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sslct003

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<title>Applied Linguistics and Language teaching</title></titleStmt>

<publicationStmt><distributor>BASE and Oxford Text Archive</distributor>

<idno>sslct003</idno>

<availability><p>The British Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading, under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Centre for English Language Teacher Education, Warwick) and Paul Thompson

(Department of Applied Linguistics, Reading), with funding from BALEAP,

EURALEX, the British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. The

original recordings are held at the Universities of Warwick and Reading, and

at the Oxford Text Archive and may be consulted by bona fide researchers

upon written application to any of the holding bodies.

The BASE corpus is freely available to researchers who agree to the

following conditions:</p>

<p>1. The recordings and transcriptions should not be modified in any

way</p>

<p>2. The recordings and transcriptions should be used for research purposes

only; they should not be reproduced in teaching materials</p>

<p>3. The recordings and transcriptions should not be reproduced in full for

a wider audience/readership, although researchers are free to quote short

passages of text (up to 200 running words from any given speech event)</p>

<p>4. The corpus developers should be informed of all presentations or

publications arising from analysis of the corpus</p><p>

Researchers should acknowledge their use of the corpus using the following

form of words:

The recordings and transcriptions used in this study come from the British

Academic Spoken English (BASE) corpus, which was developed at the

Universities of Warwick and Reading under the directorship of Hilary Nesi

(Warwick) and Paul Thompson (Reading). Corpus development was assisted by

funding from the Universities of Warwick and Reading, BALEAP, EURALEX, the

British Academy and the Arts and Humanities Research Board. </p></availability>

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<recording dur="01:38:47" n="13639">

<date>23/02/2000</date><equipment><p>audio</p></equipment>

<respStmt><name>BASE team</name>

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<language id="de">German</language>

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<item n="speechevent">Lecture</item>

<item n="acaddept">Applied Linguistics</item>

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<u who="nf0988"> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> i'm the <pause dur="0.4"/> third of the gang of four <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.8"/> and i'd like you please just <pause dur="0.9"/> <trunc>a</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> as we begin <pause dur="0.5"/> to look at these <pause dur="0.6"/> warm up questions <pause dur="0.2"/> i should just say before we start # i'm not being recorded because the B-B-C has heard about me and is desperate to get their hands on me <pause dur="0.4"/> i'm being recorded because this is part of a language teaching project that CALS is doing <pause dur="0.3"/> to record authentic lectures for use <pause dur="0.3"/> with presessional students before they start on courses at the university <pause dur="0.4"/> and also to provide a database <pause dur="0.3"/> of authentic language <pause dur="0.2"/> and i think those are two things that show the directions in which modern language teaching is going <pause dur="0.4"/> that people are now no longer interested in native speaker intuitions <pause dur="0.2"/> about what goes on <pause dur="0.3"/> # in the real <trunc>d</trunc> language context we're now actually interested in what people do <pause dur="0.3"/> and we want to give our learners access to what people actually do <pause dur="0.3"/> not what linguists think they do <pause dur="0.2"/> or native speakers intuit they do <pause dur="0.3"/> and i think it's a very good example

of # <pause dur="0.3"/> practice <pause dur="0.3"/> in our field <pause dur="0.2"/> okay warm up questions i'm going to give you a couple of minutes just to think about <pause dur="0.4"/> how were you taught foreign languages at school <pause dur="0.3"/> you don't have to use any of the <pause dur="0.4"/> # descriptions of methodology that were provided by <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> in session one <pause dur="0.2"/> just think about how you were taught foreign languages at school <pause dur="0.3"/> what kind of activities <pause dur="0.4"/> did you do in class <pause dur="1.0"/> a very important question who did most of the talking <pause dur="0.9"/> and what was the attitude to errors i'm going to give you five minutes to just sort of note down <pause dur="0.3"/> your answers to those questions please don't spend the time copying the questions down i'd rather you # <pause dur="0.4"/> you answer them </u><pause dur="1:09.9"/><event desc="student enters room" iterated="n" n="su1084"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="6" n="nf0988"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay if you've just come in we're looking at these questions <pause dur="0.58"/> noting down couple of points <pause dur="1.0"/> about your own experiences learning languages <pause dur="1.31"/> being taught <pause dur="0.6"/> languages </u> <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="33 secs"/> <event desc="discussing questions" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="2:46"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> do talk to your partner if you've <pause dur="0.23"/> had enough time to think of it on your own <pause dur="1.4"/> your neighbour <pause dur="11.0"/> are you

having problem identifying a language </u><u who="sf0989" trans="overlap"> no no </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> or are you just thinking generically </u><u who="sf0989" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> that's <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="0.27"/> that's meaningful <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> </u><pause dur="17.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> where are you from you're from Germany aren't you and you're from Greece okay so maybe we'll have different <pause dur="0.5"/> experiences there come on share your experiences </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> you're both British aren't you </u><u who="sm0990" trans="latching"> yes </u><u who="sf0991" trans="overlap"> yes </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes okay so let's see what the British # <pause dur="0.3"/> perspective on this is </u><pause dur="12.8"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> are you both British </u><u who="sf0992" trans="overlap"> no</u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> no where are you from </u><u who="sf0992" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> right <pause dur="0.13"/> you're British oh you're Australian oh okay right okay so you did <pause dur="0.4"/> Bahasa Indonesian did you or did you do French </u><u who="sf0992" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="sf0992" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yeah <pause dur="0.5"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> right okay <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> okay so <pause dur="0.9"/> similar or different <pause dur="0.3"/> your experiences of <pause dur="0.3"/> as learning languages <pause dur="0.4"/> have you # has it come back </u><u who="sf0993" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="nf0988" dur="1"/></u> <pause dur="38.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause">

okay just as # <pause dur="0.9"/> some of you have started speaking i'm going to stop you <pause dur="0.8"/> that's a well known communicative device <vocal desc="laugh" n="sm0994" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> let's see what we've got okay anybody like to kick off we had one comment which is i can't remember <pause dur="0.4"/> which i think is # perhaps symptomatic of a lot of modern language teaching around the world <pause dur="0.5"/> how would anybody like to kick off how were you taught <pause dur="0.9"/> let's have somebody from Germany <pause dur="0.4"/> i know we've some Germans here how were you taught <pause dur="0.6"/> foreign languages at school <pause dur="2.3"/> you're not representative of the whole country it's all right you can just talk for yourself <pause dur="1.1"/><vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> how were you taught </u><pause dur="2.1"/> <u who="sf0995" trans="pause"> well personally # a set of grammar rules was introduced # <pause dur="0.38"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="7"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> exercises to do <gap reason="inaudible" extent="3 secs"/> </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay </u><u who="sf0995" trans="overlap"> this attitude of like test against <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right grammar rules and exercises we have <pause dur="0.3"/> a Greek representative <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm sorry i know you so it's unfortunate </u><u who="sf0996" trans="overlap"> # <pause dur="0.7"/> yes <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> okay <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> how were you taught </u>

<u who="sf0996" trans="overlap"> # <pause dur="0.4"/> i <pause dur="0.2"/> wanted to say about the <pause dur="0.3"/> # the teachers using the L-one <pause dur="0.2"/> language </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> all the time </u><u who="sf0996" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> all the time and in the beginning <pause dur="0.3"/> but then as <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="7"/> you get a lot more advanced we're using <pause dur="0.4"/> # mostly the L-two </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> ah okay that's the one of the points that <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> made that sometimes actually when we were looking at the Bahasa Indonesia class it's easier to use the target language at the beginning stages <pause dur="0.3"/> but later <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> to <pause dur="0.4"/> L-one explanation <pause dur="0.6"/> was it explanation or discussion </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf0996" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.5"/> explanation </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> # <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="2.5"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> okay </u><u who="sm0997" trans="latching"> okay</u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> anybody <trunc>actu</trunc> can we have a British person who'd like to # <pause dur="0.2"/> admit to being taught foreign languages </u><pause dur="1.8"/> <u who="sf0998" trans="pause"> the other way round 'cause </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sf0998" trans="overlap"> # G-C-S-E learn this # <pause dur="0.3"/> this is for German teaching </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right </u><u who="sf0998" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="8 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right so for some people it was the other way round <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> vice versa <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/> anybody

<trunc>e</trunc> yeah </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf0999" trans="pause"> yeah i learned <pause dur="0.3"/> French but it was actually when i moved to France in a British school </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm </u><u who="sf0999" trans="overlap"> so it's a little bit different and i remember the first classes it was very much it was all in the # target language <pause dur="0.4"/> and things like nursery rhymes stories <pause dur="0.5"/> of that culture <pause dur="0.7"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="10"/> so it was very much <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> almost immersion <pause dur="0.2"/> and then later on <pause dur="0.23"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> the textbooks and <pause dur="0.5"/> deal with all the grammar and stuff like that </u><pause dur="1.1"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so a different approach there yeah </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1000" trans="pause"> i did </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> Australia comes to Britain yes </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="sf1000" trans="pause"> i did two series of Latin <pause dur="1.1"/> and # <pause dur="0.2"/> that was <pause dur="0.7"/> entirely <pause dur="0.3"/> grammar translation point of view because basically <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="7"/><gap reason="inaudible" extent="4 secs"/></u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right yes there's a very good reason for that of course <pause dur="0.7"/> it's very difficult to find Romans <pause dur="0.3"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="2"/> to talk to in Latin but okay so grammar translation <pause dur="0.3"/> perhaps if we move on <pause dur="0.2"/> we'll <pause dur="0.5"/> unpack that a little bit more <pause dur="0.2"/> because the next question actually i think is quite indicative of of the methodology <pause dur="0.2"/> what kind of activities <pause dur="0.3"/> did you do in

class <pause dur="0.8"/> what kind of activities one of our Chinese colleagues what kind of activities did you do in class when you were learning English </u><pause dur="1.8"/> <u who="sf1001" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.2"/> when # i learned English about twenty-six years <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> ago <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="sf1001" trans="overlap"> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.4"/> can't remember that <pause dur="0.5"/> # kinds of activities # and group work <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="19"/> <pause dur="1.7"/> and pair work <pause dur="0.8"/> # pair work i mean pairs <pause dur="0.9"/> and # picture talking </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay <pause dur="1.4"/> picture </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1001" trans="pause"> talking </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> talking </u><u who="sf1001" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right okay so describing </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1001" trans="pause"> and the role plays </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> role play <pause dur="1.9"/> okay and of course we've got the grammar exercises <pause dur="0.2"/> lurking up the top anybody want to add anything to that any other kinds of activities yes </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1002" trans="pause"> we did a lot of singing </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1003" trans="pause"> yes </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right <pause dur="2.2"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> okay yes the # <pause dur="0.9"/> Beatles approach to language learning where would we be without the Beatles yes </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sf1004" trans="pause"> # # reading comprehensions <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="3"/> # listening </u><pause dur="1.5"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> reading comprehension <pause dur="0.2"/> listening <pause dur="0.4"/> activities <pause dur="0.3"/> yeah <pause dur="0.9"/> who did most of the talking </u><pause dur="1.0"/>

<u who="sf1005" trans="pause"> student </u><u who="sf1006" trans="overlap"> teacher</u><u who="sf1007" trans="overlap"> teacher </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> okay put your hand up if you feel the teacher <pause dur="0.2"/> did most of the talking </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1008" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="2"/> depends on the level </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> yes okay beginners' level </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="sf1008" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> intermediate level </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="sf1008" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> advanced level </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1008" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> is that because nobody got to advanced level or it because <vocal desc="laughter" n="sl" iterated="y" dur="1"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> okay so the teacher but it does <pause dur="0.2"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="9"/> depends on level <pause dur="1.5"/> so more <pause dur="1.2"/> at <pause dur="0.7"/> lower <pause dur="0.6"/> levels <pause dur="1.0"/> was there anybody who was taught in a class where the students did most of the talking <pause dur="3.6"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> and what was the attitude to errors <pause dur="0.8"/> what was the attitude to errors were they seen as <pause dur="0.3"/> helpful <pause dur="2.0"/> or problematic </u><pause dur="2.2"/> <u who="sf1008" trans="pause"> again it depended on the level at G-C-S-E level <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="12"/><gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> it was basically pronunciation errors were <pause dur="0.4"/> # corrected <pause dur="0.5"/> but <trunc>ba</trunc> and basic grammar <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> at A-level <pause dur="0.2"/> the whole lot was corrected </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay so sometimes something to be

corrected <pause dur="0.6"/> and again the amount depended on the level anybody else with a different approach to errors in their educational background <pause dur="3.7"/> was every error corrected or just some </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1009" trans="pause"> just the ones that kept <trunc>cro</trunc> cropping up <pause dur="0.3"/> that were really <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> so common <pause dur="1.0"/> errors <pause dur="0.8"/> corrected <pause dur="0.3"/> did anybody experience all errors corrected <pause dur="1.6"/> two <pause dur="1.0"/> okay common errors corrected <pause dur="0.2"/> down to all <pause dur="0.6"/> errors <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> corrected <pause dur="1.1"/> so we've got a <pause dur="0.4"/> a cline <pause dur="0.8"/> variety <pause dur="1.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> i think what we've got here is actually quite a good picture <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.8"/> how people in the past and perhaps still today are being taught modern <trunc>la</trunc> modern foreign languages <pause dur="0.2"/> think Latin is a little bit different but still <pause dur="1.6"/> attitude to the target language which <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> has talked about <pause dur="0.2"/> attitude to <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> grammar <pause dur="0.2"/> still there very much for most people <pause dur="0.2"/> the kinds of activities that people are doing in the language classroom <pause dur="2.4"/> grammar exercises but yes lots more talking <pause dur="0.5"/> and authentic <pause dur="0.4"/>

activities presumably these were genuine authentic songs <pause dur="0.5"/> but the talking <pause dur="0.2"/> very often the teacher doing too much of it <pause dur="0.7"/> or at least a lot of it you can tell my prejudice there <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> doing a lot of the talking especially at the lower levels <pause dur="1.2"/> and the attitude to error <pause dur="0.5"/> ranging hugely from <pause dur="0.2"/> common <trunc>err</trunc> did anybody learn in an environment where errors were not corrected at all <pause dur="2.5"/> okay so everybody experienced some errors corrected <pause dur="0.2"/> ranging from common errors <pause dur="0.2"/> to all errors corrected <pause dur="1.2"/> this week and next week we're going to look <pause dur="0.3"/> with me at language learning and how it's moved on how we've got from <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> books like this <pause dur="0.4"/> in nineteen-<pause dur="0.3"/>fifty-nine <pause dur="0.4"/> <trunc>i</trunc> please don't copy it down <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> An Intermediate Course <pause dur="0.2"/> for Adult Learners of English <pause dur="0.2"/> which <pause dur="0.2"/> would probably be familiar to the people who <pause dur="0.2"/> had a more grammatical <pause dur="0.2"/> approach to language <pause dur="0.5"/> teaching in their lives <pause dur="0.2"/> above below preposition <reading>above is contrasted with below just as over is contrasted with under <pause dur="0.2"/> in some cases over may be used in place of above

