so perhaps <pause dur="0.2"/> that you <pause dur="0.3"/> have not memorized everything i've said is not <pause dur="0.5"/> # a terrible bad thing but i hope i've given you some sort of introduction and an <trunc>st</trunc> understanding about how we run these courses <pause dur="0.5"/> this course <pause dur="0.8"/> # now <pause dur="0.3"/> let me <pause dur="0.4"/> are there any questions i know there are questions there always are questions but this is a slightly forbidding environment <pause dur="0.5"/> for asking questions <pause dur="0.6"/> # if there are things that are <pause dur="0.3"/> gentleman over there <kinesic desc="indicates member of audience" iterated="n"/> </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm0255" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.2"/> do we # get a break <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm0253" trans="overlap"> do you get a break <pause dur="1.1"/> you get a break yes i don't <pause dur="0.2"/> # not really <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="1.1"/> what we do i

generally run the laboratory straight through i <pause dur="0.2"/> unless there's a special reason i don't close the laboratory at lunchtime <pause dur="0.4"/> so you take <pause dur="0.5"/> breaks <pause dur="0.2"/> for lunch or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> comfort breaks <pause dur="0.3"/> as necessary <pause dur="0.2"/> through the day <pause dur="0.4"/> yeah there is no specific time <pause dur="0.3"/> so the laboratory starts <pause dur="0.3"/> # at eleven-fifteenish or eleven-thirty by the time i finish talking <pause dur="0.3"/> and goes through until you finish <pause dur="0.4"/> # obviously if you need to go out for a particular reasons then you do so this is not a prison <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="1.0"/> any others <pause dur="2.1"/> ah <pause dur="0.2"/> yes <kinesic desc="indicates member of audience" iterated="n"/> </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf0256" trans="pause"> do we <pause dur="0.5"/> when we work with our partners and things do we both have to record <pause dur="0.5"/> results in our daybooks </u><u who="nm0253" trans="overlap"> oh yes indeed </u><u who="nm0257" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> the question <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nm0253" trans="overlap"> the question was <pause dur="0.3"/> when we're working in a as in a partnership of two <pause dur="0.3"/> should both partners record the information in their daybooks <pause dur="0.2"/> of course you should <pause dur="0.3"/> # these are your your own workbooks your own <pause dur="0.4"/>

# independent records of what you've done <pause dur="0.6"/> # inevitably there's boxing and coxing <pause dur="0.2"/> and one person will perhaps be actually doing the # the experimentation and the other person is taking notes <pause dur="0.3"/> and then you swap <trunc>y</trunc> or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> # and you transfer the the notes <pause dur="0.2"/> between the two of you obviously <pause dur="0.2"/> you develop a working partnership <pause dur="0.4"/> but everybody <pause dur="0.2"/> has to have <pause dur="0.2"/> their own daybook properly completed <pause dur="0.5"/> and signed by the end of the day <pause dur="1.1"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> and i know <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> talked about working in pairs the other day so i'm not going to # go over that again <pause dur="0.4"/> # except to say that <pause dur="0.4"/> i hope you have found yourself partnerships <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> if there's rearrangement that's fine if you want to move around a bit that's fine <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> get to make sure you get with somebody that you can work with <pause dur="0.3"/> but once <pause dur="0.2"/> that partnership is established it has to stay put <pause dur="0.9"/> really <pause dur="1.5"/> more questions <pause dur="0.4"/> we will be walking around <pause dur="0.2"/> all day <pause dur="0.4"/> so questions that arise <pause dur="0.4"/> during the day <pause dur="0.4"/> we will answer individually