and under may be used in place of below</reading> <pause dur="0.5"/> and the book looks like that <pause dur="3.1"/> and if you gave that to a modern language learner today <pause dur="0.2"/> they'd be out of your classroom like a shot <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> that was what worked then <pause dur="1.1"/> moving on from that <pause dur="0.8"/> to <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="5"/> little book like this <pause dur="0.3"/> nineteen-seventy-two <pause dur="1.0"/> which had <pause dur="1.0"/> i'll read you out the <trunc>conte</trunc> some of the contents here <pause dur="1.4"/> <trunc>cont</trunc> it's called situational dialogues <pause dur="0.4"/> and the topics were things like transport <pause dur="0.2"/> communication <pause dur="0.3"/> health <pause dur="0.5"/> greetings <pause dur="0.5"/> in town <pause dur="0.5"/> and in town you were at a hotel finding a room making an appointment finding a job <pause dur="2.9"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="4"/> at the post office here's a little extract <pause dur="1.9"/> giving you gripping details about what you can buy at post offices <pause dur="0.2"/> and giving you <pause dur="0.2"/> little dialogues to practise and drill <pause dur="0.2"/> <reading>what's the postage on these letters to Thailand please i'll have to check <pause dur="0.7"/> do you need anything else yes a three P stamp</reading> these were the <trunc>d</trunc> the good old days <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="2"/><pause dur="0.2"/> that'll be eight <pause dur="0.4"/> eighty-five P in all very sweet <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> so and drills

labelled as such so still <pause dur="0.5"/> behaviourist <pause dur="0.6"/> practice there <pause dur="0.7"/> very concrete situations very concrete language <pause dur="0.6"/> so we've gone <pause dur="0.2"/> from that to that pictures are creeping in <pause dur="2.2"/> rather <pause dur="0.8"/> simple <pause dur="0.2"/> pictures but they are there <pause dur="0.4"/> there's print is less dense <pause dur="0.5"/> it's more attractive <pause dur="1.7"/> only a bit <pause dur="1.4"/> moving on to things like this <pause dur="0.3"/> nineteen-seventy-seven <pause dur="0.3"/> Functions <pause dur="0.2"/> of English <pause dur="2.8"/> <kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="2"/> and here are the chapter headings <pause dur="0.9"/> the most important one first <pause dur="0.3"/> talking about yourself <pause dur="0.5"/> starting a conversation making a date <pause dur="1.2"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> asking for information question techniques answering techniques getting further information getting people to do things <pause dur="0.7"/> requesting attracting attention et cetera <pause dur="0.2"/> so <pause dur="1.7"/> still very dense <pause dur="0.2"/> print <pause dur="0.6"/> the odd <pause dur="0.2"/> the very odd picture <pause dur="0.6"/> # and <pause dur="0.5"/> focusing on doing things with language previously we were looking at the situations in which language was used <pause dur="0.3"/> they're looking at doing things with language <pause dur="3.6"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="3"/> and quite dense text <pause dur="0.2"/> this is from that book <pause dur="3.8"/> but real <pause dur="0.2"/> language <pause dur="0.3"/> coming

out here <pause dur="1.2"/> telling you what you're supposed to know to tell a story narrative technique <pause dur="1.2"/> an illustrative conversation <pause dur="1.0"/> well # it really happened # i was driving along in a very # # car old banger # # and on it goes <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="8"/> so <pause dur="0.7"/> looking more like the way we talk <pause dur="0.2"/> but still <pause dur="0.8"/> perhaps somewhat overwhelming <pause dur="1.8"/> to today <pause dur="0.9"/> where we have books like this <pause dur="3.5"/> which i think you will agree <pause dur="0.5"/> look very different <pause dur="1.5"/> lots of colour <pause dur="1.1"/> different foci <pause dur="0.5"/> in the contents of the book talking about skills <pause dur="0.7"/> and tasks <pause dur="0.4"/> so we've got a range of materials here <pause dur="0.2"/> but some of the things looking perhaps <pause dur="0.3"/> a bit similar <pause dur="0.6"/> talking about your past <pause dur="2.8"/> vocabulary is still there <pause dur="0.3"/> the skills of reading and speaking <pause dur="1.1"/> are still there <pause dur="2.3"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> so how did we get <pause dur="0.2"/> from <pause dur="1.5"/> this <pause dur="0.5"/> to this <pause dur="0.2"/> and that's the focus of the next <pause dur="0.2"/> two sessions <pause dur="0.6"/> on the handout you've got <pause dur="1.5"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="13"/> to try and sort of frame <pause dur="1.3"/> this whole course i've given you <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> a diagram from Stern <pause dur="1.5"/> which i think is actually quite useful <pause dur="0.2"/> when we're trying to see <pause dur="0.2"/> how theory relates to

practice <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>we</trunc> how does it all fit together <pause dur="0.5"/> here you have <pause dur="0.7"/> what he calls a conceptual framework for second language teaching theories <pause dur="0.3"/> and this is the level at which <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> was was looking with you the level <pause dur="0.3"/> of linguistics what we know from <trunc>soci</trunc> psycholinguistics <pause dur="0.8"/> the history of language teaching <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> touched on <pause dur="1.1"/> moving up now <pause dur="0.5"/> and also <pause dur="1.0"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s sessions to think about what educational <pause dur="0.2"/> linguistics <pause dur="0.2"/> tell us <pause dur="0.3"/> from the theory and research background about learning <pause dur="0.2"/> and language <pause dur="0.7"/> and teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> and i hope that <pause dur="0.6"/> from <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s very informative sessions you did get the picture that we don't know <pause dur="0.5"/> all the answers we're very far from knowing all the answers about how people <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>l</trunc> <trunc>a</trunc> about language <pause dur="0.3"/> or how people learn language <pause dur="0.3"/> and certainly teaching <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="0.4"/> # a marriage of theory and practice <pause dur="0.4"/> that very often <pause dur="0.2"/> is influenced by the knowledge of the teacher <pause dur="0.4"/> the needs and the attitude of the learners <pause dur="0.2"/> and the materials available at the time <pause dur="0.4"/> so i don't think we've cracked it i think

modern language teaching is still not <pause dur="0.4"/> perfect we haven't got all the answers <pause dur="0.4"/> # but i do know that English language teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> seems to be at the head of the field it seems to be the area where most money and resources are going so if it isn't in English language teaching it's probably not in other <pause dur="0.2"/> modern language teaching and i think that's why it's important <pause dur="0.3"/> to look at what's going on in English language teaching today <pause dur="1.4"/> the third level having moved from foundations to interlevel up to practice is methodology content and objectives <pause dur="0.2"/> strategies resources <pause dur="0.2"/> evaluation of outcomes and this is really <pause dur="0.3"/> the area <pause dur="0.2"/> i'm going to be focusing on <pause dur="0.2"/> here <pause dur="0.2"/> and here <pause dur="4.9"/>

okay <pause dur="0.2"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> in <trunc>h</trunc> second session <pause dur="0.4"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> asked the question <pause dur="0.2"/> what is education for <pause dur="0.9"/> why have education what's it for <pause dur="0.7"/> i'm not going to embarrass you by seeing if you can remember <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> the answers <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> that he gave <pause dur="0.6"/> but <pause dur="0.8"/> two important distinctions and they're on the handout <pause dur="0.3"/> are <pause dur="1.1"/> commodity <pause dur="0.3"/> versus public good <pause dur="1.9"/> thinking about how <pause dur="0.2"/> language teaching fits in to the whole overall picture because i don't think we can divorce language teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> from <pause dur="0.7"/> education as a whole so we need to think about the values and beliefs the aims and standards <pause dur="0.3"/> the methods and techniques <pause dur="0.2"/> which are whole part of the wider educational experience the whole <pause dur="0.2"/> curriculum <pause dur="0.4"/> that learners experience <pause dur="0.3"/> foreign language teaching is not an isolated element <pause dur="1.6"/> it's part of <pause dur="0.2"/> the educational tradition in the countries where it's

taught so what is <pause dur="0.2"/> education for <pause dur="0.6"/> at a very basic level <pause dur="0.2"/> it can be <pause dur="0.2"/> a commodity <pause dur="1.3"/> a commodity is where the learner <pause dur="1.4"/> is a client <pause dur="0.5"/> a customer <pause dur="1.0"/> who pays a lot of money very often or whose company <pause dur="0.9"/> or sponsor pays a lot of money <pause dur="0.3"/> to come and study with you <pause dur="0.4"/> and this client or customer <pause dur="10.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="7"/> or customer <pause dur="0.4"/> has <pause dur="0.3"/> needs <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> and <pause dur="1.8"/> wants <pause dur="1.5"/> but particularly <pause dur="1.7"/> wants <pause dur="2.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> and if you don't satisfy those wants <pause dur="0.2"/> what will the customer do </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1010" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> go elsewhere </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> go elsewhere <pause dur="0.3"/> they'll leave your language school <pause dur="0.2"/> they'll drop out of your programme <pause dur="0.2"/> they'll take their money <pause dur="0.2"/> their time <pause dur="0.3"/> elsewhere <pause dur="0.9"/> so that's <pause dur="0.2"/> one view <pause dur="2.6"/> the other view of course <pause dur="1.8"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> is <pause dur="0.2"/> of education <pause dur="0.3"/> as public good <pause dur="1.0"/> and in a system where education is viewed as a public good <pause dur="1.2"/> we don't talk about clients and customers <pause dur="0.7"/> who do we talk about </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1011" trans="pause"> students </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> students yes <pause dur="1.3"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="7"/>

we talk about students <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.9"/> learners <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.4"/> pupils if you like <pause dur="0.7"/> at high school <pause dur="0.5"/> level <pause dur="0.5"/> and they <pause dur="0.8"/> very often are not perceived to have wants <pause dur="0.2"/> it's much more likely they're perceived to have </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="ss" trans="pause"> needs </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> needs <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> and the role of education is to <pause dur="0.6"/> provide those needs to satisfy <pause dur="0.3"/> those needs <pause dur="0.3"/> and who <pause dur="2.5"/> here who defines the wants of your client <pause dur="2.3"/> who defines those wants you the teacher </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1012" trans="pause"> no </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> no <pause dur="0.5"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> that is <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="14"/> defined by <pause dur="2.4"/> the client <pause dur="1.5"/> which could be <pause dur="0.6"/> the learner <pause dur="1.1"/> or it could be </u><pause dur="3.5"/> <u who="sf1013" trans="pause"> sponsor </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> their sponsor <pause dur="1.3"/> so in the commercial world of language teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> it could be the boss <pause dur="0.2"/> who has said go and teach <pause dur="0.4"/> my employees English <pause dur="0.2"/> in order to do the following things this is what i want you to do <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> in the world of public good <pause dur="0.8"/> who defines <pause dur="0.2"/> the students' <pause dur="0.2"/> needs </u><pause dur="2.4"/> <u who="sm1014" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay <pause dur="0.29"/> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> it can be <pause dur="0.3"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> the government <pause dur="2.4"/> in a state education system with a <pause dur="0.3"/> national curriculum <pause dur="0.3"/>

such as we now have here <pause dur="0.3"/> who else <pause dur="0.5"/> can define them </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sm1015" trans="pause"> parents </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm think you'd be lucky but they might <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm going to put parents in a <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> very small <pause dur="1.7"/> letters i think 'cause i'm not sure about parents </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="ss" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm </u><u who="sf1016" trans="overlap"> educationalists <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> maybe it's <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> the world is changing i suppose </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1017" trans="pause"> i think <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> educationalists yes <pause dur="3.8"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> educationalists people in <pause dur="0.7"/> universities <pause dur="1.1"/> linguistics departments schools of education <pause dur="0.2"/> yes </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sf1017" trans="pause"> people with <gap reason="inaudible" extent="3 secs"/></u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right yes it could be <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="2.2"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="11"/> it could be administrators <pause dur="1.5"/> within <pause dur="1.1"/> a hierarchy <pause dur="4.6"/> experts <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> basically <pause dur="1.3"/> of one kind <pause dur="1.1"/> or another <pause dur="2.3"/> and that <pause dur="2.3"/> dichotomy i think is quite important <pause dur="0.2"/> in showing <pause dur="0.5"/> the differences between <pause dur="1.3"/> and the driving forces that have influenced English language teaching <pause dur="0.4"/> because increasingly <pause dur="2.4"/>

what sector <pause dur="0.4"/> is this does this view prevail <pause dur="0.5"/> what sector <pause dur="0.7"/> we're thinking about private and state <pause dur="1.7"/> what sector is influenced by this view </u><u who="sm1018" trans="overlap"> private </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> this is the private sector </u><u who="sf1019" trans="overlap"> oh </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> this is <pause dur="0.3"/> the private language schools the private teachers <pause dur="1.0"/> the business world <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> here <pause dur="2.1"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> who's probably going to be arguing for language teaching as a public good </u><pause dur="1.9"/> <u who="sf1020" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> it's the state sector <pause dur="0.9"/> this is the state sector <pause dur="0.8"/> which views students <pause dur="0.5"/> as learners with needs <pause dur="0.3"/> that can be defined by experts <pause dur="1.4"/> rather than as clients with wants <pause dur="0.5"/> which <pause dur="0.4"/> will be defined by them <pause dur="0.5"/> or their bosses and the people who've sent them to you <pause dur="4.5"/><event desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="7"/> that whole view of education permeates everything it's course it's not just language teaching <pause dur="0.4"/> but we're interested here in language teaching <pause dur="0.4"/> because language teaching is part of that tradition it's not a neutral activity <pause dur="0.3"/> the attitudes towards education the attitudes <pause dur="0.3"/> towards language influence very much what

goes on in the classroom and you cannot <pause dur="0.18"/> divorce language teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> from the social view of education <pause dur="0.2"/> and where <pause dur="0.2"/> it fits in <pause dur="1.1"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> also talked about different education <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>tradi</trunc> traditions <pause dur="1.1"/> it's a while ago <pause dur="0.7"/> he talked about three <pause dur="1.0"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> broad <pause dur="0.7"/> perspectives you don't have this on you handout but you do have <pause dur="0.4"/> # a detailed breakdown of it which we're going to look at in a moment <pause dur="1.6"/> three very broad perspectives <pause dur="0.2"/> from Littlewood <pause dur="2.5"/> of the purposes of education <pause dur="0.3"/> one <pause dur="0.8"/> is <pause dur="1.1"/> very traditional one <pause dur="0.9"/> to pass on value <pause dur="0.4"/> knowledge <pause dur="0.3"/> and culture <pause dur="0.8"/> so that you see education as passing from the <pause dur="0.5"/> previous generation <pause dur="0.2"/> down to the next generation <pause dur="1.1"/> the knowledge <pause dur="0.8"/> they will need <pause dur="2.6"/> another purpose of education is to prepare learners as members of society <pause dur="1.4"/> so you have needs which you feel your society <trunc>ne</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> # must fulfil <pause dur="0.2"/> and you <pause dur="0.3"/> view education as a vehicle for doing this <pause dur="0.5"/> and that will influence <pause dur="0.2"/> how language is taught <pause dur="0.3"/> we'll see how in a moment <pause dur="1.3"/> and the third view <pause dur="0.4"/> which is much more humanistic <pause dur="0.5"/> that was the word

<gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> used a humanistic view of education <pause dur="0.2"/> is where you see learners as individual selves who must be <pause dur="0.2"/> developed <pause dur="0.3"/> and the process of education as being <pause dur="0.2"/> developing <pause dur="0.8"/> the self <pause dur="0.4"/> bringing out the individual's best <pause dur="1.1"/> characteristics features allowing them to learn and to fulfil their potential <pause dur="0.5"/> whereas here <pause dur="0.2"/> we're more interested in producing <pause dur="0.2"/> useful members of society <pause dur="0.2"/> and here <pause dur="1.5"/> put extremely we're interested in in <pause dur="0.3"/> passing down <pause dur="0.5"/> tablets of stone <pause dur="0.2"/> from one generation to the next <pause dur="0.2"/> so three very very different <pause dur="0.3"/> views of education <pause dur="2.4"/> which will influence <pause dur="1.0"/> how we see <pause dur="0.8"/> language learning <pause dur="0.3"/> and that's <pause dur="0.5"/> the next page on your handout if you could have a look at the next <pause dur="0.4"/> diagram <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="15"/> i've got it on the <trunc>he</trunc> overhead transparency but you've also got in under two-point-two <pause dur="0.2"/> different education traditions so fitting into this <pause dur="2.6"/> analysis <pause dur="3.2"/> i've given them slightly different labels from <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="1.2"/> because these are the ones <pause dur="0.4"/> that <pause dur="0.5"/> Littlewood uses <pause dur="2.4"/>

<gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> talked about an academic tradition <pause dur="0.5"/> he also talked about <pause dur="0.9"/> social reformist tradition and he talked about a humanist tradition but they map onto these three <pause dur="1.5"/> okay looking at each of these in turn <pause dur="1.0"/> and i hope as i'm talking about these you're thinking okay what's the tradition i come from <pause dur="0.5"/> what is my <pause dur="0.5"/> educational tradition <pause dur="0.2"/> is it <pause dur="0.2"/> changing <pause dur="1.3"/> thinking first of all about classical humanism <pause dur="0.3"/> remember the purpose here <pause dur="0.2"/> is to pass on <pause dur="0.3"/> knowledge from one generation to the next <pause dur="0.4"/> and here <pause dur="2.3"/> the main purpose of education is to transmit <trunc>volu</trunc> value knowledge and culture <pause dur="0.2"/> to an elite section of the next generation i think that point about elitism is quite important <pause dur="0.2"/> grammar schools in Britain <pause dur="0.2"/> for example <pause dur="1.0"/> selective education in many parts of the world <pause dur="0.5"/> the differences between <distinct lang="de">gymnasium</distinct> <pause dur="0.5"/> and technical <pause dur="0.2"/> schools <pause dur="0.2"/> for example <pause dur="0.7"/> reconstructionism <pause dur="0.6"/> to bring about desired <pause dur="0.2"/> social change <pause dur="0.9"/> and one <trunc>c</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> examples of this at the moment might be the Eastern European countries <pause dur="0.3"/> that are

changing radically and changing their education systems <pause dur="0.2"/> from this <pause dur="0.3"/> to this <pause dur="0.4"/> in order to promote development <pause dur="0.8"/> and progressivism <pause dur="0.7"/> seen perhaps as the sort of trendy lefty <pause dur="0.5"/> view of education <pause dur="0.3"/> the # <pause dur="1.1"/> self-development <pause dur="0.2"/> finding out about yourself self-fulfilment education being there <pause dur="0.5"/> to allow you to be the best you can be <pause dur="0.2"/> in British government parlance <pause dur="0.3"/> at the moment <pause dur="1.1"/> so those three different traditions <pause dur="0.2"/> very different <pause dur="0.7"/> and each with a slightly different main focus <pause dur="1.5"/> if we look first of all at classical humanism <pause dur="0.6"/> the main focus there was to develop <pause dur="0.3"/> general intellectual abilities and within that context grammar translation fitted very well <pause dur="0.4"/> it prepared you <pause dur="0.7"/> to think <pause dur="0.3"/> it gave you an intellectual discipline <pause dur="0.2"/> intellectual training <pause dur="0.7"/> however <pause dur="1.2"/> if you actually want someone to contribute <pause dur="1.2"/> to life as a member of society <pause dur="0.2"/> you also need people who can communicate <pause dur="0.5"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> do <pause dur="0.2"/> things <pause dur="0.3"/> in language <pause dur="1.3"/> as well as in mathematics history whatever <pause dur="0.7"/> and progressivism is to develop the individual person and

there you might see <pause dur="0.2"/> from a language point of view more interest <pause dur="0.2"/> in helping learners learn about themselves <pause dur="0.2"/> how they learn best <pause dur="0.4"/> how do i learn a foreign language best what's the best way for me to do it <pause dur="0.2"/> as an individual <pause dur="1.5"/> very different attitudes to content <pause dur="0.6"/> classical humanism <pause dur="0.2"/> the language is there <pause dur="0.2"/> as a valued subject content <pause dur="2.5"/> under reconstructionism preparing you for the world of work and society <pause dur="0.6"/> it's a very utilitarian view <pause dur="0.2"/> you want knowledge and skills that are useful for social life <pause dur="1.6"/> and that's where <pause dur="0.3"/> people worry about government interference because the government will have perhaps a different view of what's useful <pause dur="0.4"/> # for social life and <pause dur="0.2"/> the individual <pause dur="1.5"/> and certainly may not think it's important to <pause dur="0.3"/> promote experiences <pause dur="0.2"/> that will stimulate growth <pause dur="0.2"/> intellectual growth personal growth <pause dur="0.8"/> so how do all of these fit in <pause dur="0.3"/> with language teaching and the goals of language teaching <pause dur="1.1"/> under a classical humanist approach <pause dur="0.3"/> yes you need knowledge of <trunc>diff</trunc> of of a different <pause dur="0.2"/>

language system <pause dur="2.0"/> but you also need a better understanding of <pause dur="0.2"/> your own language <pause dur="3.0"/> and you need to be able to talk about language you need a metalanguage to talk about language linguistic awareness <pause dur="2.2"/> it's also useful <pause dur="0.2"/> to have <pause dur="0.3"/> knowledge and understanding of a different culture <pause dur="0.4"/> and civilization <pause dur="1.9"/> and all of these will promote <pause dur="0.2"/> general <pause dur="0.4"/> intellectual skills <pause dur="1.7"/> and if you look at A-level syllabuses in this country if you look at the baccalaureate in France <pause dur="0.3"/> if you look at <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> most countries high school <pause dur="0.2"/> leaving <pause dur="0.2"/> qualifications <pause dur="0.6"/> that is very often <pause dur="0.2"/> the view of of language that is promoted it's an intellectual development stage <pause dur="0.3"/> so that a native speaker could fail <pause dur="0.4"/> the exam <pause dur="1.1"/> a native speaker of English could easily fail the French baccalaureate in English in my opinion <pause dur="0.3"/> because you're having to display intellectual capacities <pause dur="0.3"/> and levels of learning and thinking <pause dur="0.2"/> that go beyond being able to speak the language <pause dur="0.9"/> in fact i think i might fail the French <pause dur="0.6"/> baccalaureate in

English <pause dur="1.0"/> # okay so reconstructionism <pause dur="1.3"/> preparing you for life preparing you for society <pause dur="0.2"/> so there <pause dur="0.2"/> language is seen as a useful skill for many kinds of work <pause dur="1.2"/> wonderful for travel <pause dur="2.0"/> can get you out travelling <pause dur="1.8"/> better <pause dur="0.4"/> and wider possibilities for communication with others within <pause dur="1.5"/> the world of travel but also the world of work of business commerce <pause dur="2.6"/> and it will give you hopefully a better understanding <pause dur="0.3"/> of other members of society <pause dur="1.0"/> minority groups within your own society <pause dur="2.5"/> and also native speakers of the target language <pause dur="0.2"/> living within your own community <pause dur="2.0"/> so much more utilitarian and less intellectual view <pause dur="0.6"/> progressivism <pause dur="0.9"/> developing the self the humanistic approach has a much less restricted perspective of the world <pause dur="0.3"/> anything <pause dur="0.2"/> that helps you develop and grow <pause dur="0.3"/> is useful <pause dur="1.8"/> is much more interested in <pause dur="0.2"/> other ways of expressing <pause dur="0.2"/> your own self <pause dur="0.6"/> beyond the purely utilitarian <pause dur="0.2"/> pragmatic <pause dur="1.4"/> is interested in developing possibilities for future

learning <pause dur="0.3"/> lifelong learning so trying to establish the foundations <pause dur="0.2"/> for future <pause dur="0.2"/> language learning <pause dur="0.3"/> there are language programmes called language readiness supervisors which actually don't teach language at all <pause dur="0.3"/> but get learners <pause dur="0.2"/> to think about <pause dur="0.2"/> language what's involved in language <pause dur="0.2"/> preparing them to go on <pause dur="0.2"/> and learn other languages <pause dur="1.6"/> and a richer interpersonal network for one's own existence so you're learning language there as part of your own <pause dur="0.3"/> personal development <pause dur="1.5"/> so three very different traditions i'm going to embarrass you now <pause dur="0.5"/> by asking you if you'd like to commit yourself <pause dur="0.7"/> and your education system to one of these traditions is there anybody here <pause dur="0.3"/> who feels they grew up <pause dur="0.3"/> in this <pause dur="0.4"/> tradition the classical <pause dur="0.4"/> humanism <pause dur="0.2"/> tradition i certainly did i went to an English grammar school <pause dur="0.3"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> and that's what i had <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> right <pause dur="0.9"/> anybody <pause dur="0.2"/> who <pause dur="0.3"/> # has grown up in a sort of reconstructionist education system preparing people for society <pause dur="0.5"/> for the world of work <pause dur="0.4"/> much more <pause dur="0.2"/> utilitarian view <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="0.7"/>

this one progressivism <pause dur="0.2"/> development of the self <pause dur="0.2"/> personality <pause dur="0.6"/> being the best you can be <pause dur="2.3"/><kinesic desc="put hand up" n="su1085" iterated="n"/> one poor soul <pause dur="0.5"/> right <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> okay <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.3"/> and there's a few people who presumably <pause dur="0.3"/> are not quite sure and who think well okay i had a blend of that <pause dur="1.1"/> sometimes we were doing this <pause dur="0.2"/> sometimes we were doing this <pause dur="0.2"/> but often i was also encouraged to do this i think many education systems today <pause dur="0.2"/> are a blend <pause dur="0.2"/> of these different <pause dur="0.2"/> types <pause dur="0.2"/> it's not <pause dur="1.5"/> one or the other <pause dur="7.0"/><event desc="takes off transparency" iterated="n"/> Littlewood went on having <pause dur="0.3"/> summarized those systems in that way to look at how <pause dur="1.2"/> those three approaches influence <pause dur="0.4"/> the language curriculum and that's the next <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="puts on transparency" iterated="n"/> thing on your handout <pause dur="5.6"/> the classical humanist approach might fit most comfortably with a structural <pause dur="0.3"/> view of language <pause dur="2.4"/> a more functional view of language <pause dur="0.2"/> fits in here <pause dur="0.3"/> how we use language <pause dur="1.0"/> structural how does language operate how does it hang together <pause dur="0.5"/> what are the bits and pieces <pause dur="0.2"/> that make up the language as an intellectual discipline as well as a <pause dur="0.2"/> a

language learning discipline <pause dur="0.3"/> here <pause dur="0.2"/> we're interested in <pause dur="0.2"/> the functions of language <pause dur="0.6"/> how is language used to do business to buy things to make complaints <pause dur="0.4"/> to request information <pause dur="1.2"/> and here <pause dur="0.2"/> very much more looking at process <pause dur="0.4"/> how <pause dur="0.4"/> how do people learn <pause dur="0.5"/> so here <pause dur="0.3"/> are concerned with what <pause dur="0.3"/> what is language <pause dur="0.5"/> and here <pause dur="0.3"/> how <pause dur="0.4"/> how do people learn language <pause dur="0.9"/> and the next <pause dur="0.2"/> table <pause dur="0.4"/> two-point-three <pause dur="2.3"/> looks at that in some detail again based on on Littlewood <pause dur="2.7"/> in a classical humanist approach <pause dur="0.4"/> and a structural approach <pause dur="0.3"/> what you want your learners to do is to master the grammar and the vocabulary of the language <pause dur="0.9"/> those are your <pause dur="0.4"/> clear <pause dur="1.3"/> aims <pause dur="1.1"/> the syllabus is there to select and sequence those structures and vocabulary <pause dur="0.2"/> using such criteria as complexity how difficult is it <pause dur="0.2"/> is the simple past more difficult than the simple present <pause dur="0.3"/> what about progressive <pause dur="0.2"/> where does that fit in importance <pause dur="0.3"/> how important <pause dur="0.2"/> is it <pause dur="0.2"/> to be able to use the passive voice <pause dur="0.3"/> and teachability <pause dur="0.4"/> how easy is it to teach the present perfect <pause dur="0.2"/> as

opposed to the <pause dur="0.4"/> past simple <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="0.8"/> criteria complexity importance teachability <pause dur="0.9"/> what's missing there <pause dur="0.2"/> anything missing <pause dur="0.8"/> if you're looking at language to see how <pause dur="0.2"/> complex it is <pause dur="0.2"/> how important it is <pause dur="0.9"/> how teachable it is anything that strikes you as missing </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sf1021" trans="pause"> the students' needs </u><u who="sf1022" trans="overlap"> students' <pause dur="0.2"/> needs </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> the students' needs yes do they actually need to know all this stuff </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1023" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> or want to interests there's nothing there about interest <pause dur="3.4"/>

so students' needs and interests and wants perhaps being somewhat neglected there <pause dur="0.3"/> unless you believe which many people following those syllabuses do <pause dur="0.3"/> that they <trunc>n</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> they have to have this foundation <pause dur="0.7"/> in order to move on <pause dur="3.2"/> okay a functional <pause dur="1.0"/> syllabus <pause dur="1.6"/> its goal is to equip learners to fulfil their communicative needs <pause dur="0.4"/> their communicative needs <pause dur="0.4"/> in an appropriate range of situations we saw some of the situations earlier <pause dur="1.0"/> at the bank at the post office at the airport communicative needs asking for information <pause dur="0.2"/> giving information <pause dur="1.7"/> requesting advice those kinds of things so the syllabus selects <pause dur="0.4"/> and sequences functions or skills according to usefulness <pause dur="0.4"/> which didn't come in here i think that was the point <pause dur="0.2"/> being made at the back there usefulness complexity of the language they require <pause dur="0.5"/> you've still got to think about complexity of language if it's too complex <pause dur="0.9"/> it doesn't matter how useful it is <pause dur="0.3"/> learners will not