obviously <pause dur="1.4"/> okay <pause dur="3.1"/> good <pause dur="0.2"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> today's <pause dur="0.2"/> little bit of work <pause dur="0.4"/> i assume everybody's read <pause dur="0.2"/> the <pause dur="0.3"/> manual <pause dur="0.4"/> # and and everybody will have noticed that it's a fairly straightforward experiment <pause dur="0.4"/> # basically it's a titration of an acid against a base <pause dur="0.3"/> in which you <pause dur="0.4"/> examine <pause dur="0.2"/> the way P-H changes when you do that titration <pause dur="0.6"/> you can draw a number of interesting and useful conclusions about biology from these very simple <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>expe</trunc> this very simple <pause dur="0.2"/> exercise <pause dur="0.4"/> # in P-H <pause dur="0.3"/> metering <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> it is <pause dur="0.6"/> deliberately made simple because this is your first day in the laboratory we wouldn't ask you to be doing difficult things because <pause dur="0.4"/> # it it it simply wouldn't work <pause dur="0.4"/> so it's a simple experiment <pause dur="0.3"/> it is not a negligible experiment though there are things which you do need to record properly <pause dur="1.8"/> one thing i <pause dur="0.2"/> have <pause dur="0.4"/> to confess to is that we never have enough apparatus <pause dur="0.6"/> # in particular <pause dur="0.5"/> # we have <pause dur="0.4"/> insufficient P-H meters to give every pair a P-H meter now there are eighty-odd

students here <pause dur="0.3"/> forty pairs we have twenty-something P-H meters <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm sorry about that <pause dur="0.3"/> # the university just couldn't <pause dur="0.3"/> would not countenance <pause dur="0.4"/> # buying forty P-H meters to be used on two two days in the year <pause dur="0.9"/> now this is a problem which scientists all the time are facing they never have enough equipment enough apparatus they never have the most recent piece <pause dur="0.8"/> they always have to go and cadge borrow and share <pause dur="0.7"/> and so that's <pause dur="0.5"/> an important principle that you're <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>going <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/>to learn <pause dur="0.4"/> is that you're going to have to <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> share apparatus with other people share equipment particularly P-H meters today <pause dur="0.4"/> so what you will find is that the quick ones will have grabbed the P-H meters <pause dur="0.3"/> the slow ones <pause dur="0.3"/> will be without P-H meters <pause dur="0.7"/> don't despair be patient <pause dur="0.2"/> there are always other things that you can be doing <pause dur="0.2"/> whilst waiting for the P-H meter to become available <pause dur="0.3"/> there are solutions to make up <pause dur="0.4"/> there are daybooks to write up <pause dur="0.6"/> there will be in following weeks <pause dur="0.2"/> # your reports to discuss with

the staff i forgot to say the staff will <pause dur="0.3"/> # read through your reports <pause dur="0.3"/> annotate them <pause dur="0.2"/> and discuss with them we with <pause dur="0.4"/> discuss them with you as necessary the following week <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="1.0"/> ah <pause dur="0.3"/> the other thing i've forgotten to say <pause dur="0.3"/> is handing in of reports <pause dur="0.3"/> there are baskets at the back there <pause dur="0.6"/> # and today's class that is the Thursday class <pause dur="0.3"/> has to hand in their report <pause dur="0.4"/> thank you <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates basket" iterated="n"/> basket's at the back there <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> the Thursday class has to hand in their report <pause dur="0.3"/> by noon the following Tuesday <pause dur="0.6"/> now <pause dur="0.2"/> these reports aren't yet being assessed <pause dur="0.2"/> so you lose no credit if you don't give them in <pause dur="0.3"/> but what you will lose <pause dur="0.3"/> is the staff member's criticism of your report discussion of your report <pause dur="0.2"/> so get them there by midday on Tuesday <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> and when they're assessed <pause dur="0.3"/> as you probably know <pause dur="0.2"/> if you're late you will be penalized <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.8"/> that's <pause dur="0.7"/> an aside which has made me forget what i was saying <pause dur="0.2"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> waiting for equipment <pause dur="0.2"/> # there are always other things you