remember it <pause dur="2.2"/> and finally process <pause dur="0.5"/> here <pause dur="0.8"/> the goal is to create contexts which will stimulate <pause dur="0.6"/> the potential for natural language growth <pause dur="0.2"/> to help learners to develop naturally <pause dur="0.5"/> as language learners <pause dur="0.2"/> the syllabus provides a sequence of contexts no longer sequence of language <pause dur="0.2"/> or sequence of functions but contexts <pause dur="1.3"/> for learning <pause dur="0.8"/> learning now not learners so much but focusing on learning and how people learn and providing contexts for learning <pause dur="0.9"/> which are roughly graded <pause dur="0.8"/> it's got to be rough because i don't know how you do it systematically it's very difficult to grade context very <pause dur="0.4"/> relatively easy to grade structures <pause dur="0.7"/> quite difficult to grade functions almost impossible to grade contexts <pause dur="1.7"/> to the demands they make on communication skills rather than by strictly <pause dur="0.2"/> linguistic criteria <pause dur="0.3"/> so we've got a move <pause dur="1.5"/> from language <pause dur="0.5"/> to process <pause dur="1.0"/> language focus <pause dur="0.9"/> the what <pause dur="0.5"/> of linguistics <pause dur="0.4"/> to <pause dur="0.5"/> the how of linguistics and a shift in attention from what linguists can tell us <pause dur="0.8"/> to

what <pause dur="0.4"/> sociolinguists can tell us and educationalists can tell us <pause dur="0.8"/> so influences coming in from other fields <pause dur="0.5"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> talked about the broadening <pause dur="0.2"/> of our discipline <pause dur="0.6"/> beyond just pure linguistics <pause dur="0.3"/> into sociolinguistics psycholinguistics <pause dur="0.2"/> here we're broadening it into education <pause dur="0.2"/> as well <pause dur="1.9"/> any questions about that <pause dur="0.5"/> or comments <pause dur="4.6"/> three very different approaches three very different views <pause dur="0.2"/> of what's going on in education <pause dur="0.3"/> and how people learn <pause dur="3.7"/> and of course you can have <pause dur="0.3"/> a shift <pause dur="0.8"/> from one to the other as we saw from the descriptions that people gave earlier <pause dur="0.4"/> very often <pause dur="0.8"/> the shift will be according to level <pause dur="1.4"/> some people may find <pause dur="0.5"/> i think somebody described <pause dur="1.5"/> beginning <pause dur="0.2"/> levels focusing here <pause dur="0.3"/> on structures and more intermediate levels moving on into functions and perhaps at more advanced levels <pause dur="0.3"/> thinking about process <pause dur="0.3"/> but there will be other people who may have gone the other way <pause dur="0.5"/> and have decided that <pause dur="0.9"/> process is the important <pause dur="0.4"/> starting point <pause dur="0.3"/> what you do with language

comes next and you leave linguistic analysis to an advanced stage <pause dur="0.2"/> there's no <pause dur="0.4"/> one way of doing it but this movement blending <pause dur="0.6"/> of <pause dur="0.6"/> approaches is very <pause dur="0.5"/> common <pause dur="0.4"/> and probably to be encouraged because we don't yet know exactly which one <pause dur="0.3"/> works best <pause dur="1.9"/> and even if we did it may vary from culture to culture from learner to learner <pause dur="4.2"/> when you have this movement <pause dur="2.7"/> from here <pause dur="2.9"/> coming back to who's doing most of the talking who's doing most of the talking in this classroom </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="ss" trans="pause"> teacher </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> the teacher who's doing most of the talking in this classroom </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1024" trans="pause"> students </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> students <pause dur="0.3"/> but teachers too <pause dur="0.2"/> and here </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="ss" trans="pause"> students </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> students and teachers together <pause dur="0.3"/> so there is a shift <pause dur="0.6"/> attitude to error <pause dur="0.2"/> what's the attitude to error here </u><pause dur="2.9"/> <u who="sf1025" trans="pause"> has to be corrected <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> <shift feature="voice" new="husk"/> it's got to be corrected <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> got to be stamped out <pause dur="0.8"/> here <pause dur="1.8"/> you want to buy an aeroplane ticket does it matter if you say <pause dur="0.5"/> can i has a ticket <pause dur="0.4"/> or can i have a ticket <pause dur="3.4"/> you'll still get the

ticket i suspect okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so that the attitude to error here <pause dur="0.6"/> more relaxed <pause dur="0.9"/> and over here <pause dur="1.1"/> attitude to error what do you think <pause dur="3.8"/> natural language growth what do we know about natural language growth what do children do </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1025" trans="pause"> make errors </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> they make errors <pause dur="0.3"/> so errors seen as part of the process <pause dur="1.5"/> not necessarily something to be glorified and celebrated <pause dur="0.2"/> but part of the process not something that needs to be <pause dur="0.4"/> to be stamped out <pause dur="3.6"/><kinesic desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="10"/> and if we have this <pause dur="0.4"/> mixture of approaches this variable <pause dur="0.2"/> focus approach <pause dur="4.0"/> you end up <pause dur="3.3"/> with a sort of progression from <pause dur="0.4"/> control <pause dur="0.2"/> this is not on your handout <pause dur="0.3"/> control <pause dur="1.6"/> with focus on form <pause dur="0.2"/> manipulation of language drills <pause dur="0.5"/> that useful legacy from the behaviourist approach <pause dur="0.3"/> teacher in control <pause dur="0.5"/> teacher <pause dur="0.4"/> controlling the language <pause dur="0.2"/> and convergent outcomes all the students in the class <pause dur="0.2"/> saying the same thing <pause dur="0.4"/> writing the same thing <pause dur="0.4"/> at the end <pause dur="0.2"/> hopefully <pause dur="1.0"/> so teacher controlling very tightly <pause dur="0.2"/> what goes on <pause dur="1.0"/> put these sentences into the past tense <pause dur="0.6"/>

i go to town you want everyone to write i <pause dur="0.6"/> went to town <pause dur="0.2"/> convergent <pause dur="0.4"/> everybody coming up with the same utterance <pause dur="0.7"/> which is correct <pause dur="1.7"/> and as we move perhaps <pause dur="0.8"/> in time perhaps <pause dur="2.9"/> with level of learner <pause dur="0.6"/> you can move from greater degree of control <pause dur="0.2"/> down to here where you have sort of absolute freedom <pause dur="2.3"/> with the teacher slowly relinquishing control helping <pause dur="0.2"/> but not controlling <pause dur="0.3"/> to very <pause dur="0.7"/> divergent outcomes <pause dur="0.4"/> a role a task <pause dur="1.5"/> with the teacher as a monitor <pause dur="1.8"/> but the learner controlling what is said <pause dur="0.6"/> get into groups and talk about your language learning experience <pause dur="1.5"/> is a language activity <pause dur="0.8"/> i have no idea what you said to each other <pause dur="0.3"/> i couldn't control it <pause dur="0.3"/> because you are bringing <pause dur="0.9"/> your own <pause dur="0.3"/> focus on communication <pause dur="0.5"/> your own <pause dur="0.3"/> arguments and ideas the learner's in control in the driving seat <pause dur="0.2"/> the teacher is there as a monitor <pause dur="1.7"/> and that context the teacher <pause dur="3.4"/> is encouraging developing promoting divergent outcomes <pause dur="6.0"/> i think most language teachers would argue today <pause dur="0.2"/> that what we need <pause dur="0.3"/> is <pause dur="0.3"/> a

judicious mixture of the two <pause dur="0.2"/> that there are occasions when you have to do this <pause dur="0.8"/> in order to allow the learner <pause dur="0.2"/> to focus on accuracy <pause dur="0.3"/> because <pause dur="0.3"/> they can't <pause dur="0.4"/> do this and this all the time that there are times when you need <pause dur="0.3"/> to look at the language <pause dur="0.9"/> particularly if it's very different from your mother tongue <pause dur="0.2"/> and where the teacher will control and manipulate drilling <pause dur="0.3"/> for example <pause dur="1.0"/> but there will be other occasions <pause dur="0.2"/> where the student the learner <pause dur="0.2"/> will be free to experiment and explore the language and make their own mistakes <pause dur="4.0"/> what's happening as we move down here of course to the teacher <pause dur="0.4"/> is <pause dur="1.2"/> the teacher is actually losing control <pause dur="0.5"/> the teacher is stopping being a teacher and i think when we think about language teaching we need to think about the role of the teacher <pause dur="0.3"/> here the teacher is boss <pause dur="0.3"/> the teacher is what doing what i'm doing now <pause dur="0.4"/> standing at the front <pause dur="1.1"/> controlling <pause dur="0.3"/> as you move down here the teacher's role changes here <pause dur="0.3"/> you are <pause dur="1.0"/> arbiter of the language you are <pause dur="0.2"/> linguistic model <pause dur="0.3"/>

what are you down here <pause dur="1.1"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on transparency" iterated="n"/> when you've got students doing communicative activities discussing things <pause dur="0.7"/> what's your role </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1026" trans="pause"> facilitator </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> you're a facilitator <pause dur="0.6"/> yes <pause dur="0.9"/> well done <pause dur="0.6"/> you've read the book <pause dur="0.2"/> you're a facilitator what else <pause dur="3.6"/> who sets up the activity <pause dur="0.2"/> and gets everybody doing it </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1027" trans="pause"> coordinator </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> sorry </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1027" trans="pause"> coordinator </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> you're a coordinator <pause dur="0.4"/> you're a facilitator <pause dur="0.2"/> you're a coordinator <pause dur="2.7"/> think of the business world <pause dur="1.3"/> you're a </u><u who="sf1028" trans="overlap"> <trunc>s</trunc> <pause dur="0.4"/> supervisor </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> you're a supervisor <pause dur="0.4"/> yes you're a supervisor popping round making sure people are doing it right <trunc>needi</trunc> if they need help checking <pause dur="0.5"/> you're also a manager <pause dur="0.7"/> you're managing the classroom managing activities <pause dur="7.0"/> however most teachers <pause dur="1.3"/> even within a communicative context <pause dur="0.2"/> will find themselves in the situation of actually having a syllabus <pause dur="0.6"/> that they have to follow <pause dur="1.6"/> and <pause dur="1.0"/> that's what i'd like to move on <pause dur="0.2"/> to look at now before we have a break <pause dur="2.9"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/>

curriculum and syllabus are two words that are very often used interchangeably particularly i think # <pause dur="1.9"/> between America and Britain there are differences <pause dur="1.2"/> i don't think it's particularly useful having two words that mean the same thing <pause dur="0.3"/> # when they can be used differently so what <pause dur="0.2"/> my definition here of curriculum is <pause dur="0.3"/> very much <pause dur="1.4"/> looking at what goes on in language learning <pause dur="0.3"/> not just aims and content <pause dur="0.4"/> but also methodology <pause dur="1.3"/> philosophy <pause dur="1.1"/> and evaluation <pause dur="1.0"/>

but a a curriculum is the whole package <pause dur="0.2"/> it's everything <pause dur="0.6"/> it's <pause dur="0.7"/> yes it's what you do and it's how you do it <pause dur="0.2"/> it's also how it's evaluated <pause dur="0.2"/> so curriculum can be also includes <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>assess</trunc> evaluation of the programme that you're doing <pause dur="1.3"/> feedback from learners feedback from teachers <pause dur="0.2"/> on how successful the programme is so curriculum is a very broad umbrella <pause dur="0.3"/> term <pause dur="0.8"/> which includes <pause dur="0.5"/> syllabus <pause dur="0.4"/> syllabus is part of a curriculum <pause dur="0.5"/> but for me curriculum <pause dur="0.3"/> is is more <pause dur="1.6"/> is broader <pause dur="0.2"/> syllabus is narrower <pause dur="0.3"/> syllabus means aims <pause dur="0.3"/> and content more <pause dur="2.9"/> and i've got a <pause dur="0.2"/> task here i'd like you to do <pause dur="1.3"/> with a little bit missing at the bottom there <pause dur="0.7"/> i'd like you to look at <pause dur="0.2"/> before we go on to talk about syllabus <pause dur="0.8"/> i'd like to get your attitude to it i've given you here a section <pause dur="0.4"/> from a questionnaire for language teachers <pause dur="0.4"/> from Ron White's book which is in the references at the back The E-L-T Curriculum <pause dur="0.3"/> and i'd like you to look at these

six statements and see <pause dur="0.2"/> whether you agree or disagree <pause dur="0.3"/> left hand box agree <pause dur="0.2"/> right hand box <pause dur="0.5"/> disagree <pause dur="0.3"/> number twenty says <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>the best syllabus is one which doesn't focus on language <pause dur="0.4"/> at all</reading> <pause dur="0.9"/> which doesn't focus on language at all <pause dur="8.4"/> so i'd like you just to look at those <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> mm <pause dur="1.3"/> agree <pause dur="0.2"/> and disagree <pause dur="1.1"/> with each of those statements thinking about a language syllabus <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> and if you agree with it <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> with the <trunc>s</trunc> a statement <pause dur="1.3"/> you can tick the box if you're not sure <pause dur="0.2"/> you can sit on the fence <pause dur="0.3"/> okay fill it in <pause dur="0.2"/> when you've filled it in <pause dur="0.2"/> compare notes with somebody sitting near you please <pause dur="0.7"/> i'm going to give you five minutes to look at that and discuss it </u><pause dur="2:24.6"/> <event desc="discussing questions" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="7:23"/> <event desc="turns on overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="45"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> when you've filled it in do turn to people sitting behind you or next to you <pause dur="0.3"/> and see if they agree </u><pause dur="41.1"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause">

which one are you sitting on the fence on <pause dur="0.3"/><vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> which one which one's that </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1029" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="sf1029" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> okay why are you not sure about that one </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1029" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="6 secs"/> i think you need some organization </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> mm </u><u who="sf1029" trans="overlap"> but not so much <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="6 secs"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right <pause dur="0.6"/> okay </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1030" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> so interest that's <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> factor </u><u who="sf1030" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes </u><u who="sf1030" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> </u> <pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sf1031" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm <pause dur="0.3"/> and did you enjoy it </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1031" trans="pause"> # <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> the main factor </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> yes </u><u who="sf1031" trans="overlap"> so that <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="2 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes yes yes yes <pause dur="0.2"/> yes i mean a good teacher can <pause dur="1.5"/> and also a good teacher with the right students </u><u who="sf1031" trans="latching"> mm </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> you know people have been sort of selected </u><u who="sf1031" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> presumably to <pause dur="0.2"/> follow that approach </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sf1032" trans="pause"> that's why i don't think <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="2 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sf1032" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="sf1032" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="5 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes yes <pause dur="0.2"/> yes </u><u who="sf1032" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/> </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> yes <pause dur="0.8"/> and the if the individual need's there i mean that brings us on to one of these other questions about needs </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1033" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> and some students will want linguistic <pause dur="1.0"/> teaching and others may not so i mean that's an important point too <pause dur="0.3"/> and you say you do agree with that because <pause dur="0.4"/> you wouldn't be against it completely then </u><u who="sf1033" trans="overlap"> no </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap">