can do <pause dur="0.7"/> whilst waiting for equipment to become available go and have lunch say <pause dur="1.3"/> nearly lunchtime already isn't it <pause dur="0.6"/> or go up to the P-C room <pause dur="0.4"/> and familiarize yourself with the P-Cs or look at your e-mail or whatever <pause dur="0.3"/> so although <pause dur="0.3"/> you might feel a bit cross that you can't immediately get hold of a P-H meter <pause dur="0.4"/> do not think oh gosh <pause dur="0.3"/> it's a waste of time <pause dur="0.3"/> you must be <pause dur="0.2"/> using your time <pause dur="0.2"/> planning your time through the day and again that's a thing you have to learn <pause dur="0.5"/> when you can't have what you want immediately well then you have to find <pause dur="0.4"/> other ways of using your time profitably <pause dur="0.7"/> something that takes some people decades to learn i'm not sure that i've learned it yet but i'm trying <pause dur="1.3"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> now what i've got to do now <pause dur="0.5"/> # is divide you up into sort of ad hoc groups <pause dur="0.3"/> so that the staff members can <pause dur="0.3"/> gather you together <pause dur="0.4"/> in order to talk about today's class <pause dur="0.4"/> what we're actually doing <pause dur="0.7"/> # what i've always done is walked around <pause dur="0.3"/> the room <pause dur="0.4"/> counting off <pause dur="0.9"/> students and saying this is group A this is

group B this is group C and this is group D <pause dur="0.6"/> and then <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> will take group A <pause dur="1.1"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> will take group B <pause dur="0.8"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> will take group C <pause dur="0.7"/> and i'll have group <pause dur="0.5"/> D yes that's yeah <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><pause dur="0.7"/> so that's what i'm going to do now <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> when we move from these introductory classes to the subsequent classes <pause dur="0.3"/> we will reform those groups for <pause dur="0.3"/> for for <pause dur="0.2"/> for reasons again to do with the structure of the of the starting <pause dur="0.3"/> of the classes <pause dur="0.3"/> but these are ad hoc groups # # and will not be permanent <pause dur="0.4"/> so that's what i have to do now is walk around <pause dur="0.3"/> counting you off <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="0.5"/> so i'll start off with <pause dur="1.4"/> do any of my <pause dur="0.4"/> colleagues have anything they need they feel i've left out <pause dur="0.2"/> that i need to add <pause dur="0.5"/> no <pause dur="1.3"/> okay <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> are you happy with everything i've said </u><u who="nf0254" trans="latching"> yes </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nm0253" trans="pause"> good okay so i'll walk around <pause dur="1.0"/> this is group A <pause dur="0.3"/> so <kinesic desc="indicates and counts students" iterated="y" dur="17"/> one <pause dur="0.2"/> two <pause dur="0.6"/> three four <pause dur="1.3"/> five six seven <pause dur="0.3"/> eight nine <pause dur="2.5"/> ten <pause dur="0.2"/> eleven <pause dur="0.6"/> twelve thirteen fourteen <pause dur="0.3"/> fifteen sixteen <pause dur="2.1"/> seventeen eighteen that's a bit awkward 'cause it overflows the bench <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="indicates group" iterated="n"/>

so that's group A <pause dur="0.7"/> okay with <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> </u><u who="nm0257" trans="overlap"> so you're with me </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm0258" trans="pause"> yes </u><u who="nm0253" trans="latching"> right <pause dur="0.2"/> now we go on to group B <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="indicates and counts students" iterated="y" dur="16"/> one <pause dur="0.3"/> two <pause dur="1.0"/> three four <pause dur="0.2"/> five six <pause dur="3.0"/> seven eight <pause dur="0.3"/> nine ten <pause dur="0.3"/> eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen <pause dur="0.4"/> sixteen seventeen <pause dur="0.9"/> eighteen nineteen <pause dur="1.1"/> this is where my arithmetic starts to break down i'm afraid so <pause dur="0.5"/> so if anybody can help me i'm <pause dur="0.2"/> very glad <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="sm0259" trans="overlap"> keep going </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nm0253" trans="pause"><kinesic desc="indicates and counts students" iterated="y" dur="11"/> one <pause dur="0.2"/> two <pause dur="0.6"/> three <pause dur="0.2"/> four <pause dur="3.6"/> five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve <pause dur="0.2"/> thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> and then <kinesic desc="indicates group" iterated="n"/> that's group D <pause dur="2.0"/> so what i want to do now what i want you to do rather <pause dur="0.6"/> is to <pause dur="0.4"/> sort of get into a huddle perhaps <pause dur="0.2"/> group A at that end group B at that end <pause dur="0.3"/> group C at that end <pause dur="0.3"/> and group D at that end <pause dur="0.2"/> so the staff members can get with you <pause dur="0.7"/> talk you through <pause dur="0.5"/> what you're doing today and answering your questions