if somebody needs it or felt they wanted it yeah <pause dur="0.2"/> okay </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="su1086" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="2 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> well go through the others see how you do with them </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sf1034" trans="pause"> well i think that <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="19 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><u who="sf1034" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sf1035" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="4 secs"/><pause dur="0.6"/></u> <u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="ss" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="12 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> yes okay <trunc>tha</trunc> i think yes i think it's a question of how far but you're saying that you think that should be one of the strands one of the factors </u><u who="sf1036" trans="latching"> yeah </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yeah yeah </u><u who="sf1036" trans="overlap"> i think it should be one of the factors </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><u who="sf1036" trans="overlap"> that's the whole <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's a question of degree </u><u who="sf1036" trans="latching"> yeah yeah </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> yeah absolutely <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay good <pause dur="26.9"/> you agree <pause dur="0.6"/> are you not sure </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sf1037" trans="pause"> not sure <vocal desc="laughter" n="sl" iterated="y" dur="1"/> </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1038" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="5 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right <pause dur="0.5"/> right </u><u who="sf1038" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="4 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah yeah </u><u who="sf1038" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible due to background noise" extent="3 secs"/></u> <u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes <pause dur="1.0"/> but also <pause dur="0.4"/> this issue of wants and needs <pause dur="1.0"/> you know you may have learners who want you to do it that way <pause dur="0.5"/> okay can i stop you there <pause dur="0.9"/> i'm going to give you a ten minute break and i hope some of those ideas will continue to circulate round your head while you rush off to the loo or to <pause dur="0.6"/> wherever it is you go ten minutes can we meet back at five past please <pause dur="0.6"/> by that clock </u><gap reason="break in recording" extent="uncertain"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause">

okay <pause dur="1.5"/> can you look <pause dur="0.9"/> at the answers <pause dur="3.3"/> to these questions that you've <pause dur="0.8"/> been working on <pause dur="2.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.4"/> agree <pause dur="0.6"/> disagree <pause dur="1.1"/> remember our definition of syllabus <pause dur="0.2"/> including aims and content of a teaching programme <pause dur="0.3"/> not <pause dur="0.2"/> yet specifying methodology or how that programme will be evaluated that's <pause dur="0.2"/> more a curriculum <pause dur="0.3"/> level <pause dur="0.3"/> so thinking about syllabus as aims and content of a teaching programme <pause dur="0.3"/> who felt that <pause dur="0.2"/> it's important to have a carefully graded structural syllabus <pause dur="0.3"/> and that that's the best way to organize a language course <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> yes anybody else don't be afraid it's nothing to be ashamed of i'm quite happy to have closet structuralists in my <pause dur="0.7"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/>okay right <pause dur="0.3"/><shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> okay so we've got about four people <pause dur="0.5"/> here who agree <pause dur="1.2"/> okay so i'll put a little tick <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> who <pause dur="0.2"/> disagrees with that <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> put your hand up come on <pause dur="0.3"/> be confident <pause dur="0.7"/> so about the same number <pause dur="0.5"/> who's not sure <pause dur="1.3"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> right okay <pause dur="0.3"/> the fence-sitters more of them okay <pause dur="0.7"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> # somebody who said you do think it's important <pause dur="0.2"/> would you like to <pause dur="0.6"/>

explain quickly why <pause dur="0.2"/> why is it important to have a carefully graded structural syllabus <pause dur="0.4"/> as the best way <pause dur="0.9"/> to organize a language syllabus <pause dur="1.0"/> or a language course </u><pause dur="1.8"/> <u who="sm1039" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="3 secs"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/> at some stage you need </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> can you hear him </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sm1039" trans="pause"> you need to work from </u><u who="sf1040" trans="overlap"> no <pause dur="0.2"/> speak up please </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> can you speak up <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> please </u><u who="sm1039" trans="overlap"> need to work from some structure <pause dur="0.3"/> to start with </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> so he's saying it doesn't matter what else you're trying to do you need to have a structural syllabus underlying it all <pause dur="0.4"/> and that that should be the foundation yeah </u><u who="sf1040" trans="latching"> <event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> should think it's a <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> like # <pause dur="0.6"/> # designing such a such a course and i was one of the persons saying yes <pause dur="0.4"/> # it's just that <pause dur="1.1"/> be # flexible enough to respond to <unclear>the bigger</unclear> things <pause dur="0.5"/> # <pause dur="0.5"/> approaching <pause dur="0.2"/> are # <pause dur="0.2"/> are occurring in in learners </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right okay </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="sf1040" trans="pause"> to say okay <pause dur="0.2"/> i've got a certain amount of time <pause dur="0.2"/> to reach this <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> within this this kind of of a framework and and <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u> <u who="nf0988" trans="latching">

right <pause dur="0.4"/> so <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> you're arguing for flexibility </u><u who="sf1040" trans="overlap"> yes </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> but you're still saying there should be a structural syllabus underlying </u><u who="sf1040" trans="latching"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> the whole programme people who said no anybody like to # <pause dur="0.4"/> fight your corner </u><pause dur="3.4"/> <u who="sf1041" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.5"/> actually the same <event desc="turns off overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/> reason <vocal desc="laughter" n="sl" iterated="y" dur="1"/> in that there needs to be sort of flexibility </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> mm </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1041" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="1.1"/> and to to grade it so <pause dur="0.5"/> i'm not sure if it's possible to grade it exactly to the needs of students in the first place <pause dur="0.3"/> given that students' needs are different <pause dur="0.3"/> with them in <pause dur="0.3"/> either one <pause dur="0.3"/> group <pause dur="0.2"/> </u> <u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="sf1041" trans="overlap"> or a set of groups <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> teaching </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right <pause dur="0.3"/> <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so a counter-argument being <pause dur="0.6"/> flexibility is more is important and that it depends upon the needs of the learners <pause dur="0.5"/> you may have some learners who do need <pause dur="0.2"/> that kind of a syllabus you may others who <pause dur="0.2"/> for whom it will be a disaster <pause dur="0.2"/> and they won't learn <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <reading>initial teaching should be based on a careful contrastive analysis of the grammatical differences between <pause dur="0.3"/> L-one <pause dur="0.2"/> and L-two</reading> <pause dur="0.4"/>

who agrees with this <pause dur="2.7"/> <kinesic desc="put hands up" n="su1087" iterated="n"/> okay a solitary figure <pause dur="0.5"/> who disagrees with it <pause dur="1.6"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> right that's a big one <pause dur="0.2"/> who's not sure <pause dur="0.4"/> like to sit on the fence <pause dur="0.6"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> i'll allow you to do that okay <pause dur="0.2"/> well i'm sorry it's you <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> why <pause dur="0.9"/> you agree with this </u><u who="sf1042" trans="overlap"> # <pause dur="0.6"/> <event desc="turns off overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/> i think it does depend <pause dur="0.2"/> on <pause dur="0.5"/> whether you have a mixed group <pause dur="0.4"/> like lots of <trunc>diff</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> lots of <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> backgrounds or whether you have <pause dur="0.2"/> students all from one background <pause dur="0.7"/> but i work at # <pause dur="0.4"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> International College as a language assistant </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sf1042" trans="overlap"> with Japanese students <pause dur="0.4"/> and one of the things they do there is to teach a phonology class <pause dur="0.8"/> where most of the exercises are actually based on differences between English and Japanese and that really does help the phonology to improve </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right </u><u who="sf1042" trans="overlap"> because things like coat and caught </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1042" trans="pause"> minimal pairs they can </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> lock and rock </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="sf1042" trans="pause"> yeah <vocal desc="laugh" iterated="n"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> yes </u><u who="sf1042" trans="latching"> they can't tell the difference in Japanese </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay </u><u who="sf1042" trans="overlap"> so that's really helpful to them but it wouldn't be so useful to <pause dur="0.4"/> people from different language backgrounds </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause">

okay <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> so the argument being <pause dur="0.2"/> that certainly at the beginning stages or in this case at <pause dur="0.3"/> further down the road <pause dur="0.2"/> a useful <pause dur="0.3"/> thing for the learner is to see differences similarities and differences particularly when the languages are <pause dur="0.3"/> as different as they are in the in the example you gave Japanese and English <pause dur="0.3"/> people who feel that this is not <pause dur="0.3"/> a good idea <pause dur="0.9"/> yes could you explain </u><u who="sf1043" trans="latching"> # yes because <pause dur="0.2"/> <event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> i thought <pause dur="0.3"/> # about the grammatical differences that <pause dur="0.4"/> # maybe students would be confused <pause dur="0.4"/> and they would # use their grammar with # their foreign language words and <pause dur="0.2"/> be <pause dur="1.1"/> i don't know </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> okay <pause dur="0.2"/> so you <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> see it as interference that that </u><u who="sf1043" trans="overlap"> yes</u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> that comparisons with the mother tongue <pause dur="0.2"/> will cause interference </u><u who="sf1043" trans="overlap"> yes </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> in language learning <pause dur="0.3"/> and <pause dur="0.4"/> our other speaker saw it as actually helpful <pause dur="0.2"/> and providing <pause dur="0.3"/> # points of contrast that students can focus on so allowing to focus <pause dur="0.2"/> in on particular areas of difficulty and i think those are the two

sides of the argument here and i think <pause dur="0.3"/> it depends also of course on <pause dur="0.2"/> your teaching context <pause dur="0.6"/> and it's extremely difficult to do this <pause dur="0.2"/> in multilingual classes such as are found at language schools <pause dur="0.2"/> in Britain and the United States <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> very often <pause dur="0.3"/> there will be a pragmatic reason as well if you've got <pause dur="0.2"/> seven different language groups in your class from a mother tongue point of view <pause dur="0.2"/> it's going to be very difficult to focus in <pause dur="0.2"/> on particular contrastive <pause dur="0.4"/> # analysis <pause dur="0.7"/> between <pause dur="0.3"/> any two particular languages <pause dur="1.0"/> but it can be useful <pause dur="0.6"/> and for some learners it's important <pause dur="0.9"/> okay <reading>a syllabus should be based on known areas of difficulty in grammar and pron</reading> <pause dur="2.4"/> who agrees with this one <pause dur="2.8"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> who disagrees <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> who's sitting on the fence <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" iterated="n" n="ss"/> who hasn't got a hand <pause dur="0.6"/><vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="3"/> right <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> okay <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.8"/> right <pause dur="0.2"/> okay the no the ones who <trunc>bel</trunc> who agree with it why <pause dur="1.2"/> what's useful about <trunc>fo</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> basing it on known areas <pause dur="0.2"/> of difficulty <pause dur="5.7"/> anybody <pause dur="0.8"/> yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> mm </u> <pause dur="0.3"/>

<u who="sf1044" trans="pause"> i think # <pause dur="0.5"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="6 secs"/> <event desc="turns off overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/> misleading but # </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sf1044" trans="overlap"> <pause dur="0.9"/> it's certainly <pause dur="0.4"/> areas that we should be taking into consideration </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1044" trans="pause"> because you need to deal with problems </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> yes i think it is a matter of degree <pause dur="0.3"/> and of course what's an area of difficulty <pause dur="0.3"/> that is a problem to to define because that will vary very much <trunc>ac</trunc> from learner to learner <pause dur="0.5"/> and to what their previous language learning experience is <pause dur="0.2"/> what their previous <pause dur="1.2"/> # what their mother tongue is that will make a huge difference but okay there are things we know cause problems for certain learners <pause dur="0.4"/> and if we can predict that <pause dur="1.0"/> should a syllabus be based on it <pause dur="0.4"/> or should it just be something that's taken into account <pause dur="1.2"/> it's a question <pause dur="0.4"/> that that teachers need to address and i'm not saying what the answer is i think <pause dur="0.3"/> all of these things <pause dur="0.2"/> depends very much on who your learners are who your teachers are <pause dur="0.3"/> and what the situation is in which you're teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> okay communicative needs outside the classroom <pause dur="1.4"/> based on

communicative needs outside the classroom agreers <pause dur="0.2"/> please <pause dur="0.2"/> hands up <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> quite a lot of people <pause dur="0.4"/> disagreers <pause dur="2.0"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> not-knowers <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> fence-sitters <pause dur="0.8"/> not sure yes <pause dur="0.6"/> okay there is a problem of course <pause dur="1.3"/> if i'm teaching English <pause dur="0.3"/> at high school in <pause dur="1.0"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> Outer Mongolia <pause dur="2.7"/> can you tell me what my students' communicative needs outside the classroom are <pause dur="4.2"/> teaching at <pause dur="0.2"/> primary school <pause dur="0.5"/> increasingly language teaching is going down <pause dur="0.7"/> the levels of the education system more and more people are teaching English at primary school what are the communicative needs <pause dur="0.2"/> of primary school children <pause dur="0.3"/> outside the language classroom <pause dur="2.4"/> high school <pause dur="0.3"/> what are the communicative needs <pause dur="0.2"/> of <pause dur="0.3"/> learners <vocal desc="sneeze" n="sf1045" iterated="n"/> at <trunc>h</trunc> </u><u who="sf1045" trans="overlap"> computers </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> okay <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> </u><u who="sf1045" trans="overlap"> computers </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> computers all right chatlines <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="4"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> and # chatrooms okay <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> yes <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> <pause dur="2.5"/> but very very difficult to define very difficult to describe our field is full of acronyms <event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> there's E-F-L English as a foreign language there's E-S-L English as a second language <pause dur="0.5"/> there's

E-A-P English <pause dur="0.2"/> for academic reasons <pause dur="0.2"/> and <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> my particular favourite is this one <pause dur="1.5"/> oh there's T-E-F-L teaching English as a foreign language <pause dur="0.2"/> T-E-N-O-R <pause dur="0.2"/> teaching English for no obvious reason <pause dur="0.7"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="5"/> and # <pause dur="0.4"/> there are lots of people around the world doing this <pause dur="1.2"/> and in that context it's extremely difficult <pause dur="0.3"/> to # <pause dur="1.2"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> <trunc>di</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> to predict the learners' <pause dur="0.2"/> communicative needs outside the classroom <pause dur="1.4"/> much easier in <pause dur="2.4"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> an E-S-P context English for specific purposes English for business <pause dur="0.2"/> English for <pause dur="0.2"/> academic study <pause dur="0.2"/> English for <pause dur="0.2"/> travel <pause dur="0.3"/> English for <pause dur="1.0"/> the hotel industry <pause dur="0.2"/> or whatever <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> the vast majority of language teachers unfortunately <pause dur="0.3"/> are <pause dur="0.2"/> working in a situation where it's not clear what the needs are going to be <pause dur="0.4"/> but if you know them <pause dur="0.4"/> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> obviously it's a good idea <pause dur="0.5"/> to teach towards them <pause dur="1.0"/> <reading>eighteen a syllabus should take students' wants and interests into account even when these are different from their needs</reading> <pause dur="1.2"/>

i'll give you an example i was teaching a group of Algerian architects <pause dur="0.5"/> and we'd spent a lot of time <pause dur="0.2"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> looking at the language of buildings and the language of architecture <pause dur="0.5"/> and one day one of them came to see me and said could we please do something completely different <pause dur="0.3"/> and i said for example he said could we do the problem pages of newspapers i'm really interested in you know what <pause dur="0.3"/> all these love letters and complaints that people are sending in <pause dur="0.5"/> and he was just desperate to do something else <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> now i didn't feel that he needed at that stage of his life to be <pause dur="0.2"/> familiar with the genre <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="2"/> of problem pages <pause dur="0.3"/> # in <trunc>news</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> newspapers <pause dur="0.3"/> but <pause dur="0.2"/> that was something he wanted to do and he was bored rigid <pause dur="0.4"/> by the architecture <pause dur="0.4"/> # programme that we had lovingly prepared for him <pause dur="0.9"/> so <pause dur="1.5"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> where are you now <pause dur="0.8"/> should a syllabus take students' wants and interests into account when they're different from their needs put your hand up if you agree

wants <pause dur="0.4"/> and interests over <pause dur="0.2"/> needs <pause dur="1.1"/> okay yes why <pause dur="1.3"/> why <pause dur="2.5"/> the M word </u><u who="sf1046" trans="overlap"> keeps them motivated </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes <pause dur="0.6"/> keeps them motivated if they're bored they won't learn no matter how good it is for them <pause dur="0.9"/> anybody who thinks that you've got to hammer away at <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> needs <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> <pause dur="1.1"/> even if they're in conflict </u><pause dur="3.3"/> <u who="sf1047" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> <event desc="turns off overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/> would be if students are being sent by a particular company to learn a specific syllabus <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.9"/> and # even if the students really want to learn about problem pages if they're not paying and they've got a <trunc>limit</trunc> you've got a limited time to teach them <pause dur="0.5"/> a set <pause dur="0.5"/> syllabus <pause dur="0.2"/> designed <pause dur="0.3"/> between the teacher <pause dur="0.5"/> maybe and and the company involved and the company's paying <pause dur="0.5"/> you certainly don't want to be stuck in the middle when <pause dur="0.4"/> the students go back and tell their boss that they've just learned all about problem pages for the lesson </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> exactly yes yes okay there will be situations where the sponsor the boss will not like it also <pause dur="0.2"/> i was working at one time with air traffic controllers in China <pause dur="0.3"/> i didn't care <pause dur="0.2"/> what their wants were but i know they needed

air traffic control language because i was going to be flying on their aeroplanes <pause dur="0.3"/> so # <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> i would <pause dur="0.2"/> <trunc>th</trunc> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> they could have asked for problem pages till the cows came home <pause dur="0.2"/> i was going to teach them the language of communicating with air traffic control <pause dur="0.2"/> and other airline pilots 'cause i knew <pause dur="0.2"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="6"/> my life might depend upon it <pause dur="0.5"/> so <pause dur="1.0"/> it does depend on <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> the context <pause dur="0.8"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> and that's a very good point who is paying <pause dur="1.0"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> <reading>where there is a choice communicative needs should take priority over grammatical grading in organizing a syllabus</reading> who agrees with this where you have a choice <pause dur="0.3"/> do you go for communicative needs <pause dur="0.2"/> or <pause dur="0.6"/> grammar <pause dur="0.6"/> hands up if you agree <pause dur="0.6"/> hands up <vocal desc="sneeze" n="sf1048" iterated="n"/> if you agree <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> okay <pause dur="1.2"/><vocal desc="sneeze" n="sf1048" iterated="n"/> bless you <pause dur="0.4"/> hands up if you disagree <pause dur="1.9"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> ah more closet structuralists <pause dur="0.3"/> hands up if you're not sure <pause dur="1.4"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> okay why are you not sure <pause dur="0.2"/> what's the dilemma </u><pause dur="3.4"/> <u who="sf1049" trans="pause"> well i think <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n" n="nf0988"/> <pause dur="0.7"/> # and i don't know really how <pause dur="0.5"/> you would determine

which one is going to be more important 'cause you know <pause dur="0.3"/> to be able to communicate you need some kind of grammatical <pause dur="0.5"/> knowledge </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> mm </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1049" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.7"/> but then there'll be <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> so </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1049" trans="pause"> i don't know </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> so seeing it very much as it's not an either-or situation <pause dur="0.3"/> you need to look at communicative needs as well as <pause dur="0.2"/> grammatical grading <pause dur="0.7"/>

but the <trunc>com</trunc> the the <pause dur="0.2"/> the two need to go together <pause dur="0.5"/> and i think many <pause dur="0.4"/> syllabus designers would agree with you <pause dur="1.2"/> <reading>the best syllabus is one which doesn't focus on language at all</reading> <pause dur="1.0"/> doesn't focus on what but focuses on how <pause dur="0.3"/> anyone agree with this <pause dur="1.0"/> no language input <pause dur="0.5"/> explicitly <pause dur="0.5"/> lots of language <pause dur="0.3"/> lots of tasks activities <pause dur="0.3"/> but no explicit language focus who agrees with that one <pause dur="1.8"/> ooh <pause dur="1.5"/> so who disagrees with that one <pause dur="2.6"/><kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> okay and some fence-sitters <kinesic desc="put hands up" n="ss" iterated="n"/> have we got some fence-sitters yes okay that's fine <pause dur="0.4"/> why do you disagree <pause dur="1.6"/> it's because you're all doing linguistics isn't it <pause dur="0.4"/> <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> if you agree with this you do yourselves out of a job you've got no choice at all <pause dur="1.1"/> but

seriously why why why do you think it's important to have some focus on language </u><pause dur="5.9"/> <u who="sf1049" trans="pause"> well i i'd like my students to be able to transfer <pause dur="0.4"/> acquired knowledge <event desc="turns off overhead projector" n="nf0988" iterated="n"/> to # <pause dur="1.3"/> to to other areas and to to other contexts or <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> # i just like them to be able to reflect upon what they're doing </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm mm <pause dur="2.0"/> what's the danger do you know the the term # the danger if you if you never focus on <pause dur="0.4"/> # <pause dur="1.0"/> language at all <pause dur="0.8"/> what is the the danger for your learners <pause dur="1.7"/> think of little stones in the ground yes sorry </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1050" trans="pause"> oh i was going to say that <pause dur="0.6"/> if <pause dur="1.8"/> if there's no focus on language in itself </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> mm </u><u who="sf1050" trans="overlap"> # <pause dur="0.5"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> <trunc>th</trunc> there'd be a lot of teacher talking time <pause dur="1.0"/> # certainly at the beginning </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sf1050" trans="overlap"> and there may not be <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="1.3"/> it may not be as communicative as you maybe <pause dur="0.2"/> would like it to be <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> but</u> <pause dur="0.8"/><u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> right </u><u who="sf1050" trans="overlap"> but maybe <pause dur="1.6"/> it may be a lot of copying </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm </u><u who="sf1050" trans="latching">

and your students <gap reason="inaudible" extent="5 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="sf1050" trans="overlap"> and things like that i'm not sure whether that </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> without an explicit focus on language </u><u who="sf1050" trans="overlap"> yeah <pause dur="0.4"/> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> so that <pause dur="0.8"/> okay <pause dur="1.0"/> so that you you think you need the explicit focus on language to make sure they get it right <pause dur="0.4"/> and so that they're not just taking you as the </u><u who="sf1050" trans="overlap"> not just copying you </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes not just <pause dur="0.6"/> parroting imitating yes yes okay to make it more cognitive </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1050" trans="pause"> yeah </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> and less behaviourist in a way <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> fine <pause dur="1.1"/> i think the worry many teachers have is <pause dur="1.0"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="10"/> if you don't focus on language you can end up with the fluent <pause dur="0.4"/> but <pause dur="0.5"/> fossilized <pause dur="2.2"/> speaker <pause dur="1.9"/> and <pause dur="0.5"/> i would imagine most people have met these in their time <pause dur="0.2"/> this is the person who is very fluent in the target language <pause dur="0.2"/> can say everything they want to say <pause dur="0.3"/> but it is <pause dur="0.3"/> it's fossilized it it's frozen <pause dur="0.4"/> in stone <pause dur="0.2"/> errors and all <pause dur="0.4"/> and so that the language is fluent but not accurate inaccuracies <pause dur="0.2"/> are part of <pause dur="0.2"/> that learner's <pause dur="0.3"/> idiolect <pause dur="0.3"/> and they are

<trunc>no</trunc> no longer <pause dur="0.4"/> focusing on the language per se <pause dur="0.2"/> but purely on communication <pause dur="0.4"/> and i think many <pause dur="0.5"/> for many teachers <pause dur="0.7"/> today that's a worry <pause dur="0.5"/> we do not <trunc>wa</trunc> no learner has ever said to me <pause dur="0.2"/> teach me to speak English inaccurately <pause dur="3.3"/> but they've also said i don't want to just focus on language i want to be able to communicate <pause dur="0.4"/> but they do also understand i think <pause dur="0.7"/> and if we're going to take their needs and wants into account <pause dur="0.2"/> that language is a system <pause dur="0.2"/> and they want to get it right <pause dur="1.1"/><event desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="16"/> they don't to <pause dur="0.3"/> be wrong <pause dur="0.7"/> okay <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="2.6"/> looking at syllabuses <pause dur="7.4"/> the next page i've <pause dur="0.6"/> photocopied for you <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> it hasn't come out very well on my <pause dur="0.4"/> transparency but you've got a better version <pause dur="0.3"/> i've photocopied for you Chris Brumfit who's one of the <pause dur="0.6"/> leaders in our field <pause dur="0.3"/> he put a lot of thought into what is a syllabus <pause dur="1.9"/> and i thought this was quite a useful extended definition that we've got here on the handout <pause dur="0.5"/> a syllabus <pause dur="1.8"/> for many people is a document <pause dur="0.2"/> it's a piece of paper <pause dur="0.4"/> it's something handed down <pause dur="1.4"/> who from who hands down syllabuses <pause dur="0.2"/> to

teachers in the state sector </u><pause dur="1.3"/> <u who="sf1051" trans="pause"><gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> sorry <event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1051" trans="pause"> Ministry of Education </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> <trunc>ministr</trunc> in many countries it's the Ministry of Education <pause dur="0.4"/> if it's not the Ministry of Education it will be a head of department or somebody like that <pause dur="0.5"/> # some contexts where there are no syllabuses <pause dur="0.2"/> people will use <pause dur="3.4"/> the textbook can become the syllabus <pause dur="1.2"/> but that that i think is rather worrying <pause dur="0.3"/> because who is to say that the textbook writer had your <pause dur="0.2"/> students' needs in <pause dur="0.2"/> in mind when they wrote the book <pause dur="0.6"/> so <kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/> most people would be more comfortable with a syllabus that is <pause dur="0.2"/> a specification <pause dur="0.7"/> of the work of a particular department in a school or college <pause dur="0.4"/> organized in subsections defining the work of a particular group or class <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's not just a generic textbook that anybody can buy around the world it's a specific <pause dur="1.5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> outline <pause dur="0.3"/> of what's going to be done by a particular group or class <pause dur="0.5"/> many syllabuses are linked to time <pause dur="1.2"/> and will specify a starting point and

an ultimate goal <pause dur="0.6"/> what your students will be able to do <pause dur="0.3"/> by the end of the course by the end of the the period in which the syllabus is covering <pause dur="1.1"/> and that could be defined in grammatical terms it could be defined in phonological terms <pause dur="0.6"/> communicative terms <pause dur="0.9"/> functional terms things they can do <pause dur="0.3"/> by the end <pause dur="1.7"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> a syllabus will specify some kind of sequence <pause dur="2.4"/> which will be based on <pause dur="2.5"/> some of the issues you looked at with <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> sequencing intrinsic to a theory of language learning or to the structure of specified material relatable to language acquisition <pause dur="0.3"/> but i hope that you did get from <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s sessions the important point that we don't know a huge amount <pause dur="0.6"/> about <pause dur="0.8"/> the sequence <pause dur="1.4"/> of language learning beyond very basic <pause dur="0.2"/> morphemes <pause dur="1.8"/> and <pause dur="0.2"/> some structures we're not really very clear <pause dur="0.4"/> at the beginning level it's relatively easy <pause dur="0.2"/> at the <trunc>m</trunc> intermediate and more advanced level it's extremely difficult <pause dur="0.6"/> the other <pause dur="1.1"/> factor that will influence sequencing is administrative needs <pause dur="0.6"/> and resources the

materials that you have <pause dur="1.2"/> and the teachers' <pause dur="0.7"/> capabilities <pause dur="5.1"/> it's a document of administrative convenience <pause dur="1.5"/> it's not <pause dur="1.2"/> theory <pause dur="0.5"/> it's based in theory but it's administrative convenience <pause dur="0.3"/> and so <reading>it'll only be partly justified on theoretical grounds <pause dur="0.3"/> so it's negotiable and adjustable</reading> <pause dur="0.6"/> a good syllabus <pause dur="0.9"/> will allow for some negotiation <pause dur="0.6"/> and syllabus <pause dur="0.2"/> writers will listen to teachers listen to learners <pause dur="0.2"/> and will <pause dur="0.4"/> adapt and adjust <pause dur="0.2"/> their syllabus according to <pause dur="0.2"/> the voices from the classroom <pause dur="0.5"/> that they hear <pause dur="0.2"/> and their own experience <pause dur="1.3"/> this is my favourite point <pause dur="1.1"/> <reading>a syllabus can only specify what is taught <pause dur="0.3"/> it cannot organize what is learned</reading> <pause dur="1.6"/> so that if i am <pause dur="0.3"/> inheriting a class from another teacher <pause dur="0.2"/> and they say this is the syllabus <pause dur="0.3"/> i look at it i'm very interested at the syllabus we did last year <pause dur="0.2"/> but i do not <pause dur="0.9"/> believe that means all those learners <pause dur="0.2"/> know everything <pause dur="0.2"/> covered <pause dur="0.3"/> by the syllabus <pause dur="0.7"/> as one of my colleagues once said the only way to cover a syllabus <pause dur="0.2"/> is to take brown paper <pause dur="0.2"/> and cover it <pause dur="0.3"/>

completely <pause dur="0.7"/> from <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> it's what is taught not what has been learned <pause dur="0.4"/> but what's important also about a syllabus <pause dur="0.4"/> is it's a public document and it's an expression of accountability parents will come sponsors will come and say you haven't done this <pause dur="0.5"/> page three of the syllabus says you should have taught this by now <pause dur="0.2"/> you haven't done it <pause dur="0.2"/> learners will do it too <pause dur="0.2"/> it's accountability it's a way of making teachers accountable <pause dur="1.8"/> and education systems accountable and you can tick <pause dur="0.3"/> things off <pause dur="0.4"/> and say <pause dur="0.3"/> i've taught it <pause dur="1.0"/> but you can't say <pause dur="0.2"/> they've <pause dur="0.8"/> learned it <pause dur="0.3"/> you can only say i've taught it i think <pause dur="7.9"/> so syllabus very important <pause dur="1.5"/> very useful document i would be very suspicious <pause dur="0.3"/> of a language programme that didn't have a syllabus <pause dur="1.8"/> and i want to move on now to talk about different <pause dur="0.2"/> kinds of syllabus <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.7"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.2"/><event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.4"/> talked to you very quickly about grammar translation <pause dur="0.5"/> with the focus <pause dur="0.4"/> on written language <pause dur="0.8"/> translation from mother tongue <pause dur="0.3"/> to the target language and back <trunc>a</trunc> backwards <pause dur="0.2"/> he

also talked about the direct method can you remember what was one of the differences between <pause dur="0.5"/> grammar translation and the direct method <pause dur="0.4"/> grammar translation <pause dur="0.2"/> written language <pause dur="1.2"/> in and out of the target language <pause dur="0.4"/> direct method </u><u who="sf1052" trans="latching"> that's spoken </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> spoken language a shift of focus to spoken language and <pause dur="1.9"/> direct in what way was it direct </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1053" trans="pause"> just in the target </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right </u><u who="sf1053" trans="overlap"> mm </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes just in the target language no <pause dur="0.2"/> mother tongue support at all <pause dur="1.5"/> he talked about graded structural teaching <pause dur="0.4"/> with a grammar focus and sequence he talked about audiolingualism <pause dur="1.4"/> based upon which theory of learning <pause dur="0.5"/> audiolingualism </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="ss" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> where </u><u who="sf1054" trans="overlap"> listening first </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> sorry </u><u who="sf1054" trans="latching"> listening first </u><u who="sf1055" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> listening first and listening and </u><u who="sf1056" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> repeating listening and repeating listening and repeating based upon <pause dur="0.6"/> stimulus response </u><u who="sf1057" trans="latching"> # behaviourism </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> behaviourism <pause dur="0.5"/> don't make mistakes <pause dur="0.3"/> let's just <pause dur="0.2"/> imitate <pause dur="0.9"/> correctly <pause dur="1.3"/> i'd like to look now with you at # <pause dur="2.0"/><event desc="changes transparency" iterated="y" dur="13"/> communicative

language teaching <pause dur="1.0"/> but just before i do that i'd like you to look at <pause dur="0.8"/> the diagram from Stern which is on page five of your handout 'cause i think it's quite a nice summary <pause dur="1.0"/> of what we're <pause dur="0.3"/> looking at here today and next week and <trunc>i</trunc> with <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> in the weeks to come <pause dur="5.6"/><kinesic desc="turns on overhead projector showing transparency" iterated="n"/>

<vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> okay <pause dur="3.4"/> teaching <trunc>strat</trunc> it's <trunc>divi</trunc> he's divided it up he's talk about treatment <pause dur="0.2"/> options <pause dur="2.1"/> in language teaching <pause dur="0.6"/> different ways we can treat <pause dur="0.6"/> language teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> teaching strategies timing strategies <pause dur="0.7"/> social <pause dur="0.2"/> strategies we talked a little bit about social stategies today <pause dur="0.3"/> with who does most of the talking in the classroom <pause dur="0.2"/> is it the teacher <pause dur="0.2"/> or is it the learner <pause dur="1.6"/> people mentioned working in groups <pause dur="0.4"/> and pairs <pause dur="0.2"/> we haven't looked particularly at the individual learner but these are sort of <pause dur="0.5"/> different <pause dur="1.8"/> aspects of the social strategy <pause dur="0.3"/> of learning and teaching <pause dur="0.7"/> teaching strategies <pause dur="3.1"/> <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <trunc>t</trunc> looked at this crosslingual comparing languages <pause dur="1.1"/> similarities and differences between the target language and <pause dur="0.5"/> the

mother tongue intralingual <pause dur="0.2"/> intracultural <pause dur="1.1"/> all done in the target language no reference at all <pause dur="0.4"/> to other languages that you can speak <pause dur="1.1"/> analytic <pause dur="0.7"/> and experiential which we're going to look at now analytic approach to language <pause dur="0.2"/> versus an experiential <pause dur="0.5"/> approach to language <pause dur="0.8"/> analytic objective formal and language-centred the what <pause dur="0.7"/> of language teaching versus experiential <pause dur="0.5"/> communicative <pause dur="1.2"/> functional <pause dur="0.2"/> message-centred <pause dur="0.2"/> participatory <pause dur="0.7"/> how <pause dur="0.5"/> how do we communicate <pause dur="1.5"/> the distinction that <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> drew with you between learning and acquisition <pause dur="1.4"/> explicit learning <pause dur="0.2"/> which is logical and involves reasoning <pause dur="1.0"/> versus <pause dur="0.3"/> implicit <pause dur="0.6"/> acquisition <pause dur="0.8"/> which is intuitive and hopefully automatic <pause dur="2.5"/> and these are <pause dur="0.9"/> the dichotomies they're clines <pause dur="0.2"/> language teaching will be typically <pause dur="0.2"/> somewhere in the middle <pause dur="0.5"/> of all of these <pause dur="1.4"/> and next week we're going to be looking at <pause dur="0.3"/> receptive and expressive skills <pause dur="0.3"/> listening <pause dur="0.9"/> and reading versus speaking and writing so it's quite a nice diagram i think pulling together <pause dur="3.9"/> what's involved in

language teaching timing strategies <pause dur="0.3"/> <gap reason="name" extent="2 words"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> i think if i remember correctly said up to the age of six <pause dur="0.3"/> how many hours instruction <pause dur="0.5"/> does a child have in their mother tongue can anybody remember the figure <pause dur="1.2"/> i think it was <pause dur="0.9"/> i'll have to check my notes it was about ten-thousand i think a child has had about ten-thousand hours of language instruction <pause dur="0.3"/> by the age of six <pause dur="0.3"/> one to one very often <pause dur="1.2"/> with a parent or a carer <pause dur="0.9"/> # <pause dur="1.1"/> in a <pause dur="0.2"/> secondary <pause dur="0.4"/> education system how many hours do you think the average secondary school pupil gets <pause dur="0.5"/> of foreign language instruction between the ages of eleven and eighteen <pause dur="2.7"/> in a class of thirty <pause dur="0.6"/> or forty or fifty </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1058" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> about sixty <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1058" trans="pause"> maybe about sixty hours </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> sixty between eleven and eighteen </u><u who="sf1059" trans="latching"> oh no it's a bit more than that </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> no i <trunc>h</trunc> hope it's a bit more than that i'd be <trunc>a</trunc> </u><u who="sf1059" trans="overlap"> yeah think so </u><u who="sf1060" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> probably no more than a <trunc>th</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> a thousand <pause dur="0.7"/> okay so that in their whole years <pause dur="0.2"/> of secondary education <pause dur="0.2"/> when okay you're cognitively more developed than a child

learning their mother tongue <pause dur="0.2"/> you're also <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.4"/> fluent in another language which a child learning their mother tongue is not <pause dur="0.2"/> but you are <pause dur="0.2"/> learning in a very different context <pause dur="0.7"/> classroom with lots of other people and you might get if you're lucky about a thousand hours of instruction <pause dur="0.4"/> between the ages of eleven and eighteen if <pause dur="0.3"/> you are studying <pause dur="0.2"/> foreign languages throughout <pause dur="0.3"/> compare that with a child up to the age of six having about ten-thousand hours <pause dur="0.6"/> there is also this whole issue of <pause dur="0.4"/> small amounts of time versus large amounts of time that has all sorts of implications for what we teach and how we teach it <pause dur="1.3"/> if i've got twenty hours to teach my air traffic controllers <pause dur="0.2"/> the basic <pause dur="0.3"/> # linguistic <pause dur="1.5"/> things they will need to communicate i'm going to be very brutal <pause dur="0.3"/> about # what i do <pause dur="0.2"/> and very ruthless in determining the syllabus <pause dur="1.1"/> i'll have to be efficient if i've got a lot of time if i've got them for a couple of years on an intensive programme <pause dur="0.3"/> we've got time <pause dur="0.2"/> to be more relaxed and less

focused perhaps <pause dur="0.4"/> so distribution of time also is it concentrated <pause dur="0.9"/> intensive compact is it immersion <pause dur="0.7"/> are you living in the country where the language is spoken are you attending a <pause dur="0.6"/> # a school <pause dur="0.9"/> in the country <pause dur="0.3"/> or is it distributed or extended is it drip-feed <pause dur="1.4"/> so <pause dur="1.7"/> a useful diagram i think that pulls together <pause dur="0.2"/> many of the factors we have to think about and i'd like you now <pause dur="0.3"/> to spend five minutes noting down what <trunc>d</trunc> <event desc="turns off overhead projector" iterated="n"/> you think are <pause dur="0.2"/> some of the other factors influencing syllabus design i've left a space for you on page five <pause dur="0.3"/> to note down factors that influence syllabus design if i said to you you've got to write a syllabus <pause dur="0.3"/> for teaching English <pause dur="0.2"/> to this group of learners <pause dur="0.9"/> what <pause dur="0.4"/> would you want to know about them <pause dur="0.2"/> what factors would influence <pause dur="0.3"/> your decision <pause dur="0.7"/> age <pause dur="0.8"/> could be one <pause dur="0.8"/> can you note down some more </u><pause dur="8.3"/><event desc="discussing questions" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1:30"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> and do do it together do talk about it it doesn't need to be done individually what factors would influence <pause dur="0.2"/> syllabus design <pause dur="0.3"/> so learners' age is one </u><pause dur="34.4"/><u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> <shift feature="voice" new="whisp"/> ah there it is <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/></u><pause dur="1:40.9"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause">

okay let's see what we've got <pause dur="1.0"/> anybody like to give me <pause dur="0.3"/> some factors </u><pause dur="1.4"/> <u who="sf1061" trans="pause"> age </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> age <pause dur="0.6"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/> yeah </u><u who="sf1062" trans="overlap"> gender <pause dur="1.0"/> gender </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> gender <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/></u><pause dur="1.3"/> <u who="sf1063" trans="pause"> subject </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> what do you mean by subject </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1063" trans="pause"> well the course </u><pause dur="1.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> so you mean their needs </u><u who="sm1064" trans="overlap"> students </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> their </u><u who="ss" trans="overlap"> needs <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="sf1063" trans="overlap"> me i mean the course of the syllabus <gap reason="inaudible" extent="4 secs"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="18"/> but okay but subject </u><u who="sf1063" trans="latching"> yeah </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> it could be foreign language </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1063" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> second language </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sf1063" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> special <pause dur="0.2"/> specific needs </u><u who="sf1065" trans="latching"> mm </u><u who="sf1063" trans="overlap"> yeah </u><pause dur="1.8"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> for example <pause dur="0.7"/> # English <pause dur="1.6"/> for business <pause dur="0.5"/> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> okay thank you <pause dur="0.8"/> so what are their what are their needs the context yes any more </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sm1066" trans="pause"> resources </u><u who="sf1067" trans="overlap"> their level </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> level </u><u who="sf1068" trans="overlap"> the level </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/><vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> the <trunc>l</trunc> level of learners yeah thank you <pause dur="0.2"/> keep you # it's okay i can <pause dur="0.3"/> i can listen and write at the same time so do shout </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sm1066" trans="pause"> resources </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> resources <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> very important <pause dur="0.2"/> yes <pause dur="0.8"/> what resources </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sm1066" trans="pause"> # human or<kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="5"/> # <pause dur="0.3"/> things

like that </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> yeah human and </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="sm1066" trans="pause"> learners even </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> material </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="sm1066" trans="pause"> yeah </u><pause dur="2.8"/><u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> ah you say learners so what do you mean </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="sm1066" trans="pause"> well <kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="2"/> i mean a syllabus should be designed in some way that # you have # <gap reason="inaudible" extent="4 secs"/> </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay so that's sort of we're getting at that here aren't we <pause dur="0.9"/> here learners yeah <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/></u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1069" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay anything else about the learners we need to know </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1070" trans="pause"> ability </u><u who="sm1071" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> sorry </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1070" trans="pause"> mental ability </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> mental ooh yes <pause dur="0.3"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> shall we call it what was <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/>'s term for it </u><u who="ss" trans="latching"> <gap reason="inaudible, multiple speakers" extent="2 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> aptitude <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="1"/><pause dur="0.5"/> whatever that is language learning aptitude aptitude <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/> I-Q if you like ooh <vocal desc="audible inbreath" iterated="n"/><pause dur="0.2"/> risky <pause dur="0.6"/> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> okay but <pause dur="0.4"/> yes </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1072" trans="pause"> <vocal desc="cough" iterated="n"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> time </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> mm </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="sf1072" trans="pause"> time </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> time <pause dur="0.7"/> yes very important how much time you've got <pause dur="1.9"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="2"/> a week a month a year ten years </u><pause dur="1.4"/> <u who="sf1073" trans="pause"> the environment </u><pause dur="0.3"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> what do you mean by the environment </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1073" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.5"/> their culture

or the whatever classroom whatever it is </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay so the learners' <pause dur="0.6"/> # cultural <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="10"/> </u><pause dur="1.0"/> <u who="sf1073" trans="pause"> background </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> background </u><u who="sf1073" trans="latching"> yeah </u><pause dur="0.9"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> and that is <pause dur="0.3"/> sort of at a you mean at a sort of a national level <pause dur="0.4"/> or <pause dur="0.5"/> ethnic level but also classroom <pause dur="0.8"/> the <pause dur="0.7"/> there is a also <trunc>clo</trunc> classroom culture have they come out of <pause dur="0.2"/> what do they expect from the teacher what do they expect <pause dur="0.5"/> from learning and teaching <pause dur="0.2"/> yeah <pause dur="0.3"/> from school </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1074" trans="pause"> their experience with languages </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> right okay <pause dur="0.8"/> their language <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="6"/> learning experience <pause dur="3.5"/> how many languages do they speak and how successfully <pause dur="1.3"/> yeah </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="sf1075" trans="pause"> how recent they <pause dur="0.2"/> how recently they've been taught </u><pause dur="0.5"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay </u><pause dur="0.7"/> <u who="sf1076" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> so it's languages <pause dur="0.6"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="7"/> proficiency <pause dur="1.2"/> how recently <pause dur="1.7"/> the time scale yes <pause dur="1.6"/>

has it been twenty years since they set foot in a language classroom or are they <pause dur="3.2"/> fresh <pause dur="0.8"/> off the plane <pause dur="0.2"/> from another one yeah </u><pause dur="0.6"/> <u who="sf1076" trans="pause"> # <pause dur="0.2"/> whether you're teaching mixed groups in the target language country <pause dur="0.3"/> mixed groups in <pause dur="0.9"/> their own country <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes <pause dur="0.2"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> so the context <pause dur="0.9"/> are you <pause dur="0.3"/> are you there <pause dur="0.4"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> or are you here <pause dur="0.8"/><kinesic desc="indicates point on board" iterated="n"/> are you teaching it in <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> their country <pause dur="0.2"/> or are you <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> teaching it <pause dur="0.2"/> here <pause dur="0.3"/> so is it <pause dur="0.2"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> E-S E-F-L <pause dur="0.2"/> or is it E-<pause dur="0.7"/>S-L <pause dur="4.8"/> and also i suppose if it's E-S-L sorry E-F-L <pause dur="0.3"/> you or or well either of them actually <pause dur="0.7"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> the <pause dur="0.2"/> nationality of the students <pause dur="0.4"/> or more importantly <pause dur="0.5"/> their L-one <pause dur="0.4"/> how may different L-ones have you got <pause dur="0.6"/> mother tongues in the group <pause dur="0.3"/> yep <pause dur="0.3"/> anything else </u><pause dur="2.9"/> <u who="sf1077" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> subject <pause dur="0.3"/> goal </u><pause dur="1.1"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> okay </u><u who="sf1077" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> it's for a specific kind of <kinesic desc="writes on board" n="nf0988" iterated="y" dur="2"/> examination <pause dur="0.9"/> at the end of it or <gap reason="inaudible" extent="2 secs"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> yes learners' goals <pause dur="0.29"/> motivation <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="4"/><pause dur="0.2"/> why are they doing it <pause dur="0.8"/> get more money <pause dur="1.2"/> find a partner <pause dur="0.8"/> # <pause dur="2.8"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="2"/> get a new life find a job <pause dur="0.8"/>

pass the time <pause dur="1.0"/> why are they doing it </u><u who="sf1078" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> mm </u><pause dur="0.4"/> <u who="sf1078" trans="pause"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> interests <pause dur="6.5"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="3"/> learners' interests <pause dur="0.7"/> very important <pause dur="1.1"/> what are they interested in <pause dur="1.2"/> so <pause dur="0.2"/> yes so i think we can divide these up into various categories one is the learners <pause dur="0.5"/> questions such as who are they <pause dur="0.8"/> what's their previous language learning experience in <pause dur="0.2"/> the target language also in other foreign languages <pause dur="0.3"/> what do they think about teaching and learning what are their concepts <pause dur="0.6"/> what does a classroom mean for them what does language learning mean for them because if you ask them to do something very new <pause dur="0.3"/> they may reject it as it may not look like <pause dur="0.2"/> proper teaching <pause dur="0.7"/> so what methods <pause dur="0.6"/> of teaching have they experienced before <pause dur="0.3"/> what methods do they like <pause dur="0.3"/> what methods will alienate them <pause dur="0.2"/> students from some cultures if you put them into groups and say talk <pause dur="0.6"/> will run a mile <pause dur="0.4"/> they don't want to do it other cultures <pause dur="0.2"/> you say get into groups and talk and you

can't shut them up <pause dur="0.7"/><vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/> and i'm not identifying the cultures right <pause dur="0.4"/> # motivation and attitude yes very important towards the target language group <pause dur="0.5"/> do they want to become part of it are they hostile towards it <pause dur="0.2"/> how do they feel what's their motivation is it instrumental <pause dur="0.3"/> or integrative do they want to join in <pause dur="0.3"/> or do they just want to <pause dur="0.2"/> use the language for something else and then go home <pause dur="0.3"/> their culture <pause dur="0.2"/> their values intact <pause dur="1.1"/> # <pause dur="1.2"/> or are they just neutral <pause dur="0.2"/> they just <pause dur="0.6"/> have no particular motivation <pause dur="0.4"/> age gender young old <pause dur="0.7"/> mixed age within the class <pause dur="0.5"/> that's quite a challenge often <pause dur="0.3"/> or are they all more or less the same age <pause dur="2.6"/> aptitude we've talked about are they good learners do they see themselves as good learners more to the point or do they see themselves as false beginners as failed learners <pause dur="0.8"/> or are they mixed ability their needs <pause dur="0.5"/> it's very <trunc>ea</trunc> it's much easier if their needs are specific if you know why they are learning <pause dur="0.7"/> if you're in a TENOR <pause dur="0.3"/> situation it's much more

challenging <pause dur="0.6"/> what's the if you know their needs what's the target setting <pause dur="0.2"/> what context will they need <pause dur="0.2"/> English for <pause dur="0.2"/> they're going to be a hotel reception <pause dur="0.4"/> clerk for example <pause dur="0.7"/> what is their role going to be <pause dur="1.3"/> in that context are they going to be a customer a client <pause dur="0.4"/> a boss <pause dur="1.2"/> whatever <pause dur="1.2"/> who are they going to use the language with <pause dur="0.6"/> colleagues friends superiors inferiors <pause dur="1.8"/> and what are the content areas going to be <pause dur="0.2"/> what do you have to teach them what <pause dur="0.6"/> language do they need to know what vocabulary domains do they need to learn <pause dur="0.5"/> and the language skills <pause dur="0.2"/> do they need reading and writing as well <pause dur="0.2"/> or do they just need speaking and listening or do they need a mixture <pause dur="0.7"/> and what level of competence for reading and writing <pause dur="0.2"/> speaking and listening how good do they have to be <pause dur="0.9"/> also what's the exam going to be at the end i always ask that <pause dur="0.3"/> what's the exam at the end because <pause dur="0.2"/> the exam at the end has a huge <pause dur="0.2"/> impact <pause dur="0.3"/> on what you can do in the classroom <pause dur="0.9"/> 'cause if you try going in and not teaching

summary writing <pause dur="0.5"/> when summary writing is on the syllabus for the exam <pause dur="0.8"/> you'll have a riot on your hands <pause dur="1.2"/> what's the language of the syllabus is it similar to their mother tongue or different is it the same script or different that's important <pause dur="0.4"/> and this very important point about <pause dur="0.2"/> resources <pause dur="0.2"/> human resources who are the other teachers <pause dur="0.8"/> and what materials do you have <pause dur="1.3"/> and what <pause dur="0.3"/> equipment do you have <pause dur="0.7"/> and also outside all of that there are the cultural <pause dur="0.7"/> political economic factors that impact on everything we do <pause dur="0.5"/> as teachers <pause dur="0.2"/> in any context <pause dur="3.1"/> i'm going to finish now by talking <pause dur="0.3"/> a little bit about communicative language teaching <pause dur="2.3"/> i'm aware that <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> looked <trunc>a</trunc> <pause dur="0.8"/> quickly at most of the other methods of language teaching but communicative language teaching he didn't actually get on to <pause dur="0.6"/> so <pause dur="1.2"/> if you can find your handout <pause dur="4.9"/> i've taken Stern's <pause dur="0.2"/> division of communicative language teaching <pause dur="1.2"/> <trunc>i</trunc> into two he talked about analytical approaches and non-analytical <pause dur="0.3"/> experiential approaches we'll probably just

finish the first one today and move on <pause dur="0.3"/> to the second one next time <pause dur="0.4"/> communicative language teaching <pause dur="3.6"/> it's a shift <pause dur="1.6"/> in focus from language <pause dur="0.2"/> to <pause dur="1.8"/> from language usage <pause dur="3.2"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="5"/> to use <pause dur="0.9"/> so not <pause dur="0.6"/> what do you say but how <pause dur="0.3"/> do you say it <pause dur="2.1"/> and the first <pause dur="1.1"/> distinction here <pause dur="0.8"/> was analytic <pause dur="1.0"/> the functional approach looking at language <pause dur="0.2"/> trying to see instead of looking at the grammar of the language <pause dur="0.2"/> the vocabulary of the language trying to see <pause dur="0.3"/> the social and environmental context in which people used language <pause dur="0.5"/> and the influence here of semantics <pause dur="0.2"/> speech act theory what we know about <pause dur="0.2"/> how people use language to do things <pause dur="0.8"/> and what we know from discourse analysis <pause dur="0.5"/> moving away from looking at sentences words and sentences <pause dur="0.2"/> to whole pieces of discourse a whole dialogue <pause dur="0.3"/> a whole <pause dur="0.4"/> newspaper article a whole letter <pause dur="0.2"/> rather than <pause dur="0.2"/> focusing in <pause dur="0.2"/> at the sentence level which is what people had done before so very important <pause dur="0.5"/> important names here <pause dur="0.3"/> David Wilkins

formerly of this parish or still of this parish actually <pause dur="0.3"/> professor at <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> <pause dur="0.5"/> nineteen-seventy-six <pause dur="1.3"/> publishing <pause dur="0.6"/> his concept of a notional syllabus it's on your bibliography <pause dur="2.3"/> David Wilkins The Notional <pause dur="0.3"/> Syllabuses <pause dur="1.1"/> notions being things like <pause dur="1.1"/> space <pause dur="0.2"/> time <pause dur="0.4"/> distance <pause dur="0.7"/> weight <pause dur="0.7"/> # <pause dur="2.7"/> concepts such as that <pause dur="0.2"/> but what caught on much more <pause dur="0.2"/> was the idea of functions <pause dur="3.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="7"/> so you might have <pause dur="0.2"/> a notion <pause dur="2.3"/> which would be time <pause dur="0.7"/> but the function would be <pause dur="0.2"/> asking <pause dur="0.9"/><kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="8"/> the time <pause dur="2.1"/> or <pause dur="0.4"/> telling <pause dur="1.4"/> the time <pause dur="1.7"/> little hint <pause dur="0.3"/> when you're looking for functions <pause dur="0.2"/> they always have I-N-G at the end <pause dur="0.6"/> asking for information <pause dur="0.3"/> telling the time <pause dur="0.5"/> complaining <pause dur="0.4"/> requesting <pause dur="0.3"/> et cetera et cetera <pause dur="0.4"/> so <pause dur="0.3"/> moving in nineteen-seventy-six <pause dur="0.4"/> and the Council of Europe <pause dur="0.3"/> van Eyck <pause dur="1.8"/> working <pause dur="1.6"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="7"/> in the nineteen-seventies early eighties <pause dur="0.3"/> the Council of Europe <pause dur="2.9"/> wanting to look at modern language teaching across Europe <pause dur="0.4"/> so you can't do it on a language by language basis <pause dur="0.3"/>

we're not interested in the differences at the grammatical and linguistic level <pause dur="0.3"/> trying to look at what language does <pause dur="0.2"/> so in all languages <pause dur="0.2"/> people complain <pause dur="0.2"/> in all languages <pause dur="0.2"/> people <pause dur="0.3"/> ask <pause dur="0.9"/> # for information in all languages people invite or criticize or whatever <pause dur="0.2"/> so actually a very useful framework for thinking about language at a level above <pause dur="0.3"/> individual languages <pause dur="3.9"/> and <pause dur="0.3"/> this concept of usage and use from Henry Widdowson <pause dur="0.7"/> coming in at about the same time so the nineteen-seventies a very important time for language teaching <pause dur="0.3"/> moving away from behaviourism moving away from <pause dur="0.4"/> grammar translation and the direct method coming in <pause dur="0.2"/> but <pause dur="0.3"/> looking not at individual utterances but language in context a socio<pause dur="0.5"/>logical perspective on it all <pause dur="0.2"/> context influencing <pause dur="0.2"/> meanings <pause dur="1.00"/> and the important notion of communicative competence coming in at this time <pause dur="2.6"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="11"/> and the names <pause dur="0.7"/> communicative competence <pause dur="1.6"/> the underlying communicative

competence and the names Canale and Swain <pause dur="0.7"/> i'm giving you this detail in case you want to explore it for a for an assignment or an exam question <pause dur="0.5"/> and there are references <pause dur="0.3"/> on the bibliography <pause dur="0.5"/> but i'm also aware <trunc>ti</trunc> we've got two minutes left <pause dur="0.4"/> so i'm <pause dur="0.3"/> also pushing on quite <trunc>h</trunc> <pause dur="0.2"/> quite fast <pause dur="1.0"/> so that <pause dur="0.7"/> saying something like it's five past <pause dur="0.4"/> eleven <pause dur="1.2"/> at the beginning of this lecture <pause dur="3.0"/> could say <pause dur="0.3"/> if i walk into the room <pause dur="0.6"/> <kinesic desc="writes on board" iterated="y" dur="6"/> we're due to start at eleven and i say <pause dur="0.3"/> it's five past eleven <pause dur="0.8"/> what am i doing <pause dur="2.1"/> am i telling the time <pause dur="2.9"/> no i'm not am i <pause dur="0.2"/> we've all got a clock we all know by saying it's five past eleven <pause dur="0.3"/> i'm not showing my linguistic aptitude and my ability to read clocks <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> and tell the time <pause dur="0.3"/> what am i doing </u><pause dur="1.7"/> <u who="sf1079" trans="pause"> to communicate</u><u who="sf1080" trans="overlap"> making a point that someone's late </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> i'm making a point that that people are late perhaps </u><u who="sf1081" trans="overlap"> <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 sec"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> i'm making the point that i'm going to </u><u who="ss" trans="latching"> to start </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> to start <pause dur="0.4"/> even

though maybe not everybody is here <pause dur="0.2"/> and that late-comers come in <pause dur="0.6"/> # <pause dur="0.2"/> # under their own steam <pause dur="0.4"/> and i'm i'm actually <pause dur="0.2"/> indicating <pause dur="0.2"/> that i'm kicking off <pause dur="0.2"/> and i'm justifying it <pause dur="0.2"/> by saying it's five past eleven <pause dur="0.6"/> let's get going <pause dur="0.7"/> okay so that's what's understood by <pause dur="0.8"/> a functional approach people with communicative competence will understand that <pause dur="0.3"/> for what it is <pause dur="1.1"/> it's not <pause dur="0.3"/> telling the time <pause dur="0.2"/> it's actually <pause dur="0.4"/> # indicating commencement and justifying that commencement <pause dur="1.5"/> so context is very important and context includes participants who you are talking to and who is saying it <pause dur="0.4"/> if one of you if <gap reason="name" extent="1 word"/> had said it's five past eleven <pause dur="1.2"/> it wouldn't be indicating we were about to start would it <pause dur="0.4"/> what would that be indicating </u><pause dur="1.2"/> <u who="sm1082" trans="pause"> we're late </u><pause dur="0.8"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> we're late starting it could be <trunc>s</trunc> i would take that as </u><pause dur="2.5"/> <u who="sm1083" trans="pause"> complaint <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" dur="1"/></u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap">

a complaint <pause dur="0.5"/> a criticism <pause dur="0.4"/> okay <pause dur="0.6"/> because of the nature of the relationship and if a student says to a lecturer at a lecture that's supposed to have started at eleven <pause dur="0.2"/> it's five past eleven it's a criticism it's saying get a move on <pause dur="0.2"/> time to start </u><u who="sm1083" trans="latching"> it's one o'clock </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> sorry </u><u who="sm1083" trans="latching"> it's one o'clock </u><pause dur="0.2"/> <u who="nf0988" trans="pause"> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> it's <vocal desc="laughter" iterated="y" n="sl" dur="1"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> <pause dur="0.2"/> and it's now ten to one <pause dur="0.2"/><vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> so it's definitely </u><u who="sm1083" trans="latching"> that's a lie <gap reason="inaudible" extent="1 word"/> </u><u who="nf0988" trans="latching"> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> yeah <vocal desc="laughter" n="sl" iterated="y" dur="1"/> <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/><pause dur="0.2"/> yes yes the fact that he says it's one o'clock <pause dur="0.2"/> # again <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="2"/> we're not interested in time here <pause dur="0.4"/> he is telling me that his stomach is rumbling <pause dur="0.2"/> and <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="1"/> it's time for lunch <pause dur="0.3"/> and on that note i am going to stop <vocal desc="laughter" n="ss" iterated="y" dur="5"/> i'll be <vocal desc="laughter" n="sl" iterated="y" dur="1"/> <pause dur="0.3"/> i can take a hint </u><u who="sm1083" trans="overlap"> sorry </u><u who="nf0988" trans="overlap"> <pause dur="0.2"/> <shift feature="voice" new="laugh"/> i will <shift feature="voice" new="normal"/> <pause dur="0.7"/> please could you bring this <pause dur="1.0"/> this with you next time <pause dur="0.4"/> i'll see you next next Wednesday same time same place

</u></body>

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